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Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible Research Paper

Thesis Statement: “Should the Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible be utilized as Sufficient Justifications of the Legitimacy of Religious Positions on Social Issues?” Introduction It is quite interesting to note that studies such as those by Sherkat (2011) have indicated that an increasingly large amount of religious sermons, statements of faith, and a wide assortment of other such text related to the affirmation of the Catholic faith in God have increasingly utilized the inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible as a method of legitimizing their claims to faith and justifying their views.1 This is not to say that such ideas are without merit, given the supposedly divine origins of the Bible, however, scholars such as Beale (2011) have stated that utilizing the Bible as the justification for one’s faith and views is in itself highly flawed2. Beale (2011) explains this by stating that even if the Bible is inerrant and infallible the fact remains that faith should be an internal development based on a continuing relationship with God which is supported by the scripture within the Bible, not the other way round wherein scripture is utilized as a means of legitimizing faith. Other scholars such as Smith (2012) question the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility attributed to the Bible given the archaic nature of several scriptures and their general inapplicability to modern day situations3. What you have to understand is that in order to explain the origin of the Bible, the terms inerrancy and infallibility are often utilized interchangeably due to their ability to point out that Bible is far different to any other book that has been written thus far given its historical and religious significance as the word of God. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, it must be questioned whether such terms should be considered interchangeable given their markedly different meaning and utilization by both the church and religious scholars. First and foremost the term infallible, when utilized in the context of holy scripture such as the Bible, can be defined as transcending concepts related to sin, spiritual or material flaws as well as the deceptions of its writers and the method by which it was communicated to others (i.e. through print, digital text, etc.). In laymen’s terms this means that when the Bible, through the Holy Spirit, describes various aspects related to the good news of Christ such as the vision, purpose and character of God in relation to his design for humanity, is in effect doing so through a transcendental effect that goes straight to the character of the Bible and its message of salvation. Inerrant, on the other hand, when defined once more within the context of the Bible, relates to the scriptures within the Bible always being right when carrying out their intended purpose of showing who God is, his vision and purpose for humanity and stating the good news of salvation through Christ4. It is based on this that despite the obvious chronological disparity between the present day and the time in which the bible was written, the content of the scriptures should not be disregarded as if they were a mistake, rather they should be considered as fully applicable guides to current believers regarding the true and righteous path that God had meant for us to follow5. Despite such obvious deviations in meaning and content, inerrancy and infallibility still continue to be used interchangeable to this day. On the other hand, it must be questioned whether the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility can truly be applied to the Bible. This is based on the widely known fact that the bible as we know of it today is a combination of select scriptures by the council of Nicaea (325 AD) and as such excludes certain scriptures that could have similarly had the distinction of being considered inerrant and infallible. We will write a custom Research Paper on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering that the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible is based on its divine origins, the fact that the there are some text that are intentionally excluded creates a sufficient amount of reasoning to assume that the Bible is not as inerrant and infallible as it would seem given that it can be deemed as incomplete. It is based on this that it must be asked should the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility in the Bible be utilized as sufficient justifications of the legitimacy of religious positions on social issues? Religious Positions on Social Issues Religious positions on social issues encapsulate a wide variety of instances such as gay marriage, stem cell research, the death penalty, divorce and other such issues that have ethical and moral underpinnings. It is usually the case that religious positions on such issues often result in positive or negative effects depending on the inherent intent of the religious group involved. For example, due to the advocacy of various religious groups stem cell research has in effect been halted in the U.S. and in other countries around the world due to idea that continuing along this path of research is unethical according the views of God in the Bible involving the sanctity of life. The delay in the social and governmental acceptance of gay marriage in the U.S. and in other countries as well is also a manifestation of the actions of religious groups over their interpretation of the Bible and how this results in their aversion to actions that have been distinctly stated as “abhorrent” within a variety of scriptures. When examining such issues it can be seen that position of religious on a variety of social issues is connected to interpretations based on the Bible with the inherent justification behind its use being related to its infallibility and inerrant nature. As explained by the article “The Evolution of the Debate (2012), various religious groups justify their arguments on social issues based on a literal and single minded interpretation of the Bible without sufficiently thinking if such a point of view is actually applicable to the present day circumstances6. Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is due to the fact that they believe that the infallible and inerrant nature of the bible deems their actions as justifiable given that they are supposedly in accordance with the will of God. It is this way of thinking that calls into considerable whether utilizing the supposed inerrant and infallible nature of the bible actually creates a justifiably legitimate position by various religious groups on social issues7. This calls into question whether the utilizing the bible as a means of arguing against the use of stem cell research, gay marriage and other such issues is truly valid. Ethos and the Use of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible as Methods of Justification What must be understood is that Ethos refers to the way in which a person portrays themselves in an argument, in a sense it is a method in which persuaders present an “image” to people that they are attempting to convince. This particular “image” refers to a persuaders “character” in the sense that a person is attempting to persuade another person of the righteousness of their statements based on their inherent character. In the case of the various religious groups this takes the form of them attempting to convince other people of the righteousness of their cause on the basis of the image that they are portraying, namely, that the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible justifies their arguments against a variety of social issues. It is this argument on the basis of a projected image that is a cause for concern since basing it on a projected image alone does not justify the action itself8. For example, a person may argue for the righteousness of a cause on the basis of their knowledge of the event yet this attempt at persuasion may in itself be self-serving for the person that is attempting to persuade other individuals. An examination of the motivations behind the use of ethos by various religious organizations reveals that many of their bible based interpretations utilizing the inerrancy and infallibility as a method of justification actually originate from a self-serving nature. Ethos in effect justifies their actions under the basis of a righteous cause yet in the end is more beneficial to them than to other individuals. In the case of ethos what must be understood is that it is “artifice”, meaning that is created, manufactured, made, constructed etc. It can be considered a type of surface image which may in fact have an entirely fictitious relationship to what is actually true9. For example, a teacher could show up in class one day wearing cowboy boots, a ten gallon hat and long sleeved t-shirt with a large image of a cactus on the front, the next day he can wear an average suit and tie while the day after that he could wear a Scottish kilt, bagpipes and one of those patterned hats. The reason I mention it is due to the fact that despite the different outfits he wears the person and the ideas that are being presented have not changed at all, however, what is changed is the perception of the audience regarding the idea being presented. The same can be said for ethos wherein the method in which the idea is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the idea itself or the validity of its statements. In the case of the ethos of various religious groups it can be seen that when boiled down to its very essence it is merely a statement which says the following: “believe in what I say since it is based on inerrant an infallible scripture”. It is in the way that it is packaged and presented to the public that changes the perception of the public to the idea that is being presented. What the public sees as an argument based on an ineffable and infallible scripture is in essence is a statement allowing to do whatever they want. Inerrancy and Religious Positioning Inerrancy is based on the concept that what is present is not false and affirms the truth whether it is religious, scientific or physical in nature. What you have to understand though is that the Bible being inerrant does not mean that the interpretations of the Bible that manifest itself through religious doctrine, are sufficiently inerrant themselves. For example, the current church doctrine which is specifically against the advancement of stem cell research is based off the supposedly inerrant notion of the right to life within the bible. Since stem cells are at times derived from zygotes which are incomplete versions of a proto-human fetus their use in medical research is considered to be an abhorrent violation of the right to life as indicated by the bible. It must also be noted that the concept of bible ambiguity can be considered a serious problem when it comes to religious positioning based on inerrancy since passages from the bible can be interpreted in a multitude of possible ways. For example, The Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood through their interpretation of the bible specifically state that the roles of men and women should be differentiated to specific roles within the family with no degree of overlap. As a result of this, leadership positions within the family as well as in businesses, organizations and even in government institutions under the council’s view should be exclusively isolated to men alone. On the other hand, the religious group “Christians for Biblical Equality” interpret the bible under the context of men and women being equals and possessing the ability to have the same rights and roles. This type of variant interpretation has manifested itself into the creation of numerous church groups such as the Westborough Baptist Church, the Living Church of God and other such radical segments of Christianity that state that their interpretation of the Bible makes them the “true” church of God. Given that such groups have teachings that are considered “abnormal” even by the main orthodoxy of the Catholic Church is clear evidence that religious positions on social issues based on the inerrancy of the bible is unjustifiable given the different ways in which statements within it can be adjusted in such a way that they can actually promote hate. One of the best examples of this can be seen in the numerous instances where the Westborough Baptist Church has openly picketed in numerous areas openly stating their hatred for gays, the fact that soldiers who died in Iraq for their country are going to hell and that God does not have a place in heaven for individuals that support concepts outside of their acknowledged religious orthodoxies. From a certain perspective it can even be stated that the interpretation of the inerrancy of the Bible in the case of the West Borough Baptist church is one that actually promotes hate and bigotry, which were aspects that Jesus was clearly against during his time on Earth. Other interpretations based on the inerrant nature of the bible take the form of religious groups within the Philippines which has the largest Catholic community in Asia. Religious groups such as “Iglesia ni Christo” do not believe in venerating Mary based on their own interpretation of the Bible. Other groups such as the Born Again Christians do not even believe in the concept of saints which is similarly based on their belief in their own interpretation of the inerrant nature of the scripture of the Bible. As it can be seen, interpretations of the bible can be utilized to justify a whole gamut of possible manifestations whether religious or social in nature. Can the Bible be Considered Infallible? The premise of the infallibility of the bible is based on the fact that it was created as a direct action of divine intervention wherein the Holy Spirit inspired the original writers of the text to create the scriptures that we know of in the present. As such, it is considered by many religious scholars as the word of God that has been imparted to all of us as a message of love, peace and the affirmation of our faith and our destiny as God’s children. From the point of view of Grass (2007), the Bible is only considered infallible within the context of the Catholic faith given that other religions have their own versions of religious text which they similarly consider infallible (the Qur’an being a prime example of this)10. Grass (2007), points out though that the infallibility of the bible at the present is often taken out of context regarding its original purpose. The bible was meant as a means of guiding people to interact with their fellow man, to establish peaceful relations within society and to create a culture that values love, sharing and the development of social bonds that would discourage violent actions. Thus, as a guide, it has indeed served its purpose given that biblical text has helped to inspire society towards a more “humane” way of interaction. Yet, as Galli (2011) is quick to point out, the bible was never meant as a means of dictating every aspect in relation to how society was meant to operate11. What you have to understand is that the “timelessness” that is attributed to the infallibility of the Bible is connected to its nature of ethical actions within social relationships. This means that aspects related to governance, development of technologies, conservation, environmentalism and other such topics which are at the forefront of modern day debates are not specifically included in the bible for the reason that it was never meant to encapsulate such aspects in the first place. Hylton (2011) goes on to state that it was only when religious institutions started interpreting the various scriptures within the bible based on its inherent inerrancy that the current problems related to religious interference in social issues started12. It based on this that it can be stated that the infallibility attributed to the bible when it comes to religious positions on social issues is unfounded given that what is stated within is taken out of context. It must be noted though several studies which have examined current teachings within religious institutions reveal that many religious orders have started to teach students that facts contained within the Bible pertaining to specific scientific or historical events which do not have an impact on their concept of faith and the Christian practice of religious devotion, may in fact contain considerable errors. This is in direct opposition to other groups who state that everything within the Bible should be considered as incontrovertible fact. What you have to understand is that despite the statements of a multitude of religious scholars, the Bible was in fact created in order to conform to ancient beliefs and practices. This means that the story of genesis, marriage to children and even the stoning of women that cheat on their husbands were all manifestations of practices at the time and as such reflected themselves accordingly into the different scriptures. In an era of modern science and greater social conscious involving ethical marriage practices and commensurate methods of punishment, the examples presented within the Bible can no longer be considered wholly accurate, and various religious groups have started to also acknowledge this as well. It is based on this that the inerrancy of the Bible as an entirely accurate source of information is doubted and as such is the basis behind an argument against the use of the concept of the infallibility of the Bible as a sufficient justification of the legitimacy of religious positions on social issues. Justification of Position Based on Inerrancy Inerrancy is based on the concept of there being no errors whatsoever within a given piece of text. Aside from grammatical errors brought about by issues in translation, the bible supposedly has no errors and is thus the pivotal text often utilized to justify religious positions. This has been seen in numerous instances throughout history such as the debate in stem cell research within the U.S., the removal of the death penalty within several Catholic oriented states within Europe as well as the Republic Health Bill within the Philippines which focuses on the introduction of sexual education classes to combat adverse increases in the population. The justification behind church interference in such issues comes directly from doctrines based on the bible involving the right to life, the orders of God to “go forth and multiply” and the teachings of Jesus which specifically connote the necessity of protecting life. In justifying their position on such matters religious scholars often point towards the inerrant nature of the Bible which focuses on the plan of God for humanity and the doctrines by which we should live our lives. The inherent problem though with the bible is that it lacks sufficient advice regarding the current overpopulation of the planet, the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses and the fact that stem cell research could potentially improve the lives of countless number of people. As such, while Evangelical scholars point out that the Bible is “without error in all that affirms” the fact remains that its affirmations lack sufficient precedent on modern day issues. This is not to say that the bible is wrong, the fact is that the bible acts as a sufficient foundation for reasonable action and behaviors which acts as the cornerstones of society, however, the fact remains that it should be considered as a foundation and not the entirety by which social actions should be based upon13. In a rather debasing fashion, Hansen (2008) points out that the bible states that it is perfectly fine to stone a woman to death, have sex with a child and other similar types of behavior14. Hansen (2008) utilizes this as evidence that the bible is not necessarily inerrant given that such methods of behavior are widely considered to be socially unacceptable at the present. While the arguments utilized by Hansen (2008) are far from academically appropriate, the fact remains that they do point out the inherent weaknesses of the bible and the necessity of modifying the general attitude towards its inerrant nature. For example, post modernist Christians point out that the bible should be considered partially inerrant with some aspects being utilized in order to justify methods of behavior but should not be utilized in order to affect issues which are social in nature. On the other end of the spectrum scholars point towards the inspirations drawn from inerrant scriptures as the means by which moral and ethical decisions concerning society should be based upon. As Jelen and Lockett (2010) explains, the fact is that the bible acts as a moral compass by which society compares its current position with the intended destination by God. It is only through such an examination that we are able to determine whether as a society we are heading towards a path of positive development or adverse debasement under the guise of technological innovation. Jelen and Lockett (2010) goes on to explain that society needs an inerrant comparison by which it can compare itself to in order to develop in such a way that it is in conjunction with the intended path set forth by God. Such arguments are related to the concepts of the protection of life, barring the use of contraception, affirming the dual nature of the sexes (i.e. being against homosexuality) and the establishment of a life based on religious doctrine15. Conclusion Based on the given arguments presented within this paper it can be seen that the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility when applied to the bible should not be utilized as sufficient justification on religious positions on social issues. One of the reasons behind this stems from differences in interpretation, whether intentional or not, that results in differing groups manifesting a plethora of divergent arguments. What you have to understand is that the context in which the bible was written can be interpreted in either a literal or spiritual sense and as such can result in a variety of differing religious observances. This can be seen in the general acceptance of homosexuality by one faction of Christianity and disdain from another. The same applies to views regarding women’s rights, religious observances and general ethics. As explained earlier, the bible was never truly meant to encompass all aspects and changes that could occur within society. It was written within the context of the time of the authors and as such manifests ethical and moral principles that were inherent to this particular time frame and culture. Thus, when compared to present day circumstances, the various social observances that were noted within the bible at the time become distinctly different. As such, when applied to present day social standards the bible cannot be considered wholly inerrant given that it can no longer sufficiently apply itself to modern day issues. Not only that, it was originally meant as a means of helping promote social relationships such as friendship, love and peace and; it was not meant as a means by which people should dictate the way in which society should evolve. It must also be noted that the infallible notion of the Bible is also highly questionable when applied to concepts related to technological development, population control and environmentalism given that it was not meant to encapsulate such aspects. It was originally meant as a guide for interaction, faith and the development of love for one’s fellow man. Taking this into consideration, it can be stated justifying religious positions on the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible is thus inapplicable since what is being done is merely interpreting what is being said in order to fit the definitions that suit the needs of that particular religious group. It can also be stated that based on the presented information it can be seen that ethos can be manufactured and created for a certain purpose and in the case of the ethos utilized by religious groups its basis is one which advocates the manipulation of facts in order to serve the ends of that particular group. The fact remains that due to reasoning of the ethos used by religious organizations that keeps on justifying itself on the basis of the infallible and inerrant nature of the Bible shows itself to be inherently flawed. The ethical flaw in this particular case is the fact that basis a system of ethos on self-interpretation creates far too many risks in terms of the ethical principles behind the creation of the ethos itself. In fact further examination of this type of ethos reveals that it seems more self-serving to religious groups than to the general public. As it was established earlier the concept of ethos can be shaped and molded in order to entice greater public support for a particular issue. That is what is being seen in the ethos of various religious groups wherein the justification for actions are based on an ethos that has been molded to create positive public opinion but in fact is nothing more than a method of allowing such groups to do what they please. Bibliography Audi, Robert. “Belief, faith, and acceptance.” International Journal For Philosophy Of Religion 63, no. 1-3 (February 2008): 87-102. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost . Beale, G. K. “Can the bible be completely inspired by god and yet still contain errors? a response to some recent “evangelical” proposals.” Westminster Theological Journal 73, no. 1 (Spring2011 2011): 1-22. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost . Durland, Stanley. “The Structure of Biblical Inspiration.” Journal Of Spirituality

South University West Palm Beach Postoperative Delirium Questions

South University West Palm Beach Postoperative Delirium Questions.

Answer the Discussion Questions based on the Patient ProfilePostoperative DeliriumPatient ProfileM.C. is a 74-year-old male who has been in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 3 days after unexpected major abdominal surgery. He is becoming increasingly confused and agitated. Before surgery, he was alert and oriented.Subjective Data States he needs to “get out of here” Angry at family members for not “taking me home” Family members are very upset about M.C.’s confusionObjective Data Blood pressure 110/70, pulse 98, respirations 20, temperature 97.3o F Oxygen saturation 97% on nasal cannula oxygen at 2L Abdominal incision healing, no redness or drainage Difficulty speaking with decreased short-term memory and recall Trying to climb out of bed Oriented to person onlyDiscussion Questions1. What type of cognitive impairment does M.C.likely have?2. How can this diagnosis be confirmed?3. Are there any other issues that you need to consider as possible causes for his mental state?4. What is the nurse’s priority regarding M.C.’s mental status?5. What is the next priority for the nurse caring for M.C.?6. What diagnostic tests may be ordered and what would each contribute?7. How will you support M.C.’s family at this time?You must start a thread before you can read and reply to other threads
South University West Palm Beach Postoperative Delirium Questions

Types Of Organizational Structure Business Essay

essay writer Types Of Organizational Structure Business Essay. Many of the big organizations have failed to understand the importance of effect of good organizational design on their company’s effectiveness and performance. Select any one organization which experienced enormous adjusting problem due to the poor organizational design and explain in detail its structure and consequences of that organizational structure. Organization Structure is a framework, typically hierarchical, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties. Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management. An structure depends entirely on the organization’s objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them. In a centralized structure, the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degrees of autonomy. An organizational chart illustrates the organizational structure. Every organization, to be effective, must have an organizational structure. It is the form of structure that determines the hierarchy and the reporting structure in the organization. It is also called organizational chart. There are different types of organization structures that companies follow depending upon a variety of things; it can be based on geographical regions, products or hierarchy. To put it simply an organizational structure is a plan that shows the organization of work and the systematic arrangement of work. An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. Types of Organizational Structure Organizations are set up in specific ways to accomplish different goals, and the structure of an organization can help or hinder its progress toward accomplishing these goals. Organizations large and small can achieve higher sales and other profit by properly matching their needs with the structure they use to operate. There are three main types of organizational structure: functional, divisional and matrix structure. Different Types of Organizational Structures Traditional Structures These are the structures that are based on functional division and departments. These are the kind of structures that follow the organization’s rules and procedures to the T. they are characterized by having precise authority lines for all levels in the management. Various types of structures under traditional structures are: Line Structure – This is the kind of structure that has a very specific line of command. The approvals and orders in this kind of structure come from top to bottom in a line, hence the name line structure. This kind of structure is suitable for smaller organizations like small accounting firms and law offices. This is the sort of structure that allows for easy decision-making and is also very informal in nature. They have fewer departments, which makes the entire organization a very decentralized one. Line and Staff Structure – Though line structure is suitable for most organizations, especially small ones, it is not effective for larger companies. This is where the line and staff organizational structure comes into play. Line and structure combines the line structure where information and approvals come from top to bottom, with staff departments for support and specialization. Line and staff organizational structures are more centralized. Managers of line and staff have authority over their subordinates, but staff managers have no authority over line managers and their subordinates. The decision-making process becomes slower in this type of organizational structure because of the layers and guidelines that are typical to it. Also, let’s not forget the formality involved. Functional Structure – This kind of organizational structure classifies people according to the function they perform in their professional life or according to the functions performed by them in the organization. The organization chart for a functional organization consists of Vice President, Sales department, Customer Service Department, Engineering or production department, Accounting department and Administrative department. Divisional Structures These are the kinds of structures that are based upon the different divisions in the organization. These structures can be further divided into: Product Structure – A product structure is based on organizing employees and work on the basis of the different types of products. If the company produces three different types of products, they will have three different divisions for these products. Market Structure – Market structure is used to group employees on the basis of specific market the company sells in. A company could have 3 different markets they use and according to this structure, each would be a separate division in the structure. Geographic Structure – Large organizations have offices at different place, for example there could be a north zone, south zone, west and east zone. The organizational structure would then follow a zonal structure. Matrix Structure This is a structure which is a combination of function and product structures. This combines the best of both worlds to make an efficient organizational structure. This structure is the most complex organizational structure. Some Other Kinds of Organizational Structures Bureaucratic Structure – This kind of structure can be seen in tall organizations where tasks, processes and procedures are all standardized and this type of structure is suitable for huge enterprises that involve complex operations and require smooth administration of the same. Pre-Bureaucratic Structure – This structural form is best exemplified in flat organizations where administration and control are centralized and there is very little, if any, standardization of tasks. Network Structure – In this kind of structure, the organization managers are required to maintain and coordinate business/professional relations with third parties such as clients, vendors and associates in order to achieve a collective goal of profitability and growth. Most of the time, these relations are maintained and tasks are coordinated via telecommunications and electronic media and, hence, this type of structure is also known as Virtual Structure. Team Structure – Organizations with team structures can have both vertical as well as horizontal process flows. The most distinct feature of such an organizational structure is that different tasks and processes are allotted to specialized teams of personnel in such a way as a harmonious coordination is struck among the various task-teams. It is important to find an organizational structure that works best for the organization as the wrong set up could hamper proper functioning in the organization. IMPORTANCE Organizational structure refers to the network of relationships among individuals and positions in an organization. It can be defined as established pattern of relationships among components of the organization. It is the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates and motivates employees. It helps in associating them and working together to achieve organization’s goals. Organization structure is like the framework of an organization. Organizational structures imply formal relationships with well defined duties and responsibilities. It also implies to the hierarchical relationships between superior and subordinates within the organization. It helps in coordinating various tasks and activities that are assigned to different persons and departments. Organizational structure helps in having set of policies, procedures, standards and methods of evaluation of employee’s performance. It should be developed as per needs of the people in the organization. Organizational structure plays significant role in effective and efficient functioning of organization. There are many significance of organizational structure and they are as follows: 1. Clear cut authority relationships: Organizational structure helps in delivering authority and responsibility among employees in an organization. It signifies the duties and responsibilities concerned with particular post to concerned persons. It helps in recognizing roles for each employee and his accountability to the organization. It also correlates relationships of one organizational member to the other members. 2. Pattern of communication: It provides the patterns of communication and coordination in an organization. Organizational structure helps in grouping activities and people and so it facilitates communication between people centered as their job activities. The sharing of information helps person in solving their joint problems. 3. Location of Decision Centers: It determines the location of centers of decision making j in the organization. 4. Proper Balancing: It helps in creating proper balance and lays emphasizes on coordination of group activities in the organization. 5. Stimulating creativity: An efficient and sound organization structure provides well defined patterns of authority that stimulates creative thinking and initiative among members of the organization. Every organizational member understands his power and utilizes it to perfection to get appreciation in the organization. 6. Encouraging growth: It provides the framework within which an enterprise functions. If the structure of organization is flexible then it will help in meeting challenges and creating opportunity for growth. It helps in facility growth of the enterprise by increasing its capacity so that increased level of activity can be handled. 7. Making Use of Technical Improvements: Adaptability to the change in a sound organizational structure and in making maximum use of latest technology. It modifies the existing pattern of authority responsibility relationship in respect to the technological improvements in the organization. CISCO’S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ITS COLLABORATIVE APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco), an Internet technology company, had an organizational structure comprising of various cross-functional teams. The key decisions in the company were taken by councils, boards and working groups. These committees (around 60 as of 2009) working at different levels were cross-functional in nature, and according to the company, lent Cisco speed, scale, flexibility, and rapid replication. Cisco had made the shift to this type of organizational structure in 2001 and had refined it in subsequent years. According to John T. Chambers (Chambers), the Chairman and CEO of Cisco, the company had reorganized to break free of the silo culture in the company prior to 2001, so that it could remain agile and innovative in a rapidly changing industry. The company felt that the traditional command-and-control model had lost its relevance, and the future would be about collaborate models of decision making. He also claimed that the new organizational model had served the company well and helped implement its aggressive growth strategy amidst the economic downturn. Industry observers and organizational experts were divided in their opinion about Cisco’s organizational structure and approach to decision making. While some industry observers felt that such a model was effective, others felt that the management-by-committee approach would slow down decision making and impede innovation. Some experts were extremely critical of Cisco’s organizational model. But others believed that if Cisco could further refine the model by addressing some of the lacunae associated with it, it could very well be adopted more widely and be accepted as a radical management innovation. Issues: » To understand the various issues and challenges associated with organizational design. » Discuss the pros and cons of different types of organizational structures and in the light of this analysis, critically analyze Cisco’s organizational structure. » Discuss the pros and cons of Cisco’s approach to decision making. » Discuss ways in which the organizational model at Cisco can be improved further. Complex Organizational Web for Effective Decision Making? As a leader in switches, routers and other Internet technology, the US-based Cisco System, Inc. (Cisco) likened its business to that of a plumber, i.e., a plumber of the Internet. However, in the first decade of the new millennium, the industry Cisco operated in had changed drastically with the fast pace of technological change and consolidation in the industry. The challenge before Cisco was how to change its business processes so as to cater to the changing market. According to John T. Chambers (Chambers), the Chairman and CEO of Cisco, “The future’s about, how do you add intelligence to that plumbing? And how do you do it architecturally from a technology point of view, going from any device to any content over any combination of networks and data, voice, video? Sounds simple; really complex with security and predictability. But how do you change the business process?”… AccoladesSome industry observers and analysts felt that Cisco’s organizational structure and its collaborative approach to decision making was an effective one – potentially the organization of the future. “Now instead of a small group of executives telling everybody else what to do, people have authority to figure out for themselves what to do… Background Note Cisco was founded by a group of computer scientists, who had together designed a software system named IOS (Internet Operating System), which could send streams of data from one computer to another Cisco’s Organizational Structure Right from its initial years, Cisco had a flat organizational structure. Over the years, the company had brought about certain changes in its organizational structure focusing on cross functional teams… Rationale of the Reorganization Speaking about the organizations structure, Chambers, said, “Our organization structure leverages the power of communities of interest which we call councils which we believe are $10 billion opportunities, boards that we see as $1 billion opportunities and working groups… How it Started The idea for the new structure occurred during the economic down turn in 2001, when Cisco wrote off US$2.2 billion in losses. Realizing the Cisco’s hierarchical structure was preventing it from moving fast, Chambers started grouping executives into cross-functional teams… Results In late 2008, while Cisco’s stock was witnessing a decline, analysts said that the company was still in a strong financial position with US$26 billion in cash. “Not only do we have the $26 billion, we now have 26 new market adjacencies that are not relevant to our revenue today, but they will be three to four years from now,” said Chambers… Accolades Some industry observers and analysts felt that Cisco’s organizational structure and its collaborative approach to decision making was an effective one – potentially the organization of the future. “Now instead of a small group of executives telling everybody else what to do, people have authority to figure out for themselves what to do… Criticism However, some analysts and ex-employees of Cisco were not happy with the new organizational structure at Cisco. The structure led to chaos and slowed down decision making at times, they said. “Right now it’s chaos because there’s so much on everybody’s plate,” said Geoffrey Moore, a management consultant who has worked with Cisco… Cisco’s Response Chambers acknowledged that his critics could be right in their criticism of Cisco’s organizational structure and its approach to decision making. However, he said that the company had arrived at its organizational structure after giving a lot of thought to it, continuously refining it since it was introduced in 2001… Looking Ahead In November 2009, speaking about Cisco’s future strategy, Chambers said, “The improving economic outlook combined with what appears to be a very solid execution on our growth strategy due to our organization structure and innovative business model enabled Cisco to move into 30 plus market adjacencies while reducing non-GAAP operating expenses by 10% year over year and also reducing headcount.”… Types Of Organizational Structure Business Essay

BUS 128 Research Report

BUS 128 Research Report.

I’m working on a communications report and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Research Report – Selling Overseas and Marketing in Another Country: This project should be completed individually. Select a product or service that you currently own (or use) and a country that you’re not familiar with. You are encouraged to select a product or service that is unique and innovative.Imagine that you are with the international sales department of the company that manufactures and sells the item (or service) that you are proposing to make or introduce in the country you have selected.The first step is to learn as much as possible about the country where you plan to market the product. Check almanacs, encyclopedias, the Internet, and library databases for the most recent information, paying particular attention to descriptions of the social life of the inhabitants, their economic conditions, and cultural traditions that encourage or discourage use of the product or service.Your Task – Write a five page report that describes the product or service you plan to market abroad (it must be another country other than the United States); briefly describes the country you have selected, indicates the types of people who would find the product or service attractive, explains how the product or service would be transported or introduced into the country (or possibly manufactured if materials and labor are readily available in the host country), recommends a location for a regional sales center, and suggests how the product or service should be sold. Your report is to be submitted to the chief operating officer of the company, whose name you can either make up or find in a corporate directory. The report should include your conclusions (how the product or service will do in this new environment) and your recommendations for marketing (steps the company should take immediately and those it should develop later). You must include financials, action plan, and a social media strategy.General Format – The paper must be typedUse headings within the report when appropriate (please review Pages 430-445 for Parts of a Formal Report). For this report please include a Cover, Memo of Transmittal, Table of Contents, Introduction, Body, Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations, and a Bibliography (The Cover, Memo of Transmittal, Table of Contents, and Bibliography will not be counted towards the five page requirement).Plan the paper carefully so as to develop an organized and non-redundant report. It should be organized and assembled as a continuous report and should not appear to be several independent segments bound together.You must have a minimum of five sources. Please cite your sources using APA Format – (the Writing Center can offer assistance if you do not know how to do this). These five sources must be SCHOLARLY. You should include peer-reviewed, journal articles.Some other helpful sites include –,
BUS 128 Research Report

1. Review of the Texas Penal Code.

1. Review of the Texas Penal Code.. Question 1. Review of the Texas Penal Code. 2. find the penal codes of Georgia and Minnesota and read their sections on self defense, deadly force, and stand your ground/retreat, using force and deadly force to protect property. make a written report or spread sheet comparing the laws of the three states. Explain when it is ok to use force, when it is not ok to use force, when can you use deadly force, when you can defend others, when you are required to retreat before using deadly force and when you can stand your ground, when and if you can use force to protect property. The report should be sufficiently detailed to show the similarities and differences in the laws you are comparing. 3. Watch the following videos (you may have to copy and paste the links.) Review of the Texas Penal Code.

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