The concept of internal marketing The concept of internal marketing is a tool that companies use within their workforce to communicate with their employees. Many company owners and authors of internal marketing believe this concept is as important to a company’s survival as external marketing (communicating to customers). When communicating to employees this involves the communications of “corporate culture and goals, mission and vision statements, as well as personnel policies and procedures”. http://www.bnet.com/2410-13237_23-168356.html Internal marketing was introduced in the mid 1970’s. This was initiated so companies could use the concept as a way of achieving consistent service quality. Internal marketing became known in the service marketing industry. The objective of this concept was to get a more improved performance from the employees who regularly dealt with customers. Although this concept began within the service marketing it has now broadened beyond and is included in many other companies and organisations. Ahmed and Rafiq authors of the book Internal Marketing: Tools and concepts for customer-focused management suggest that authors have many definitions of internal marketing and from studying the literature they have highlighted 5 main elements of the concept; Employee motivation and satisfaction Customer orientation and customer satisfaction Inter-functional co-ordination and integration Marketing-like approach to the above Implementation of specific corporate or functional strategies Employee motivation is a significant element of the concept, for many authors understand this to be the essence of what internal marketing to be. An employee’s attitude towards their own work place is believed to directly influence the value of the customer service that is given to consumers. This was summarised by Kusluvan (2003) “Internal marketing efforts are assumed to result in employee satisfaction, job involvement, work motivation, employee commitment, maximum employee effort on behalf of the organizations and customers, increased job performance, service-oriented behaviours and lower turnover which, in turn should improve service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty” Kusluvan, S (2003) pg:42. There are many other definitions of internal marketing. Ahmed and Rafiq argue that the span of understanding about internal marketing from other authors is huge but vague in its limitations. One of the earlier studies by the author Berry, L (1974) believed that “effective internal marketing, which would contribute to effective marketing would require financially rewarding personnel, management commitment to sales training and self-development revision of personnel transfer policies and a redefinition of management in terms of helping people to achieve through work” (p.13). Berry along with Pasuraman (1991) later added another definition to the concept in their book Marketing services: Competing Through Quality by stating “Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating and retaining qualified employees through job-products that satisfy their needs. Internal marketing is the philosophy of treating employees as customers and it is the strategy of shaping job-products to fit human needs” (pg 26). These authors believed that there was a set of principles to treating employees fairly and motivating them. They also highlighted the belief that employee satisfaction was an important element of internal marketing. The definition by these authors stress the importance that employee satisfaction is needed in order to develop, motivate and retain the best and most qualified employees. From these two definitions given by Barry you can understand that the concept of internal marketing is a broad notion. The American Marketing Association have given a more simplistic and modern definition for the concept “marketing to employees of an organization to ensure that they are effectively carrying out desired programs and policies”. This definition doesn’t give readers a breadth understanding of the concept. Unlike Berry’s (1991) definition it doesn’t justify how internal marketing can be achieved in the workplace and it also doesn’t explain the ways in which employee’s are to be marketed to ensure the work carried out by them is effective and of a good standard. An important element of internal marketing as said earlier is motivation [motivating the work force]. Considered by many authors as the ‘grandfather’ of all definitions on internal marketing Grönroos (1994) created a definition which saw the efforts of motivating employees as very important. Grönroos had two previous definitions both created in 1981 which suggests that internal marketing is the selling of the firm to employees who are seen as the internal customers. Grönroos believed that “the higher employee satisfaction that will result will make it possible to develop a more customer-focused and market-oriented firm” (Cahill, 1996, p.4). Grönroos 1994 article looks into motivation and states that “the internal market of employees is best motivated for service mindedness and customer-oriented performance by an active, marketing-like approach, where a variety of activities are used internally in an active, marketing like and coordinated way” (Grönroos, 1994, p. 13). This definition, as well as Johnson and Seymour’s (1985) definition which explains internal marketing should “create an internal environment which supports customer consciousness and sales-mindedness”. Both definitions highlight the fact that internal marketing is about the service and sales mindedness of the customers. There are other recent definitions of the concept of internal marketing by Ballantyne (2000) which suggests that internal marketing “…is a strategy for developing relationships between staff across internal organisational boundaries. This is done so that staff autonomy and know-how may combine in opening up knowledge generating processes that challenge any internal activities that need to be changed. The purpose of this activity is to enhance quality of external marketing relationships” (pg: 43). This definition emphasises the importance of the relationship between the staff and the organisation and how internal marketing is a strategy that will allow this relationship to become stronger. It also highlights the fact that building on the relationship can enhance the service quality and also their relationship with their external markets. To evaluate how affective internal marketing is with employees companies usually give staff seasonal or yearly surveys which they will use to measure the affects of their internal marketing efforts. There are many answers to what can actually make a successful company. Some may say it’s the company’s ability to adapt to the market or even a company’s high level of customer retention and many believe successful companies are created from within the organisation. Communicating internally but affectively to your internal market (employees) many authors believe is an important attribute for company success, An article written in 2007 about the importance of internal marketing suggested that“Internal communications is traditionally viewed as the sole province of the Human Resources department,” and the article continued by stressing the importance that employees have over effective external marketing “When employees understand and commit to the value proposition of the company and its brands, external marketing becomes more effective, because the employees become product champions”. As the pace of the economy is fast changing and the recent recession has affected many company’s’ survival, internal marketing grows increasingly important. Due to the recession and the increasing pace of change in the workforce, there has been news of many company’s creating alliances with one another, merging with one another and also downsizing as a whole. During these hard times employee motivation is extremely important, especially if every employee is understandably beginning to have concerns about their own company’s survival or their current job position. Organisations must instil within these employees some sort of strength and satisfaction that would mean that the employees would continue working and at a good level. Generally, a strategy that many companies use and one which coincides with Ballantyne’s (2000) definition is that companies “empower staff to build stronger customer relationship”. Internal marketing supports this strategy (or theory some might say) and suggests that through staff empowerment employees will drive for better understanding, they will have a deeper commitment to the relationship they hold with the organisation and as a result there will be greater involvement from the staff. While today’s diverse work force becomes more complicated there are a few barriers which can possibly affect how internal marketing is kept within an organisation. In the book Internal marketing: directions for management, Varey R and Lewis B explain these barriers. The first and probably the most important barrier would be the employees and an organisations ‘resistance to change’. Kotler (1990) believed that problems can occur from an organisations ‘built-in’ “resistance of management to change” (Percy and Morgan 1990). Managers often do not consider new ideas brought about their company, and this is because a change in the work place can bring forth an overall fear of concern about their job and future positions. Other barriers to internal marketing are ‘inter and intra functional conflict’. Inter-functional conflicts often occur when a senior manager’s assumption of their organisational culture is ill-advised and as a consequence manager’s may become unaware of the issues and problems which affect prolific activities or “co-operation and integration” (pg: 78). Intra-functional conflicts are basically when one internal function fails to recognise another internal function. Intra-functional conflicts on the other hand are where the goals and objectives of the organisation and its departments are different to the individual and personal goals of employees. “It occurs because individuals have different goal, desires and ambitions, and will be submerged in different social spheres of interaction that will impact upon their overall attitude and behaviour”. (Pg: 79) If ever these barriers work in cohesion then it can spell big trouble for any organisation. Although the three chosen are seem as the major barriers affecting the use of internal marketing within an organisation there are also a few other problems which can affect successful implementation of the concept. 1, managerial incompetence 2, poor understand of the internal marketing concept 3, rigid organisational structure and 4, top members of staff treating employees like they are unimportant to the business. Anon (2007) Internal Marketing Kotler P, Bowen J and Makens J (2003) have stated 5 importance’s of internal marketing; Employees must have a customer service attitude Employees must understand your product Employees must be enthused about your product and your company There must be good communication between employees and management Employees must be able to identify and solve customer problems Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism 3e (2003) Generally employees of organisations, especially those who communicate directly with customers can have an influence on customer satisfaction. The authors suggest that these are 5 important features of internal marketing and in order for it to be affective organisations must aide in ensuring that employees behave in a desired manner expected of them from the organisation. Internal market in today’s industry is needed because as Berry L
What are the problems of underserved populations and subgroups, including characteristics of those groups and barriers to health delivery system?
What are the problems of underserved populations and subgroups, including characteristics of those groups and barriers to health delivery system?.
INSTRUCTIONS: Develop a policy paper based on the scenario presented below.The product should be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 12 pages (excluding cover page, appendices, charts, and references), double spaced, conforming to APA standards. NOTE: The facts in this scenario are hypothetical. While the delta region of Arkansas (the Mississippi Alluvial Plain) is a real place with geographic characteristics as described, the population, health system, and other particulars are hypothetical for purposes of this paper. FACTS: As a mid-career health policy analyst for the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP), you have been asked to prepare an analysis of the health issues in the Delta Region of Arkansas in preparation for a major hearing on rural health. The Delta Region (DR) contains the entirety of 15 counties and portions of another 10, with a population of 1,114,480. The Arkansas Delta economy is dominated by agriculture. The main crop is cotton; other crops include rice and soybean. Catfish farming is a recent source of revenue for Arkansas Delta farmers, along with poultry production. The Delta has some of the lowest population densities in the American South, in places fewer than 1 person per square mile. Slightly more than half the population is African American, reflecting a deep history in the area. Eastern Arkansas has the most cities in the state with majority African-American populations. Urbanization and the shift to mechanization of farm technology during the past 60 years has sharply reduced jobs in the Delta. People have followed jobs out of the region, leading to a declining tax base. This hampers efforts to support education, infrastructure development, community health, and other vital aspects of growth. The region’s remaining people suffer from unemployment, extreme poverty, and illiteracy. Arkansas is served by 73 community hospitals, but six of the Delta counties have no hospital. In the DR, 100% of the population would be considered rural by Federal standards, and only 23 % live in towns of 20,000 or more. 73% of residents come from families with at least one full-time worker. In the DR, the residents who do not live in towns tend to be more seasonally employed, in part-time work, or self-employed, with a low likelihood of employer provided insurance. Historically, of the uninsured who are poor, half (50%) of those are from families with full-time workers. One-fourth of the uninsured are between the ages of 45 and 64, and 26% report being in fair or poor health. In addition, recent surveys of the behavioral health system, clinics, and tribal health center report significant rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse / dependence among DR residents. There is concern that these problems are related to high rates of suicide and domestic violence. Finally, other reports from social service agencies report that there is a significant population in the DR that is effectively homeless, living seasonally (or sometimes year-round) in campers, tents, or out of automobiles, moving between campgrounds or camping areas in the state park grounds. This population includes families with children in some cases. The staff director of the HELP Committee has requested you prepare a briefing discussing the delivery of Health Care Services to the DR residents. The paper should accomplish the following: Discuss the problem of underserved populations and subgroups, including characteristics of those groups and barriers to delivery. Examine the structure of the delivery system and how this helps or hinders health delivery. Discuss the impact of ACA. Make clear recommendations as appropriate for meeting the health delivery challenges of the DR. Please prepare a well written, well organized, and professionally structured policy analysis paper as requested.
What are the problems of underserved populations and subgroups, including characteristics of those groups and barriers to health delivery system?
Child abuse/child protection and welfare: Client needs
essay helper free Child abuse/child protection and welfare: The client needs and the role of the social care practitioner in responding to those needs. Many countries in the developed world, including Ireland, have seen a significant shift in attitudes to what constitutes as child abuse. Society has become more knowledgeable about different types of child abuse and about the impact the abuse can have on the child throughout their lives. The child’s needs and the role of the social care practitioner will be the main focus of the essay. The essay will discuss the needs of a child who has suffered abuse and propose an intervention to address the importance of care for the child and education for the carer. The role of the Social care practitioner in relation to child abuse will also be a central part of this discussion. Types of child abuse include emotional abuse, neglect, physical abuse and sexual abuse. However, this essay will focus mainly on emotional and physical abuse. Suggestions on interventions will be put forth as the different types of child abuse are being discussed. Relevant policies and guidelines will be discussed in regards to how these policies have helped children by giving them rights whilst also giving them hope for a better future. Child abuse can be defined as ‘any act of commission or omission which deprives children of equal rights and liberties and/ or interferes with their optimal development’ Gil 1975 (cited in Daniel and Ivatts 1998, p.196). The above definition accords with the spirit of Article 19 of the United Nations Convention on the rights of the child which states that it is the duty of the state to safeguard children from all types of abuse and neglect, to give ‘support to those who have been abused and to investigate instances of abuse’(Children’s Rights Alliance 2013). However, it can be difficult to give a precise or exact definition of child abuse because there are many different types of child abuse. Some types, such as physical abuse can be much more noticeable but may not have the same impact on the child as emotional abuse. Bensley et al (2004) argues that if a parent calls their child stupid and belittles them on a regular basis, the child will start perceiving these comments to be true, and will carry them into their teens and adulthood. Children’s First, the national guidance that promotes the protection of children from abuse and neglect, describe emotional abuse as generally to be established in the ‘relationship between a parent or guardian and a child rather than in a specific event or pattern of events’. It arises when a child’s need for love, support, stability and security are not met (Children’s First 2011 p.8) Social care practitioners work closely with the child, their family and other professionals to ensure the child’s needs are being met. Social care practitioners should possess a wide range of personal and professional attributes. A health or social care profession is any profession in which a person exercises skill or judgment relating to the preservation or improvement of the health or wellbeing of others, the diagnosis, treatment or care of those who are injured, sick, disabled or infirm, the resolution, through guidance, counselling or otherwise, of personal, social or psychological problems. (Health and Social Care Act 2005, p.09) Professional attributes of a social care practitioner should include a comprehensive awareness of the social care field, to be able to work on their own initiative, and as part of a team, research skills and problem solving. On a personal level, social care practitioners should be open-minded, reliable, trustworthy, and empathetic and compassionate (Lalor and Share, 2013). Social care practitioners might find it more difficult to recognise and substantiate emotional neglect or abuse as there are no physical injuries or abrasions (Nauert 2014). Evaluation of what is occurring to a child ‘requires that each aspect of a child’s developmental progress is examined, in the context of the child’s age and stage of development’ (Department of Health 2000, p.18). By doing an assessment wheel or triangle with the child, the practitioner will get a good sense of the child, which involves more than just factual data (Buckley et al 2006 p. 40). The assessment process is designed by way of three concurrent activities and five steps. The three concurrent activities are Engaging, Safeguarding and collaborating and the five steps are Responding, Protecting, Devising, Gathering
CE-Discussion 1. I’m trying to study for my Engineering course and I need some help to understand this question.
Topic: Computerized Operating Systems (OS) are almost everywhere. We encounter them when we use out laptop or desktop computer. We use them when we use our phone or tablet. Find articles that describes the different types of operating systems (Linux, Unix, Android, ROS, z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, etc). Do not select MS WINDOWS. Write a scholarly review of comparing any two or more OS; attach a copy of the article to your postings. Remember, this assignment is to be scholarly; it is not enough for you to simply post your article and add cursory reviews. Cited references are required. In addition you must read the postings of the other students and comment significantly on those areas. Please see Discussion Forum of the class syllabus for additional details on content.
Also, write response to two classmates’s discussion posts (200 words each)
Alkylation of M Xylene & Methylpropane Lab Report
Alkylation of M Xylene & Methylpropane Lab Report.
Post Lab Report Format (typed, printed, page numbered, single spacing) (make sure to put Your Name and Your Partner’s Name together)Title (Alkylation of m-xylene)Purpose (why we did the exp.)Chemical Structure (make sure to put the reference) You can draw your own structure with free software (any chemical structure drawing software is ok. However, put the name of the software below the structures)Safety Information/Physical Data (physical properties of compounds)Procedure (Your own paragraph form (3rd person))Clean-Up (how to clean up the wastes)Observational Data PresentationAny gas formation? Color of alkylated m-xylene? Final mass of alkylated m-xylene? IR? Briefly explain IR of the product. (See the attached IR in this announcement)Discussion (in PARAGRAPH FORM)What is Friedel-Crafts alkylation? What is xylene?Why t-butyl chloride (2-chloro-2-methylpropane)?What does “m” stand for in m-xylene?Why FeCl3? What is Lewis acid catalyst?What are the purposes of the H2O, NaHCO3, and aqueous NaCl washes?Which layer is which? (Organic or aqueous?)Why sodium sulfate (Na2SO4)?Explain the IR of alkylated m-xylene.Is It different from the reactant IR (m-xylene) in the lab manual? How different?% yield? Any possible sources of error?References (ACS format for discussion)Side reaction: N/A% yield: show your calculation work.Mechanisms: N/AAnalysis of TLC/IR/NMR: show the IR again and explain the IR of alkylated m-xylene in detail.Post Lab Questions: N/A
Alkylation of M Xylene & Methylpropane Lab Report