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Concept of Time Portrayed in Art

Concept of Time Portrayed in Art. Time is a determinant concept in forms of art where motion is a key factor in order for a narrative to be explored as it occurs, such as in video art, performance, and theatre. The concept of time is also an important parameter for a two-dimensional artwork, which can comprise time through movement or as a snapshot. On the basis of the above syllogism, this essay will determine the nature of time, through the moment, as a still/snapshot in a static artwork and as a sequence in forms of art such as performance. The concept of capturing time in art comprised subjects for contemporary artists such as demonstrated by Christiane Baumgartner and Marina Abramovic, whose works will be explored through this essay: how do two antithetical mediums, namely; printmaking and performance, deal with this same theme and what are the results of the two visual languages that arise in depicting the sense of time? The antithesis of time itself is not only a parameter which is reflected in the mediums themseleves, but also in the content. In other words, the antithesis is also portrayed on a theoretical level. While Christiane Baumgartner uses the illusion of the motion continuity and thus the illusion of time by freezing it, Marina Abramovic deals with the actual and real aspect of time by extending the duration of an occurrence. Hence, there is a differentiated perspective in depicting and presenting the real time and the illusion of it, with time consisting of a weaving of reality and deception. Introduction The issue of time comprises a parameter which, beside the natural sciences was also the object of research by predominately philosophy and anthropology and thereby the extension the art itself, as art was considered to be an essential cultural characteristic. In this essay, the concept of time will be presented via the perspective of perceiving time through the antitheses outlined above. Initially, time should be divided into two categories; such as in the philosophical and sociological frameworks; namely in its real form and in its non-real form that is not quite so obvious. For instance, acquirable time – the procedure of measuring time periods, is completely different from the procedure of perceiving time as a representative of or bearer of consciousness. The existence and at the same time the “non-existence” (lack of obviousness) of time is an object of research for the artists so as to define the sense of time passing via numerous optical dimensions. The model of perceiving time is formed every time by the aesthetic view of the artist. Philosophy and sociology in many cases are related to the artists’ point of view and thus an interactive relationship in shaping or reconstructing thoughts, which include the phenomenon of time is developed. The contrariety in the approach on the other hand does not create gaps between the aspects of time but they assist in developing depth and assiduous assortment in determining time. However, the contrariety approach comprises a method of analysis; thus, within such a framework regarding contrariety in the perspective of the concept of time, art presents a visual codex and visual symbols and hence the antithesis in approaching and perceiving time can be comprehended. One very good example is the concept of the time sense as it is understood by most people, specifically time or, the symbol that represents time; the clock is an invention that accommodates humans to divide or to plan their everyday lives. On the other hand, there is an application of the above syllogism which is not an invention of the human civilisation but underlies biological or natural laws which is the concept of human age that accompanies human beings during their entire lives. These two antithetical examples could be characterized as external and internal time. The first one is determined by the sound that is produced by the second-hand and the other by the heartbeat. The parameter of their antithesis, however, does not preclude their interaction, but rather it is a matter of visual perspective of their characteristics (Rudolf Arnheim, Art and visual perception: a psychology of the creative eye, University of California Press, 2004). Time has had a significant influence in the world of visual arts. Artists have depicted various symbols for time in order to express its impact as a philosophical question that is reflected in the human existence, or important events in history in order to represent the passing of time. The antithesis will be the main subject of interest in this research and stillness-movement, internal-external time, and fluidity-futility will be some of the main points for analysis. The expressions of time concepts differ from artist to artist due to the different perspective each of them uses. Salvador Dali (1904-1989), the Spanish surrealist painter of the 20th century, created in 1931 the work ‘The persistence of memory’. Time is the theme here, from the melting watches to the decay implied by the swarming ants. The title of the painting suggests memory’s ability to remain intact as time decays around it. Dali painted this work with the most imperialist fury of precision and the only nod to the real are the distant landscape golden cliffs in Catalonia, where he lived. (Alkis Xaralampidis, Art in 20th century, volume II, 1993). Furthermore, Fransis Alys (born 1959), a Belgian artist who lives and works in Mexico City, in his documented video performance ‘Paradox of praxis I (Sometimes doing something leads to nothing)’ deals with the concept of time in a different way from surrealism. Alys in this work expresses the futility of time and effort. The artist pushes a large block of ice through the streets of Mexico City for six or seven hours until it melts. It is a film about transformation, but it is also about the futility of human endeavor. It is an epic kind of uselessness that turns his apparently meaningless effort into an almost heroic event; nothing to something. The subtitle of the work is ultimately an idea which speaks to the frustrated efforts of everyday Mexico City residents to improve their living conditions. (Mark Godfrey and Klaus Biensenbach, Fransis Alys: A story of deception, 2010). Performance too, which is very much related to the concept of time because of its nature, has presented a number of works which deal with the sense of time. As a time-based art primarily and by extension a media-based one owns its nature The work of Christiane Baumgartner Christiane Baumgartner was born in Leipzig, Germany in 1967. Her work deals mainly with specific aspects of time concepts; speed and standstill. The images are taken from her own video stills and the chosen format is that of monumental woodcut, mainly black and white. Her aim is to combine in a way two mediums; a traditional, printmaking, with a contemporary one, video art. As the artists herself states: ‘It’s about bringing together the different mediums of the video still and the woodcut, about combining the first and the latest reproduction techniques to produce an image’ (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011). What her subjects often deal with is the movement between figuration and abstraction and the space between with speed and the passage of time recurring themes throughout her work. What she is mostly interested in is ‘the shifting within the woodcut and the way it changes the image and becomes a blurred, non-figurative image’ (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011). For instance, in ‘1 Sekunde’ (fig. 3) the image disappears at points and becomes blurred through the representation of speed. Other digital images are taken at a very low resolution, 3 dpi, and as a result the printmaking effect creates an abstract image, as occurs in ‘Deutscher Wald’ (fig. 4). Speed, both in terms of subject matter and technique is something she has always been interested in. Many of her works are images taken from highways or tunnels because their inherent movement has been something that attracts her. Through this rationale are made works such as ‘Lisbon II’ (fig. 5) or ‘Solaris I’ (fig. 6). Technically, the final work is the result of a procedure that takes significant time. The first step is to film the subject in which she is interested in and afterwards, she selects an image from the film which she thinks is the appropriate for cutting. ‘The main point is to figure out which image I will end up bringing into the world. I will devote so much time to making it and give it so much significance in terms of scale, that I have to choose it very carefully. The fact that I am using a technique in which it will be reproduced more than once further influence my decision’. (Catalogue Alan Cristea gallery, London 2011) Her main subject of interest is urban development and how life is affected by the environment. This material world was produced for humans, but at the same time has made life become an aspect in which a main point is speed. Cars, computers, busy highways, and people running, are the common images that exist in big cities. That is why in her work bridges, tunnels, and roads appear so frequently. In a world which is governed by speed, Baumgartner tries to slow down the way information is processed, to better reflect the way people live nowadays. ‘There is so much movement in our physical lives than 20 years ago. But also the time of information and communication has speed up in an extreme way. Because we are expecting such quick responses to our communications we miss the time for the thinking process and also to really prioritize’. (philagrafika, blog, http://philagrafika.blogspot.com/2009/05/interview-christiane-baumgartner.html) By choosing woodcut as a medium of expression, she asserts that is it her way of representing the contemporary situation. Her prints, which take a long time to make, effectively slow down time by extending the moment of the constitution of the image from a brief second, which in this case is the video still, to entire months, until the final work is ready. Baumgartner has created a visual language which needs to be viewed from a certain distance from the work so the image can be revealed. This language is consisted of horizontal lines which cut the subject in pieces so as to produce the illusion of movement and speed. When the viewer stands close to the work what he or she observes is actually thick and thin linear forms that reflect the virtuosity of the printmaker at a technical level. However, when the viewer keeps a distance from the artwork, then the entire theme is revealed. Specifically, the motifs assist the observer to comprehend the utility of the medium in relation to the forms in presenting the illusion of movement and thus, time itself. The visual language that is used makes the work of Christiane Baumgartner representative of the contemporary point of view in depicting motion and time. This is a very common perspective not only in fine art but also in contemporary media and video art. The work of the artist is the result of the contemporary perspective in depicting issues and concepts of time, through a more simplified aesthetic. The simplicity in using the medium and by extension, the thematic development in a composition also reflects the will of the artist to establish a relationship between the steady artwork and the viewer. In other words, she is trying to make the visual ability of the viewer actively participate mentally in the world she reconstructs. Hence, the concept of time is a parameter that connects the artist and artwork with the visual and mental ability of the observer. This is a conceptual tool in order for the artwork to communicate the illusion of motion portrayed to real time. This kind of reality is a vital factor for human beings because it produces subconscious images and memories. Due to the fact that Christiane Baumgartner’s works deal with the conceptual aspect of time in unreal time, she contributes to perceiving this issue from a point of view that functions as an antithesis. In a two-dimensional space she creates the illusion of a three-dimensional theme and in the end she also adds a fourth dimension (time), so as to reveal both the theoretical background of the concept and the sociological extension of it as it is formed in the contemporary life. The social character of Christiane Baumgartner’s artwork reflects in a way the contemporary model of life. Although the real time remains the same, the contemporary life in the modern societies goes faster. The human itself has created the speed in order to compress life inside the urban environment. Time compresses a contemporary citizen like motion in art is displayed through compression of lines. If a viewer observes the rush hour in a city then he or she will realise how in a mental form, motion is similar or equal to time. Namely, a passing person is a parabolic symbol of passing time. This is why the immediacy of the medium is related to the complexity passing time. The steadiness or the immobility that the medium itself includes is altered by the motion that is depicted. In the same logic, the steadiness or the immobility of environment is altered by human motion itself. All these examples reflect the antithetical nature in perceiving time. In one print of Christiane Baumgartner a close observation will be a starting point to perceive moving time in a still depiction while she underlines the fact that she uses “a slow medium like woodcut to express a fast idea”. The work of Marina Abramovic Performance art contrasts to the above perspective regarding time via a static or still medium. Performance is a branch of artistic expression whose basic elements that create its nature are time and space, the presence of which along with the active involvement of the artist and essentially, the audience’s presence or interaction is vital. Performance as a visual art incorporates the characteristic of time as a dynamic aspect of its nature. Thus, the medium itself includes the reality of the duration of time as an important parameter which is used extensively by the performance artists. It is like a tool for the performer in ‘depicting’ the issue or the concept of his interest by using his or her presence. Marina Abramovic, born in 1946 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, has been a representative artist since the 1970’s, the starting point for her career in performing arts. Her work of this type of expression indicates her perspectives of many aspects of her personal experiences but mainly her intellectual enquiries. In many of her performances there are references to the concept of time regardless of the fact that time itself is included in the medium. For instance, in the ‘Relation in movement’ (1977) Abramovic and Ulay moved in a circle direction repeatedly by driving around a square in Paris for hours. They kept driving until it got dark. The only existing lights were those of the car. There was continuity and duration to this action until the next morning. The couple had different tasks to accomplish; Ulay followed the back wheel and Abramovic loudly stated the number of the accomplished rounds. Additionally, the next morning revealed the black marks that the wheels had created in the ground and they tried to follow those marks. Another significant point which is not a usual one was the lack of audience. Only passers-by witnessed the event. The main idea of the performance was to present the repeated movement in physical and mental level. Namely, they presented in a symbolic way the mind’s circles around an idea or thought. The concept of time enters this performance as an idea that is divided into two subcategories: the obvious time that comprises the duration of the night that the performance took place, and the time which was emphasised every time Abramovic shouted the number of laps completed. In the first case, the artists dealt with time as a frame to present their performance which was main aspect of the length of the performance. In the second case, time took the form of the space and the movement together. In other words the artists defined on the basis of both space and movement the nature of time. Each lap comprised the value of time according to their perspective. The symbolism is still the same, but the gravity of the importance in perceiving time is not solid and this was determined by the artists. Marina Abramovic and Ulay on the basis of ‘relation in movement’ developed another performance of relevance to the present research, entitled ‘Relation in Time’ (1977). In ‘Relation in time’ a static situation is described. The couple Abramovic and Ulay are sitting facing back to each other with their hair tied together as a symbol of their connection. The duration of their performance lasted 16 hours in a gallery without any audience and only during the 17th and hour were the audience allowed to watch the performance. The couple was still sitting motionless for this final hour. During all this time there were only few changes in their presence. According to Lilian Haberer “their shared plait, their external connection, their umbilical cord, works loose as the hours pass”. She continues in the same sense to explain that “there is a contrast to the outward connectedness in their inward separateness, their different feelings” (Lilian Haberer, Collection: Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany). Abramovic and Ulay’s approach is revealing because of the fact that time takes the form of destruction, ruination, spoilage and damage. As an example of this destructive operation of time, the couple presents the human relationship which is the main subject of their performance. The direct reference to the ugly face of time in the human life represents the inner fear of all human beings. This type of continuity causes the objects and the living creatures to age and become old. The relationships and the parameters that enrich them are also under the fear of spoilage. The old man as a symbol of the age of time has now given its place to the more conceptual ones. Like Abramovic and Ulay present, time is not an annoying feeling. The impact of time in living creatures as a natural procedure leads them to fall despite its ugliness. It is as natural as death itself in a symbolic or literal way. In the case of Abramovic, ‘time no longer leads down a threatening path of aging, death and ending: it is reproducible’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present) This approach concerning time also involves sociological and philosophical understandings. If we consider the philosophical nature of time as a route to death or a procedure that leads human beings to physical and mental decay, then it is a rational conclusion that it also affects human social unity. With sociological determination, this model of understanding time has a significant behavioral impact. This syllogism transforms the concept of time from an ordinary system of measuring into a system of interpreting life. The performance reveals these parameters and gives multiple dimensions in interpreting the inner intellectual process of social life as a diachronic phenomenon. The perspective that is created makes the viewer redefine his or her position in the society. Admittedly, this rationale is a main idea in many performances produced by Abramovic and the personal experiences make the philosophical inquires more obvious via art. In her latest performance at MoMA ‘The artist is Present’ Abramovic performed the longest work in her performing career. She sat motionless for more than 700 hours in total, seven hours every day the museum was open, for more than 3 months. In this performance she was sitting silent and motionless at a table in the museum’s atrium inviting visitors to sit silently across from her for how long they chose to, making the performance interactive and becoming in this way participants in the artwork. She will not talk or respond to any of the participants, but their involvement in the process is essential and fundamental element for the work to be completed. ‘The artist is present’ is one of her most representative time based works as it deals with the long duration and the passing time remaining motionless and speechless. Most of her works contain a kind of mystic energy from which she derives great power in order to concentrate and remain motionless. In ‘Nightsea Crossing’ she ‘describes staring into Ulay’s eyes and from a certain moment on seeing only a blue, blind, empty screen in front of her, like the length of her arm, to achieve an empty timeless stare’. (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present) ‘The artist is present’ features, according to Biesenbach, as many of her works do, ‘in the endless act of sitting’, which is a central aspect to her art. Biesenbach continues: ‘in contemporary times sitting has taken the form of political protest’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present). Durational sitting is the principal of ‘The artist is Present’ which finds Abramovic sitting at a table and waiting for the visitors to get involved in the occurrence. The table here has a symbolic and a parabolic meaning. It functions as a stage and at the same time refers to another motif in her work, which considers images from the ritual daily familial gathering during mealtimes and the routine of a motionless life as time passes and its marks become obvious. The main idea in this last performance is the impact of time in the contemporary life. How much time one disposes in order to participate in the artwork is a personal decision and it depends on the way people nowadays divide time. In a world that is governed by speed, every moment is important. Hence, how willing is each of us to let time pass by is a matter that Abramovic’s performance deals with. Abramovic says ‘you have to give me your time in order to see the work…’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present) and this is true in any aspect of contemporary life; we have to give time in order to do anything. Biesenbach underlines that ‘while there is no empirical duration established for MoMA’s visitors, the moment one sits in the chair, he or she participates in an unspoken agreement with the artist to enter into another perspective’ (Klaus Biesenbach, Marina Abramovic: The artist is present) Concept of Time Portrayed in Art
Writer’s Choice. Paper details   What is meant by quantitative and qualitative measures in the evaluation of a text for a lesson? Define and provide examples.Writer’s Choice
urban study. I’m studying for my Environmental Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Directions: you are required to choose between one of the following two essay options. Answers should be approximately one to two pages long (double space, 12-point font and 1-inch margins). The paper cannot exceed two pages (this does not include the bibliography). You are expected to use as many readings as possible to support your answers. We are assessing you on your knowledge of course materials (lectures and readings). Please use standard citations1 and include a bibliography. Please submit only in MS Word or PDF (not Pages or Google Docs). Due Wednesday, January 29 at 9:00 a.m. through Canvas. All exams are processed through Turnitin for plagiarism. Instructions: Your answers must be written in a standard essay format consisting of a short introduction with a thesis statement, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion. The essay must address the three parts of the general prompt. Good luck!

Essay Option 1: What makes urban environments unique?
1a. What were the attributes that made “urban” environments different from small towns?
1b. How did the attributes of urban environments shape human relations and cultures?
1c. . Identify the mechanisms that make cities more prone to freedom than other environments.

Essay Option 2: Segregating People in Urban Space
2a. What were the principal forces causing cities to segregate by race and social class over the 20th century?
2b. How did suburbanization exacerbate segregation?
2c. How did stigmatized and spatially segregated people (e.g. people of color, gays and lesbians,…) develop their own urban worlds?
urban study

Answer the discussion question, watch some videos and answer the questions..

Discussion # 1 – Discussions based on video footages of Earthquakes121121 unread replies.121121 replies.Read important information about what to do (or not to do) BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER an earthquakes: Earthquake procedures (Links to an external site.)Click play below to watch a raw footage of earthquakes (locations unknown) to answer the discussion question below.Earthquake! RAW video footage! Describe:Two scenarios where people did the right thing when the earthquake happened [20 points], andTwo other scenarios where people did what they were NOT supposed to do during an active earthquake. [20 points]After you submit your answers, comment on two of your classmates’ opinions. [5 points each, total 10 points].I’ll send the other students Discussion posts after the answer has been submitted, I don’t get them til right after.Grading Criteria:This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeInitial Post40.0 ptsExemplaryPost includes valid statements for both questions. The arguments made are thorough, well thought out and are generally supported by course materials or outside resources.30.0 ptsAccomplishedPost includes valid statements for both questions. The arguments made are solid and are generally supported by course materials or outside resources.20.0 ptsDevelopingThe statements made for both or one of the prompts are somewhat clear; the arguments made are loosely related to the topic prompt and are not entirely supported by credible references.10.0 ptsNeeds to improveStatement is not clear and pertains to part of the questions. Indications of little or minimal effort.0.0 ptsNo MarksPost is not made or reflects very little effort.40.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeReplies to Classmates10.0 ptsExemplaryWell-thought out replies to at least two classmates are made. The replies stimulate group discussion and present creative approaches to the topic.7.0 ptsAccomplishedOne strong, thoughtful reply is made to a classmate that contributes a relevant viewpoint for consideration by the group OR Two relevant replies to classmates are made though somewhat lacking in substance.4.0 ptsDevelopingOne reply to a classmate is made that is generally accurate.0.0 ptsNo MarksNo replies to classmates are made, or replies are excessively brief (e.g., “I agree.”).10.0 ptsTotal Points: 50.
Answer the discussion question, watch some videos and answer the questions.

Managing core risks in banks

Managing core risks in banks. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION RISK is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities. It is simply the future uncertainty and not only the incidents of predictable outcomes but also the unpredictable favourable outcomes. All the firms or companies whether it is in real or providing service are facing some sort of RISK at present competitive business world to run its business. Banks are one of them in these regard and it is facing possibility of risk in terms of money and their achieved reputation. Bank is a financial institution that primarily deals with borrowing and lending money from the people by the people to the people. Besides this core activities now-a-days banks are also dealing with other roles related to economy. Modern banks are offering a wide range of financial services as a result the level and intensity of risk exposure have expanded today. 1.1 Significance: All the policymakers and the managers are now believe that risk management is essential where it has been identified few core areas to be managed effectively and efficiently are as follows, credit risk, interest-rate risk, exchange-rate risk, environmental risk,, and money laundering risk, liquidity or funding risk, leverage or capital risk, strategic risk, which needed to be greater emphasis. 1.2 Problem Statements: To do the whole research, at first, it is necessary to identify the problems regarding the selected topic. As the topic is related to risk in banks and its management it is the core need to know the problems that banks may face if the risks are not considered properly and those problems are as follows:  Chances of variation in expected outcome.  Possibility of suffering loss.  Measure of probability and severity of adverse effects. 1.3 Research Objectives: The core objectives of doing this research are as follows:  To improve profit and profitability.  To manage and reduce all the major risks in banking business.  To ensure long-term solvency and viability of the bank.  To develop a structured framework for risk management.  To form some guidelines as a basis for customization of the risk management strategies of banks. 1.4 Rationale: As a post graduate diploma student it is very essential to do some research to go depth of any topic. As banking sector is expanding its hand in different financial event everyday, as the demand for better services increases day by day it, they are coming with different ideas and product where the risk is also becoming higher. So it is necessary to know all the risks bank may face to run its business. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW The unanticipated part of the return, that portion resulting from surprises is the true risk of any investment. If we always receive what we expect, than the investment is perfectly predictable and, by definition, risk-free. In other words, the risk of owning an asset comes from surprises-unanticipated events. RISK is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities. It is simply the future uncertainty and not only the incidents of predictable outcomes but also the unpredictable favourable outcomes. All the firms or companies whether it is in real or providing service are facing some sort of risk at present competitive business world to run its business. Banks are one of them in these regard and it is facing possibility of risk in terms of money and their achieved reputation. Bank is a financial institution that primarily deals with borrowing and lending money from the people by the people to the people. Besides this core activities now-a-days banks are also dealing with other roles related to economy. A wide range of financial services are offering by modern banks as a result the level and intensity of risk exposure have been expanded as well. So all the policymakers and the managers are now believe that risk management is essential, where they have been identified few core areas to be managed effectively and efficiently are as follows, credit risk, interest-rate risk, exchange-rate risk, environmental risk, money laundering risk, liquidity or funding risk, leverage or capital risk, strategic risk, which needed to discuss broadly. Financial risk refers to the risk that a bank will not have ample cash flow to meet the financial obligations. Financial risks are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. Financial risk covers, among others, credit risk which is thought the most dominant financial risk today. This is the risk of erosion of value due to simple default or non-payment by the borrowers. Credit risk is also known as counter-party risk since its come from the failure of counter party to meet its obligation as per contract or agreed terms and conditions. An interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be large enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks’ viability. Exchange-rate risk, or currency risk, is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. All the risk and how it can be reduced would be discussed thoroughly on the main body of the report. All the risk that modern banks may face at the present competitive business world viewed by experts have briefly discussed as follows: 2.1 Credit Risk Management: Saidur, (2008) defined that financial risk arises as a risk when a bank doesn’t have enough money to meet its financial obligations, are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. This risk includes, among others, credit risk which is the most dominant financial risk today that decomposition of value due to simple default or non-payment by the borrowers. Credit risk is also known as counter-party risk since its come from the failure of counter party to meet his/her obligation as per contract or agreed terms and conditions that also can be defined as the possible failure by the bank borrowers or counter-party within the agreed time period. According to BIS (2000), “Credit Risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms.” To maximize the rate of return this risk should be managed properly. Banks need to manage credit risk in the entire range as well as the risk in individual credits or transactions. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. 2.2 Interest-rate Risk Management: According to Bank of Jamaica (2005), “Interest rate risk is the potential impact that faces by banks on its earnings and net asset values of changes in interest rates.” When bank’s principal amount and its cash flows differ in both on-and-off balance sheet items then interest-rate risk arises. Managing interest rate risk is a fundamental element in the safe and sound management of all banks. Although the facts of interest rate risk management differ among banks depend upon the nature and complexity of its asset and liability structure. A wide-ranging interest rate risk management programme requires getting interest-rate risk positions and risking profiles.  To establish and implement sound and prudent interest rate risk policies;  To develop and implement appropriate interest rate risk measurement techniques; and  To develop and implement effective interest rate risk management and control procedures. Managing interest rate requires a clear understanding of the sum at risk and the impact of changes in interest rates on this risk position. To make these determinations, adequate information should be available to consent appropriate action to be taken within acceptable, often very short, short periods. The longer it takes an institution to eliminate or reverse an unwanted exposure, the greater the possibility of loss. Interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be large enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks’ viability. (Saidur 2008) 2.3 Exchange-rate risk Management: Saidur (2008) pointed out that exchange-rate risk or currency risk is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. The net long position and short position of foreign currency balances under trading book may be assessed to know the extent the risk as well as capital requirements for this purpose. However, the Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most sophisticated approaches that depend on inferential statistical parameters, may be used to determine the extent of risk in this area. 2.4 Environmental Risk Management: Saidur (2008) suggested that Environmental Risk is the risk that the bank must guard against but over which it has at best limited control. The bank must take it that as a firm, like any other, it is open to risk resulting from changes in the external environment in which it operates. It includes: a) Defalcation risk—the risk of theft or fraud by bank officers or employees as well as by the customers must be carefully guarded against in order to avoid substantial losses. Code of conduct, moral value creation, punitive measures etc., may help reducing such risk. 2.5 Money Laundering Risk Management: Saidur (2008) explained that the loss of reputation and expenses incurred as penalty for being negligent in prevention of money laundering. Sound Know Your Client (KYC) procedure, Cash transaction report (CTR), suspicious transaction report (STR), clear understanding of the business of the client, person’s identity will reduce the loss of reputation and expenses incurred as penalty from such types of risk. With money laundering on the rise around the world, regulatory response is also increasing. Recent enforcement actions have focused on an institution’s lack of consistent internal controls, governance and oversight. In response, financial institutions are in search of reasonable anti-money laundering measures they can take to ensure regulatory compliance, including implementing a monitoring system that:  Migrates all risks identified in their risk assessment.  Can be implemented in months rather than years.  Has lower infrastructure and support costs.  Is proven to pass regulatory muster. 2.6 Liquidity or Funding Risk Management: Mathias and Kleopatra (2009) describes that Funding liquidity risk is the possibility that over a specific horizon, a bank will unable to meet the demand for money, as other risks, funding liquidity risk is forward looking and measured over a specific horizon. It is a zero-one concept, i.e. a bank can either settle obligations, or it cannot. Funding liquidity risk, on the other hand, can take on infinitely many values reflecting the magnitude of risk. Moreover, funding liquidity is a point-in-time concept, while funding liquidity is forward looking. As long as the bank is not in an absorbing state, both liquidity and illiquidity are possible. The likelihood of either depends on the time horizon considered and on the nature of the funding position of the bank. In this respect, concerns about the future ability to settle obligations or to raise cash at short notice, i.e. future funding liquidity, will impact on current funding liquidity risk. 2.7 Leverage or Capital Risk Management: Leverage or capital risk is the potential inability of a bank to protect its depositors and creditors from declines in asset value and therefore, default. Banks need to maintain adequate capital because it is caution against unexpected losses; it ensures that a bank remains solvent and stays in business even under extreme conditions; it has directly linked with investment/credit operations and it aims at absorbing unexpected losses at certain confidence level. Banks are following the best international practice given by the Basel Committee on banking supervision for maintaining adequate capital to commensurate to exposure or risk on balance sheet from 1996. Saidur (2008). 2.8 Strategic Risk Management: Saidur (2008), depicts that strategic risk is the risk of the bank choosing inappropriate geographic and product areas that will be profitable for the bank in a complex future environment. In other words, strategic risk may occur when a bank is not prepared or able to complete in a newly developing line of business. 2.9 Overview: A widespread and classy management information system needs to be developed for analysing behavioural profile of depositors and borrowers. Also need to understand mature profile of assets and liabilities including duration gap analysis, calculation of potential loss from movements of rate of return, adoption of contingency plan for liquidity, analysing some crucial factors related to possibility of credit default, loss given default, exposure at default expected loss etc. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Types: Quantitative and qualitative approaches are the beginning point to understand the collection of information for research. The observations and measurements that can be measured objectively and repeated by other researchers are known as the quantitative research. On the other hand the research which aims to increase our understanding of why is called qualitative research. The research that we have done is a qualitative research because its increase our understanding of ‘why’? Suppose from this research we will be able to know that why banks should manage its core risk? 3.2 Methods of Data Collection: To complete a research we have to collect a lot of data and information. This data and information can be two types: primary data or secondary data. By the term primary data generally we mean the immediate information while secondary data relates with the past period information. Primary data is more accommodating as it shows latest information and we can collect primary data directly from the work field and it take a lot of time. But secondary data can be collect effortlessly, rapidly and inexpensively. We made this research on the basis of secondary data. Mainly we collect the information from different journals, books and through some websites. 3.3 Research Framework: Saidur’s definition was more reasonable so the definition was taken which is financial risk arises as a risk when a bank doesn’t have enough money to meet its financial obligations, are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. According to Bank of Jamaica “Interest rate risk is the potential impact that faces by banks on its earnings and net asset values of changes in interest rates.” When bank’s principal amount and its cash flows differ in both on-and-off balance sheet items then interest-rate risk arises. Interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be large enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks’ viability, which was broadly discussed by Saidur. He also pointed out that exchange-rate risk or currency risk is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. The net long position and short position of foreign currency balances under trading Mathias and Kleopatra describes that Funding liquidity risk is the possibility that over a specific horizon, a bank will unable to meet the demand for money, as other risks, funding liquidity risk is forward looking and measured over a specific horizon. It is a zero-one concept, i.e. a bank can either settle obligations, or it cannot. Funding liquidity risk, on the other hand, can take on infinitely many values reflecting the magnitude of risk. Saidur (2008), depicts that strategic risk is the risk of the bank choosing inappropriate geographic and product areas that will be profitable for the bank in a complex future environment. In other words, strategic risk may occur when a bank is not prepared or able to complete in a newly developing line of business. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Banking has a diversified and complex financial activity which is no longer limited within the geographic boundary of a country. Since its activity involves high risk, the issue of effective internal control system, corporate governance, transparency, accountability has become significant issues to ensure smooth performance of the banking industry throughout the world. In many banks internal control is identified with internal audit; the scope of internal control is not limited to audit work. It is an integral part of the daily activity of a bank, which on its own merit identifies the risks associated with the process and adopts a measure to mitigate the same. Internal Audit on the other hand is a part of Internal Control system which reinforces the control system through regular review. Internal Control refers to the mechanism in place on a permanent basis to control the activities in an organization, both at a central and at a departmental/divisional level. A key component of effective internal control is the operation of a solid accounting and information system. The internal control environment is the framework under which internal controls are developed, implemented and monitored. It consists of the mechanisms and arrangements that ensure internal and external risks to which the company is exposed are identified; appropriate and effective internal controls are developed and implemented to soundly and prudently manage these risks; reliable and comprehensive systems are to be put in place to appropriately monitor the effectiveness of these controls. Each company needs to have in place an appropriate and effective internal control environment to ensure that the company is managed and controlled in a sound and prudent manner. 4.1 Credit risk: This risk results from the possible inability of the borrower to repay the loan or its benefits or the inability of the company’s securities from the investor bank to pay the value of paper or revenues, and this danger is the quality of the portfolio of loans and investments in securities and the degree of risk in loan is often higher than securities. This risk can be controlled partly by examining the borrower’s financial appropriacy and his ability pay as an initial guarantee for payment of the loan, and to obtain assets or securities or goods as secondary guarantees for payment of the loan, as well as examining the financial situation of companies issuing the securities which the bank wishes to invest in. However, we can not control another part of credit risk represented in non-payment due to general economic conditions or natural disasters. 4.2 Liquidity Risk: This risk results from the inability of the bank to repay liabilities and obligations due on their maturity dates because the bank does not harmonize the maturities dates of assets and liabilities through investment in assets with maturities dates greater than those of liabilities, something which leads to the inability to meet the demands for the withdrawal of deposits when they are due. Liquidity risk can be divided into two types: Funding Liquidity Risk (it results from the inability of the bank in normal circumstances to obtain adequate liquidity to repay its obligations, or obtain new deposits or a new loan or its inability to liquidate its assets); Market Liquidity Risk (it results from sudden withdrawal of deposits resulting in the inability of the bank to pay without incurring unexpected loss). 4.3 Market or Price Risk: This risk results from the decline in the value of some elements of logistical assets or liabilities, the Bank handles the assets and liabilities affected by the market price significantly, especially when interest rates differ between each of the assets and liabilities. General Market Risks (where all market tools move once as a result of taking economic decisions or general conditions and therefore this type of risk can not be controlled; Specific Market Risks (where a certain tool moves without the others for reasons related to the source of this tool, such as low profits or the returns of the portfolio or indicator of securities related to a certain industry that suffers from certain recession.. The bank’s management must predict and control such risks by diversifying investments. 4.4 Foreign Currency Risk: The reason for this type of risk is the change in exchange rates of foreign currencies against the local currency, which affects revenues and costs associated with investments in foreign currency. The probability of this risk increases with the increase in the volume of investments in foreign currency or their concentration in one currency. 4.5 Interest rate risk: A bank is exposed to interest rate risk when it experiences a situation of imbalance in terms of size or maturity dates between assets and liabilities sensitive to interest rates, leading to potential losses for the bank when interest rate increases or declines and this influences the net asset value in the budget, which some call risk gap. 4.6 Operational Risk: It results from the inability of the information and control system in the bank to predict various other risks, and as a result their occurrence is ignored and the bank incurs losses. This shortcoming may be due to technical reasons related to the information system itself or to administrative and regulatory reasons. 4.7 Legal Risk: This risk results from the decline of the market value of the assets of the bank compared with liabilities as a result of losses for any of the above reasons, and therefore the bank cannot pay dues to clients and resort to liquidation and the use of its capital to fill the gap between assets and liabilities. Thus, it can notice the multiplicity and diversity of the risks faced by commercial banks in their work due to the nature of the banking industry which is characterized by a range of factors that lead to increased risks. These factors include: – Commercial banks’ dependency on others’ funds represented in deposits and loans so that the ratio of capital to net assets does not exceed 7% at most, which reduces the safety edge for small depositors and increases risks. – The nature of the financial markets in which banks operate, as these markets are constantly changing, and the growing global inflation, which supports the state of instability of commercial banks. – Increased competition faced by commercial banks on the part of other financial institutions to attract and grant funds such as insurance companies, pension funds and securities investment companies. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Banks can apply the follow strategies to manage the risk: 1. making intelligent investment/credit decisions so that the expected risk of investment /credit is both accurately graded and priced to compensate risk exposure; 2. diversifying across borrowers, activities and regions so that credit loses are not concentrated to a particular area, borrower or activity; 3. creating ‘investment caps’ to avoid over concentration on a particular sector; 4. imposing legal limit of investment/credit for each single client or group of companies 5. encouraging syndicated financing; 6. purchasing third party guarantees/credit insurance so that default risk entirely of partially can be shifted away from the banks; and 7. setting-up separate credit administration department to administer proper disbursement, documentation and custody thereof monitoring covenants and compliance. In the economic reality from our days, banks face several challenges to sustain the economic development of every country. There are a lot of threats and risks which can interfere in the bank’s activity, with a great influence over the performance and profitability. Therefore, in this paper we analyzed some interesting and useful performance evaluation methods in commercial banks, concomitantly with a detailed analysis of the risks that a commercial bank faces in managing assets and liabilities. Stable banking systems are able to maintain efficiency in unforeseen situations and to generate incentives and credible financial information for all participants. The importance of this approach is that a market economy can not function without profitable consolidated banks; together with the revival of economy and improving the business environment. The banking system has seen an accelerated development, both in terms of quantity, as particularly in terms of quality. In the context of the challenges associated with globalization, internationalization banking activity, as a consequence of reduce trade barriers between countries and the opening of financial markets to foreign investors, can not be achieved without an efficient banking system. In the economic reality from our days, banks face several challenges to sustain the economic development of every country. There are a lot of threats and risks which can interfere in the bank’s activity, with a great influence over the performance and profitability. Therefore, in this paper we analyzed some interesting and useful performance evaluation methods in commercial banks, concomitantly with a detailed analysis of the risks that a commercial bank faces in managing assets and liabilities. Managing core risks in banks

ORG 21 College of Central Florida Risks Communication Analysis

essay writer ORG 21 College of Central Florida Risks Communication Analysis.

I have a Vido that need to watch and write an analysis about it and other reading as well I just posted three different answers you can paraphrase them into one good answer and that is it REMEMBER IT IS ONLY PARAPHRASING I NEED GOOD PARAPHRASING the question Join your classmates in a Group Discussion regarding the concordance and discordance of the various readings and the lessons that emerge from the week’s readings and Dr. Covella’s presentation.the video linkAnswer 1As I compile notes from Covello, Walker, Coppola and Maloney, and the CERC training, one consensus has come to mind: get a clear and concise message out to the target audience as quickly as possible when facing a disaster.Covello stresses the importance of message mapping, which contributes to the digestibility of the message, Walker encourages the inclusion of all subsets of the target audience by describing adaptations, and CERC training enables spokespeople to present the message effectively. Coppola and Maloney provide an excellent overview, from early planning to strategy development to implementation and evaluation, for encouraging the public to participate with and follow the guidelines given in risk communication messaging. I also appreciated the Eight Essential Components of Communication document. As I worked through the other readings, I noticed that some of the same components arise within disaster communication. For example, interference was explicitly brought up by Walker at the start of chapter three. While she doesn’t indicate it in Figure 3.1 that displays the sender, message, receiver, channel, and environment, she discusses both the internal and external roadblocks that one can encounter when trying to convey a message. External roadblocks include distractions, such as noise level, seating, and location, while internal roadblocks include individual reactions, such as defensiveness and stereotyping (Walker, 2012, p. 62). Part of the issue with risk communication today could be that our society moves so quickly that we fail to slow down long enough to yield the messages that experts are trying to tell us.We have all of these tools. We know how messages can be successful and why they fail, so why is it that in the face of disaster, messaging so often conveys something other than intended? I think this has to do with the fact that we tend to operate on the defensive as opposed to the offensive. Emergency management designed preparedness into its mission; but, without education before a disaster, the overwhelming majority of the public will panic and fail to act sensibly when it comes time to be on the offensive. It is not entirely their fault, as we learned from Covello and the AGL-4 template. If, however, we want communication to be effective, emergency managers and the public alike have to be prepared to send and receive pertinent information from one another.Walker, D. C. (2012). Mass Notification and Crisis Communications: Planning, Preparedness, and Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Answer 2There was a lot of great information regarding communication in this weeks’ reading and lecture. It was really interesting to see the contrast of disaster preparedness communication and crisis communication differs in strategy but not in purpose. I understand that in high stress situations, the noise and uncertainty require a simplistic messaging to be communicated to the public that can stimulate action quickly. However, how does the communication tactics change when the information is changing or differs from both seemingly reliable sources?An essential component of communication is the source. During times of crisis, people look to the most capable leaders in charge. During this COVID response, those agencies were the WHO and CDC. However, throughout this ongoing crisis there has been criticisms to both agencies for misleading information, falsifying records and not being honest. Whether these allegations have any basis, or you believe them or not, it does not seem like in the midst of a pandemic to be a good opportunity to view these leading health expert agencies as unreliable. So, how does the WHO and CDC plan to navigate their messages to a skeptical public and gain back their trust?Answer 3For this week’s discussion board, we were asked to reflect on observations and interpretations of Dr. Vince Covello’s presentation on message mapping, readings especially Walker’s, and the CERC course. My main takeaways from this week is the severity of communication being a 2 way process, to remember not everyone will react and handle the situation the same and the 6 principles of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (Be first, be right, be credible, express empathy, promote action, and show respect). In a disaster, you can’t go wrong to keep these in mind at all times for the most effective way of communicating to not only the public, but among the organization internally as well. How the audience responds to your message will determine what improvements are needed. The more effective the options used by the sender, the more the likelihood the communicated message is understood by the receiver. (Walker, 2012 p.61) Message maps according to the Center of Risk Communication are crucial to ensuring that an organization has a central source of consistent messages. Message Maps are constructed according to the principles of risk communication and have three goals:To organize information in an easily understood and accessible framework.To express the current organizational viewpoint on important issues, questions, concerns.To promote open dialogue both inside and outside the organization.The periodic table for high concern communication from Dr. Covello are great templates for message mapping especially in a crisis situation, these can also be used in many instances such as a spokesperson from an organization addressing reporters or those high on emotions at a protest. There is a time and place for each of these templates. I reflected on my work in healthcare and how I respond in my environment.I find myself often using the CCO (Compassion Conviction Optimism) template a lot when addressing my patients especially. Being compassionate, having conviction, and optimism not only makes your patients feel that they are being heard and cared for, but also improves outcomes in patient experience. It shows how human you are, that you can develop a relationship with them and make them feel comfortable as a patient and not a customer. This goes for the team/department as well. It will increase work morale, improve outcomes, and boost confidence for everyone in the working environment. These are important skills to possess in healthcare and unfortunately still many are unsuccessful in displaying these characteristics. I think this is due to burn out, disparities such as language and use of medical jargon, and long hours. Covello. Periodic Table for High Concern Communication. Institute for High Concern Communication. Retrieved from https://www.health.pa.gov/topics/Documents/Emergency%20Preparedness/Periodic%20Table%20for%20High%20Concern%20Communication.pdf (Links to an external site.)Walker, D. C. (2012). Mass Notification and Crisis Communications: Planning, Preparedness, and Systems. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Message Mapping. Center for Risk Communication. Retrieved from http://centerforriskcommunication.org/communication-strategy-services/message-map-development/#:~:text=Message%20mapping%20is%20an%20important,issues%2C%20questions%2C%20or%20concerns (Links to an external site.). Reply Reply to CommentREMEMBER IT IS ONLY PARAPHRASING
ORG 21 College of Central Florida Risks Communication Analysis

​Read the WP2 Prompt.

​Read the WP2 Prompt..

Read the WP2 Prompt.After you pick your topic, locate and read three good credible sources that address your topic (one or more of these could be from this week’s discussion board post).In a 1-2 page document complete and submit the following:1. For each of your three sources, write a References Page Citation.2. Briefly describe who the author(s) of each source are (are they credible–why/why not?)3. Where do the three sources make similar points? (You can list these as bullet points.) What are direct quotes from each source that illustrate these points of agreement?4. How and where do the arguments differ? (You can list these as bullet points.). What are direct quotes from each source that serve as examples of where they are saying different things?5. What ideas are missing from your sources that relate to your topic?6. Having read and analyzed the sources, what will your argument be about this topic? This will become your working thesis statement. This assignment assesses outcomes 2.3 and 2.4
​Read the WP2 Prompt.

A Comparison Of British And Chinese TV Industries Media Essay

Television plays a significant role of in people’s daily life in modern society. “Some 98 percent of households in Britain own at least one television set and 53 percent own two or more, that figure rising to 65 percent for families with children.”(Abercrombie and Warde: 368) There are 1.1 billion regular viewers and 317 million television sets in China in 2003, which has the world’s largest television system. (Zhao and Guo: 521) The mass media including television are “the main means through which the citizens of a nation become informed about the issues of the day, and can have access to reasoned debate about them, and hence the media institutions are an important part of the democratic process itself.” (Abercrombie and Warde: 369) This is probably the reason that the governments always pay a great deal of attention on it. The relationship between the government and the media varies from country to country. BBC is the most important broadcasting company in UK and CCTV has the same importance in China. The TV advertising nowadays is the most important way of advertising. It is taking a great advantage of the TV broadcasting. This essay will mainly compare the two TV broadcasting companies: BBC and CCTV and discuss their relationships with the governments, and compare TV advertising in two countries. â…¡ The differences in the TV Industries in UK and China 2.1 BBC and CCTV and the roles of governments BBC is the most important broadcasting company in UK and it dominates a large piece of the kingdom of British media. CCTV has a similar influence among the whole China. The following introductions of BBC and CCTV are the latest brief introduction on their websites: “The BBC is the largest broadcasting organisation in the world. Its mission is to enrich people’s lives with programmes that inform, educate and entertain. It is a public service broadcaster, established by a Royal Charter and funded by the licence fee that is paid by UK households. The BBC uses the income from the licence fee to provide services including 8 national TV channels plus regional programming, 10 national radio stations, 40 local radio stations and an extensive website. BBC World Service broadcasts to the world on radio, on TV and online, providing news and information in 32 languages. It is funded by a government grant, not from the licence fee. The BBC also has a commercial arm, BBC Worldwide. Its profits are returned to the BBC for investment in new programming and services.” (BBC) CCTV “China Central Television (CCTV) is the national TV station of the People’s Republic of China and it is one of China’s most important news broadcast companies. Today, CCTV has become one of China’s most influential media outlets. In addition to its TV programs, CCTV has also built up a multi-media broadcasting platform and business operation, which includes movies, newspapers and the internet. CCTV is the main news source for the Chinese people. It is also an important window for Chinese to learn about the outside world, and for the world to find out more about China. CCTV is making efforts to become a global media network with increased international influence.”(CCTV) From the introduction: “It is a public service broadcaster, established by a Royal Charter and funded by the licence fee that is paid by UK households”, we get to know that even though the British government has certain influence on BBC, it is an independent company without governmental controlling. On the contrast, even though CCTV is funded by its own profit, as itself claims that it is the national TV station of China, basically is the representative of the Chinese government. The Chinese government supervises the content that media broadcast in three ways: “supervise in the front-end”, “supervise in the middle-end” and “supervise in the back-end”. The “supervise in the front-end” means direct control of the admittance of the media and their related industries, the “supervise in the middle-end” means the government controls the rights of final judgment and broadcasting of the content that media wish to broadcast, and the “supervise in the back-end” means the government has the right to punish those behaviours of the media which violate the laws and rules and damage the interests of China. (Zhou, 36) The “policies governing foreign joint ventures” are fluctuating because Chinese authorities associate media with the notion of “cultural security”. (Wang, J., 248) Those “financial and economic news” channels and stations are open to transactional since the “financial and economic news” is considered “safe content”. (Wang, J., 249) On the other hand, as Zhao and Guo point out that: “The Chinese television industry is characterized by a unique for of state monopoly capitalism: commercialized operations organized into a hierarchical structure of administrative monopoly.”(Zhao and Guo, 527) Seeing through the real situation of the brew, birth and development of the media groups in China, the government is playing the role of giving directions to the market instead of replacing the market. (Zhou, 27) In Britain, the television is “an alternative method of financing public broadcasting and that method itself has depended on the creation of tightly held monopolies for the sale of advertising and programme production”. (Murdoch, 38) Murdoch also claimed that the competition of the television give the freedom to customers to decide which they want to buy while the monopoly or duopoly forces them to take whatever the sellers puts on offer. “The current British system encourages creative risk taking, and that a market-led system would not fund all manner of excellent programming currently on show.”(ibid) Briggs pointed out that for many years, “British broadcasting had been able successfully to create, without alienating Government or the public, interesting and exciting popular network programmes from the world of reality as well as the world of fantasy—programmes on the arts and sciences, international reportage, political controversy, social enquiry, local investigation.” (Briggs, 52) At the same time, a Board of Governors which is appointed by the government regulated BBC and entrusted to defend the independence of BBC from outside pressures, both political and economic. (BBC, 132) BBC also argued that the agreement between the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and they recognised their independence in relation to the content and scheduling of its programmes and the management of its affairs, but specifies the services and standards require of the BBC. (BBC, 134) As we mentioned before: mass media including television are “the main means through which the citizens of a nation become informed about the issues of the day, and can have access to reasoned debate about them, and hence the media institutions are an important part of the democratic process itself.” (Abercrombie and Warde: 369) Every government will definitely pay serious attention on the information the media are delivering to the public. 2.2 The TV advertising in two countries Advertisement is a responsible information broadcast activity is paid by advertisers. They carry some particular messages and they are displayed on public media in order to achieve certain purposes. Specifically, advertisement is a publicity campaign made to introduce products to the public, report content of services or for entertainment. The globalization of the world economy has made the cross culture advertising broadcast come into being. The television is the most important influential advertising method among all the media in China. (Wang, J., 248) TV advertising apparently has the same influence in Britain. “The nature of television advertising today is the product of numerous factors.” (Dickason, 7) Talking about the British television advertising, Dickason said that “the financial interests of advertisers and the consumerist pressures have been experienced and being felt in various degrees and, in different ways, the concerns and preoccupations of government and its constituent ministries can be more or less easily observed and identified.”(ibid) Since CCTV is the national TV station of China, it has a lot of priorities than the other provincial TV stations. “We can gain insight into CCTV’s “monopoly game” by examining its prime-time advertising auctions and by appraising various countermeasures adopted by provincial satellite stations of offset such a monopoly.”(Wang, J., 247) The TV dramas are so great and significant advertisements carriers: the income brought by the advertisements in the new series and reruns was about 22billioan yuan RMB in 2003 since watching TV drama in the evening is a favourite national way of passing the time. (ibid) Statistics provided an excellent explanation of why TV is considered the most effective profit-making vehicle for advertising and those numbers “indicate that a client’s ad spending rests primarily on the appeal of a station’ drama menu”. (Wang, J. 279) There also exist certain problems. ” The constrains on programming carry important repercussions or Chinese advertising, because the media peddle content to advertisers, whose ultimate goal is to match target segments with media segments.” (ibid) For instance, television had a really tough time in developing “sophisticated sponsorship relations with advertisers and taking lead in attracting advertising dollars unless it has premium programs”. (Wang, J., 251) On the British side, the advertisements also play a significant part in fulfilling people’s television time. “The treatment of such subjective notions undoubtedly gives an insight into the way in which the British television viewer was expected to situate himself and to react with regard to society and social phenomena.”(Dickason, 7)The government of the day set a control which is ‘at arm’s length’ to British commercial television, and it has been closely regulated from the outset. (ibid) According to what Dickason said, “Television advertising, in fact, is broadly required to obey the same rules as television programmes, in such matters as taste and decency and portrayal and protection of vulnerable sections of the community.”(ibid) The content of the British TV advertisement is influenced by “exhibits numerous international if not universal techniques and concepts, from myths and symbolism through to semiology, synaesthesia and the general appeal to human emotions”. (Dicason, 159) And in his view, advertisements have different perspectives: they are brilliant at creating new solutions and they are adept at creating new demands, while the products and services they are promoting may prove acceptable and even essential or be rejected as the culture evolves. (Dicason, 3) â…¢ Conclusion Television is not only a technique to enrich people’s life but also a culture created by human beings and it influences people’s daily life at the same time. Being the most important method that the public use to receive different information throughout the world, it attracts the attention not only from the ordinary people who are looking for entertainment but people or organisations with distinguish perspectives, such as the advertisers who are promoting certain products and the governments which are always serious about what their people know and thinking about their countries. The situations vary from country to country since television is such a culture that different from all the countries’ background cultures. The broadcasting companies, to some extent are quite under pressure. Some of them are totally under the control of the governments, especially on the news and education, such as China Central Television. BBC on the contrast, even though was established under a Royal Chapter, it is an independent broadcasting companies. Being the best method of advertising, the television acts really actively in this area. Since television is a national way of killing time, the programmes on TV such as TV dramas are naturally the best vehicles of advertising. The culture of television nowadays is flourishing and the advertisers are creating new thoughts for their promoting.