analysis is a chance to open your eyes, ask yourself some very tough questions, then check to see whether your idea, as originally conceived, needs to be modified, refocused, or changed dramatically. (Or perhaps even scrapped altogether.)” (Abrams, as cited in Scarborough
analysis is a chance to open your eyes, ask yourself some very tough questions, then check to see whether your idea, as originally conceived, needs to be modified, refocused, or changed dramatically. (Or perhaps even scrapped altogether.)” (Abrams, as cited in Scarborough. Referring to the same business you started or purchased in the first assignment, write a 3–4 page paper in which you: Conduct a feasibility analysis in which you research: Industry and market feasibility. Product or service feasibility. Financial feasibility. Entrepreneurial readiness. Based on your assessment, does the business idea need to be modified, changed significantly, or abandoned? (Note: If you abandon the business idea, then you will need to select and analyze a new business that has profit potential.) Include at least two references that don’t include the textbook.analysis is a chance to open your eyes, ask yourself some very tough questions, then check to see whether your idea, as originally conceived, needs to be modified, refocused, or changed dramatically. (Or perhaps even scrapped altogether.)” (Abrams, as cited in Scarborough
Gramscianism Approach to Media Essay
assignment helper Introduction Media can be analysed using various approaches, including the Gramscianism approach. This method creates a link between the media and society by examining the factors that make the media what people know it. In discussing the Gramscianism approach, the keywords are race, media and culture. This paper looks at the Gramscianism approach to media. It also discusses the role of the media and how this role affects the society. Lastly, the paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. The paper aims to prove that the Gramscianism approach is the best approach to analysing the media and how it affects the society. The Gramscianism Approach to Media The Gramscianism approach to media states that there are racial representations in the media (Hardy 17). The statement can refer to two things. The first is that the media supports racism; therefore, it favours some races over others. The second meaning could be that the media promotes racism among the viewers. This section of the essay will look at both angles. A lot of controversies come up when discussing the relationship between the media and the society. Hardy (6) explains that the controversies arise because of both the positive and negative impacts of the media. This section of the essay will look at the relationship between the media and the society, based on the Gramscianism approach. As mentioned, the approach states that there are racial representations in the media. Gramsci explains the economic determinants that affect the influence that the media has (Alexander 13). For example, the advertisement of a young, rich white woman shopping in a store will encourage more people to buy things from that store than that of a young, rich black woman. This can be attributed to the aspect of the class. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The issue of race did not start the other day; white people have been perceived as the superior race not only by themselves, but also by other races. Thus, people feel that they will get the class of a wealthy, young white woman if they use the same stores she is using. However, many people will not have the same perception if it was a black woman. It can be argued that the media supports racism by encouraging one type of race to participate in matters concerning the media. For the longest time, people in the media were white. Black television presenters were rarely given the opportunity to present news in the major television stations. If they were given the chance to become show hosts, then the shows would either be about gossip or require very little interaction with the people. However, it is crucial to note that the black community became very prominent in the media due to the comical shows in the mid-1960s to late 1970s. Unfortunately, this confirmed the stereotypes that black people are only good for comical effect, but not serious things. Looking at stand-up comedies, many of the most successful comedians in the world are black people. However, this does not mean that white people do not do stand-up comedy. In the same vein, looking at film and movie production, one will note that many of the film producers and directors are Caucasian. Davis explains that award ceremonies have tried to include other races in movie and film production in the recent times (16). This has seen the avid participation of Arabic producers in the industry. The black community has focused more on series production, which are longer. However, a further analysis will prove that they do not participate in some genres in films, like science fiction and action movies. We will write a custom Essay on Gramscianism Approach to Media specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hesmondhalgh disagrees with the Gramscianism approach to media. He argues that currently, the media has done a lot to stop racism (31). For example, looking at a media platform like CNN, it includes all people regardless of their race. CNN has employed blacks, Caucasian, and Asians in an attempt to offer equal opportunities to everyone. Looking at this argument, one can say that even though CNN has hired different races, it is only the Caucasians who have been given the best times and the best shows in the station. Additionally, other influences have forced CNN to take up other races. Technology, globalization, and digital media have all allowed television to go global (Croteau and Hoynes 17). Thus, for business purposes, it would be good for CNN to use other races that will want to watch news content that is presented by a person from their race. Mosco explains that the issue of media and race does not only involve the different races in the world (19). Instead, media has also created a drift within the races. For example, the media has created a rift in countries where one race is predominant. Many countries in Africa have black communities. However, there are people that are of a lighter shade within the black communities. Such people are drawn into the media due to their appearance and colour. This proves two things; that people still believe a lighter shade of skin to be prettier and more attractive, and media is all about media. The second angle mentioned is that the media promotes racism among its viewers. Christians et al. (14) argue that the media also encourages people to be racist towards one another by supporting racism within the media. For example, there are countries where colour, body appearance, and hairstyle are deeply rooted in the perceptions aroused by the media. For example, Lebanon is one of the countries where the media significantly determines fashion and body appearance. Not sure if you can write a paper on Gramscianism Approach to Media by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In fact, many of the women in the country look up to the media to know which plastic surgery they need. It suffices to mention that the Gramscianism approach also states that popular culture shapes the content in the media, which dictates the role of the media. For example, if popular culture involves smoking cigarettes, then television stations will quickly take up advertisements that support cigarette smoking and buy programs that have characters that smoke. In this sense, the media has been affected by the society. Gramscianism Approach to New Media It is crucial to point out that the media has, indeed, changed. What was common in the media in the past is not common today. This can be attributed to the change in the society and the change of norms and expectations. For example, in the past, video vixens did not dress as skimpily as they do today. One can argue that the Gramscianism approach does not apply to new media because the media has been fighting racism for a long time. Whereas this might be true, it does not mean that the approach cannot be used when analysing the relationship between media and the society. Alexander (15) explains that the Gramscianism approach also states that the media affects society by creating a common culture. This can be both positive and negative. The negative aspect has already been discussed. The positive side involves the bringing together of people. Chomsky (14) argues that new media has brought people together more than any other form of media. For example, people can connect with other people from different parts of the world using a platform like Facebook. This brings a sense of togetherness. In the same breath, countries have come together through social media in times of crisis. For example, with the current war in Yemen, the country itself has started hashtags on Twitter and created fan pages on Facebook to allow its citizens to comment on what can be done to ease the situation. Similarly, new media has been used to keep current information flows faster in new media than on the traditional media. For example, on Twitter, breaking news can just be retweeted, quoted, and shared to reach as many people as possible. Similarly, news content on other platforms on the Internet can also be shared with people on social media. The cycle of transfer of information is faster than that of television, radio, and newspaper combined. It goes without saying that it also helps in times of danger. Baker reveals that community policing has also been made easier using these services (9). For example, lost persons are put up on social media to help with identification. Charities have also taken to social media and new media, in general, to promote their causes. The Role of the Media in Society The media has been tasked with several things that affect the society. Many people believe that the media should have positive, rather than negative impacts on the society. This section discusses the role of the media in the society as it is currently. Influence The media is meant to influence people, whether in a positive or negative way. Currently, the media has been criticized of influencing people by encouraging them to partake in violent, criminal and unwanted behaviour. Meehan and Riordan (43) argue that the media was initially used to shape the society. However, today, more of the negative stories sell than the positive ones. For example, looking at news content, a story on urbanization and investment will probably receive very little airplay than a story of a thief who managed to con 50 people. In addition, the story of urbanization and investment will receive less feedback from the viewers compared to the other stories. Dayan and Katz assert that the media influences all parts of life. People depend on the media to make some of the crucial decisions they need to make (14). For instance, when a hospital is highlighted on the television to have horrible services, people will stop visiting the hospital. Similarly, there are many people who believe that the media is always right. Therefore, any scandal about a company might push investors away. If a person wants to check out the best schools for their children, then they will use new media. New media includes the Internet and social media. Such platforms make it easier for people to make decisions, thereby influencing the people in all manner of ways. For example, if a person wants to buy a pair of shoes, they will just have to visit a web page; search for the shoes they want, and compare the best stores where to buy the shoes. In addition, the person will order the shoes online and have them delivered to their doorstep. In the same breath, advertising also influences people. The high competition that has engulfed all industries has made advertising one of the most competitive businesses in the world. People believe that the best adverts sell their products; thus, they invest millions in advertising. Croteau and Hoynes explain that the influence of advertising is so intense that there are countries that have banned advertising to children because it changes their behaviours (13). It suffices to mention that media has been accused of influencing people in the wrong way. For example, Curran and Park explain that there have been numerous cases of people copying crime that was highlighted either in traditional or new media (18). As mentioned, parents have also complained that the children misbehave due to direct advertising and watching some television shows. Moreover, the advertising of cigarettes has led to the rise in cigarette smoking in the USA, especially among the young adults. Curran and Park argue that the influence of the media greatly depends on the extent of the media (18). For instance, book, newspapers and magazines were very influential in the earlier days. Anybody that would write a column in the papers or publish a book would, in turn, be influential in the society. Today, books are not as influential as social media and television. In fact, more people will believe something they see on television and social media than they would if they read it in a book. Given that social media is international and television stations have also gone digital making them global, their extent is much wider than that of the old media. However, this does not mean that traditional media has lost its place in the society. Gender Gender has also been linked to media in several ways. The first way is the representation of the two sexes in the media. Meehan and Riordan explain that the media has sexualized women (14). For example, women television hosts are often dressed in a very attractive manner to hook the audience. Their male counterparts are often dressed sharply, yet decently. Looking at individual television shows, one will note that women are portrayed in a sexual manner compared to men. The female characters in shows are either too sexy or too masculine. In fact, as Winseck and Jin observe, shows that have a tough female character that gets ‘conquered’ by a male character are very popular (8). Alexander argues that it is only until recently that women were given ‘important’ positions in the media industry (17). Before then, they would be used for small presentations and general news presentation. Nowadays, there are many women in the media who work as camerapersons, production managers, and other executives. Women have also been given priority in holding discussions, such as presidential and political debates all over the world. Despite this, there are some regions and countries that still have a very little representation of women in the media. Such countries attribute this to their culture or religion. As Calabrese and Sparks observe, the most affected countries in terms of lower representation of women in the media are Islamic in nature (45). For example, Saudi Arabia has very few women in the media. It suffices to mention that, Lebanon, a country in the Middle East has used the media to objectify women. Dayan and Katz explain that the Lebanon media exposes women to plastic surgery in an attempt to make them look perfect (19). In fact, a recent study showed that over 60% of women between the ages of 21 and 35 have had one form of plastic surgery or another. The women do not believe they are beautiful enough; thus, they do whatever it takes to get that perfect image. On the same note, one current role of the media is to define beauty, which is mainly the case with women compared to men. Another aspect that can be used to show how women are objectified is music. Nowadays, video vixens have shaped the perception of fashion, dance, and music. They are always naked and promote a specific aspect of their body. In addition, the video vixens also influence young people by making them take up the fashion sense and behaviours of the vixens. Pornography has also been used to objectify women. Sex in pornographic films is all about the man. In fact, the sex ends when the man ejaculates. Bondage is also one of the standard porn categories today. It is interesting to note that bondage involves hanging women and tying them up before the sexual interaction. In addition, the women are beaten and tortured. The porn stars act like the whole ordeal is enjoyable in order to make it sell. However, as Winseck and Jin argue, the porn actors get scars and bruises in the process (10). To conclude this section, the media has been used to define gender in the current society. The gap between how women and men were perceived in the past and how they are today is very broad. Whereas women were oppressed in the past, they were also seen as sexual objects. The media has made this the number one role of women in the society. Technology Media is responsible for keeping current with technology, more so with new media, like the Internet. In fact, Chomsky (19) observes that the media grows when technology grows. Technology has touched on various things in life. Not only do people use technology while using the Internet, but they also use technology when opening doors, using a lift, writing a text message, communicating, and ordering food and so forth. In all aspects of life that one can think of, technology has made an impact. Media is just like technology in that it affects all aspects of life, as mentioned. In the same tone, whenever something is revealed in technology, it is highlighted in the media. Traditional media has been known to promote such inventions. For example, if a person found a way of building an environmental friendly car, then it would be shown on the news. In addition, shows have been created to support and appreciate the advancement of technology. For example, the very popular car show ‘Top Gear’ discusses the latest and most loved car trends in the world. The host and the guest have to ride the car not only so that they can comment on its power, but to also make the crowd see for how fast and powerful the car is. All these are efforts of the media promoting technology. It suffices to mention that media itself is revolutionary due to the amount of technology used. The technology does not just start and end with the product that showed on the television. Instead, a lot is done during the pre-production phase of the shows. The development of the media has ensured the advancement of equipment used in the media, for example, cameras and lights are appreciated. Curran and Park argue that there are other things that the media has helped advance in terms of technology (18). For example, when the media highlights the deplorable state of a hospital or a school, the involved parties help improve the condition of the institution by investing in technological equipment for the institution. It would seem unfair to discuss the media and technology and not consider new media. New media is as a result of technology. People get to see news content, movies and music from all over the world due to new media. In addition, the viewers also get to interact on a one-on-one level due to the ease of access that new media has encouraged. Curran, Media and Democracy, explains that the media and technology strengthen each other (17). Democratic Role of the Media Media and democracy have a complicated relationship. Baker (17) explains that the media is tasked with being the watchdog of the government. In fact, a free media denotes democracy. It is very difficult to claim the existence of a democratic state in the world due to the enormous impact that politics has on media. Many a time politics and politicians try, and succeed, to control the media. When the freedom of the media is jeopardized, the country in question is not a democracy. Alexander (15) reveals that the media is supposed to act as a public advocate of the government. This means that the media should highlight the things that the government does that are not right by the society’s expectations and standards. The main problem with the definition of this role is the influence the media has on the decision that is to be taken. Is the media supposed to comment on what the government does, or is it supposed to highlight their actions and leave it at that? In addition, is the media responsible for influencing the government to change their actions and techniques or is that task given to the public that is watching? The first question raises the question on the power invested in the media by a democratic state. In numerous cases, the media is not involved in judgment. This means that the media, as a watchdog, only highlights the activities of the government. Judgment is left to the people. However, it is interesting to note that the people in the media are also political animals, as Plato once described human beings. Thus, they are bound to have political affiliations. Media is designed in such a way that those involved, especially those who can interact with the public, are not allowed to show their political affiliations. In the same breath, the media can act as a platform for judgment. Thus, people can pass judgment on what they think of their government through the media. Many a time television stations, radios, and even newspapers ask for opinions and feedback regarding the stories they just presented, which is equivalent to allowing people to pass judgment on the stories. The second question posed can be answered by a simple ‘no’. Chomsky explains that the media is not supposed to influence the decision of the government (24). In fact, despite the current role of the media, it is also not supposed to influence the people. The people should in turn ensure that the government works as expected, and if not, they are the ones that have to push the government for the change their want. Radical and liberal media In discussing democracy and the media, it is crucial to address liberal and radical media. Alexander asserts that liberal media is free media (9). It serves all without bias. As mentioned, it is very difficult to determine how open a media platform is due to the external forces that always try to control it. Radical media, on the other hand, is controlled and the most common media in the world today. There are several factors that can control the media in a ‘democratic’ state. The first, and most common is politics. Chakravartty and Zhao explain that politicians have been known to pay off journalists so that they hide negative stories about them (21). In addition, the scholar explains that politics has been used to inflict policies that are oppressive to the media in order to control them. There are countries that are also not democracies. Such countries make it very difficult for other media to report on stories in their countries. Iran and Iraq are not democracies and for the longest time they made it very difficult for journalists to report stories about their culture. Countries that use the sharia law are difficult to work in. Curran, Media and Power, explains that media democracy touches on five things (15). The five concepts include a liberal media as opposed to a radical one. The second aspect is the ideology that the media is a public advocate and not just an entertainment tool. Thirdly, the concept of citizen journalism where the citizens report, give their opinions and even judge the news they have seen has to be encouraged in a media democracy. Lastly, the media has to ensure that they promote democratic ideas, for instance, support freedom of speech and such. Media and Morality Going back to the Gramscianism approach to media one can note that it indeed applies. Media has shaped morality in the society. To many, it has made morality worse than ever. Traditional media and new media have both encouraged immorality in various ways. For traditional media, sexuality and immorality have been promoted through movies and music. As mention, in music video vixens have to be sexy in order for the video to sell. Particular emphasis is given to body parts to promote sex. In movies, sex scenes and nudity have been used to make a profit. When young people watch this, they not only get excited, but they also develop an individual perspective to the notion of sex, their bodies, and the bodies of others. It is common to find nowadays that many young people do not respect their bodies, or the bodies of others due to the ease of show of nudity in the media. It is crucial to point out that young people are even more prone to having sex than they were before. Tomlinson explains that many teenagers start having sex at the age of thirteen (7). This is unlike before when sex was perceived to be sacred and for adults only. In the same vein, traditional media has also encouraged sex through films. Movies such as Spartacus and the series Game of Thrones have very explicit sex scenes. It is true that the mentioned films are masterpieces in their genre. However, they are not for viewing by teenagers. Despite this, they are shown on national television, can be downloaded from the Internet by anyone and can also be watched by anyone. New media has shaped morality through pornography and the perception of beauty. It is very easy for young people to access pornographic materials from the Internet. Indeed, there are some sites that require the user to confirm that they are above the age of eighteen. However, all it takes to prove this is the click of a button. A hormone-charged teenager would not hesitate to click on the button especially since there are no other restrictions. The ease of sharing the information has also enhanced immorality. Winseck and Jin also add that morality should not just be used to refer to sexuality (8). However, even using this argument, it is still correct to argue that the media has adverse impacts on morality. For example, cyber bullying has been identified as a crime in many countries. In fact, there have been cases where individuals have committed suicide due to cyber bullying. New media encourages these types of crime. Tomlinson argues that even though media affects morality, there are more factors to consider on the topic (9). For instance, the upbringing of the child involved. The scholar admits that indeed the Internet has very little restrictions, which makes finding adult content accessible. However, it is up to the child to decide the wrong and right thing, thus, their upbringing has a lot of weight in the decision made. This argument has been met with a lot of criticism. Winseck and Jin argue that whereas upbringing has a lot of impact on the morality of a person, biological stages make children act out (19). Thus, for a thirteen-year-old boy, regardless of whether he was brought upright or not, looking at a naked girl will excite him. Therefore, imagine a boy who has just seen a semi-nude video vixen, even by mistake on the television. The boy will be excited and will want to see more. In turn, he will either turn to the Internet where he knows he can find things quickly, or he will ask his peers. Indeed, the issue of racism cannot be pushed to the side even if times have changed. Objectifying women can also be seen as immoral. As mentioned, television shows and even advertisements have been used to objectify women. Women sell because sex sells. The women are portrayed as sex objects, and this attracts people to watch the show, or buy the product. It is important to clarify that there are some advertisements and shows that do not use this tactic and are still very successful. This goes to show that the objectification of women in the media is unnecessary. Media and Justice Alexander explains that the media has been used for justice (23). There have been cases all over the world where people have gone to the media to push for justice. For example, the case of the South African Paralympic who had allegedly shot dead his girlfriend took advantage of the international coverage. The court case was made public, and the accused used this to his advantage. At the beginning of the case, the public was of the opinion that the man was guilty. However, as the case progressed, more people started sympathizing with the former athlete. He was able to connect with the public by explaining how sorry he felt for accidentally shooting the love of his life. In addition, he was able to show raw emotions, by sobbing at the memory of her or even crying loudly when he was shown the pictures of the lady. All this affected and had an influence on the perception of the public towards the whole case. By the end of the case, a majority of the public believed his to be innocent. The court also found him innocent. Currently, the parents of the lady have appealed the court’s decision and the case is still ongoing. It is also very common to find activists using media to get justice for a cause or an individual. For example, the case of a girl who was raped in India by a gang caught the attention of the world due to new media. Activists used the media to tell the world of the girl. The event led to the support of other countries and individual from different parts of the world in the seeking of justice for the young lady. Gay rights and activism have also benefitted from the media. Recently, gay people in the USA held a protest in an attempt to push the government to allow same-sex marriages in the whole country. The ordeal, which was initially meant for just the citizens of the United States of America, became a global ordeal. Both homosexuals and heterosexuals joined hands and made the event a global show. They created pages on social media platforms to support their cause. Traditional media that is the television, radio and newspapers also gave the event full coverage. The media, thus, served as a platform for justice. Strengths and Weakness of the Gramscianism Approach Thornham argues that one of the disadvantages of the Gramscianism approach to media is that it criticizes the media only (19). In fact, he adds that the central theme of the approach is the disconnection between the role of the media and the intention of the media. Alexander uses the Gramscianism approach to argue that the role of the media and the intention of the media conflict in various ways (11). Many media platforms, including those presented by new media are a form of business; therefore, they have to make profits. Looking at the example of sex, it will always sell. Thus, the media is prone to using sex to make profits. Thus, you find that the competition for the sexiest advertisements is higher since the media owners know that many people will tune in to watch them. This shows how media influences people, just as the Gramscianism approach claims. One of the strengths of Gramscianism approach to media is that it allows the analyst to evaluate the role of the media from both the positive and the negative sides. For example, whereas one can say the media changes people by influencing popular culture, one can argue both positively and negatively. In arguing positively, it would be correct to say that the media brings people together, thus, forging a popular culture of unity. On the other hand, in arguing negatively, one can say that the media promotes immorality, thereby promoting an immoral culture in the society. Another advantage of using this approach in analysing the role of the media is the ability of the analyser to compare all types of media. In fact, this paper can be used as an example. The paper has discussed several roles of the media and how they are related to the approach showing very clearly how the approach encompasses all the aspects of media one can think of. Similarly, there are several other things that pop up during the analysis. For example, the fact that there are existing differences between new and traditional media is well considered in the approach. Dayan and Katz explain that the Gramscianism approach is very different from all other approaches to media because it involves other aspects of life (17). For example, the discussion presented has shown how sexuality morality, advertising, marketing, learning, obedience, biological development, and even curiosity all fit in the approach. Indeed, there is no other approach to media that can combine with many other aspects of life in one analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, the Gramscianism approach has more strength compared to weaknesses. The approach argues that race is a predominant factor in the media and that the media encourages and instils popular culture. One of the biggest benefits of the approaches is the ease of application to different types of media. There are two major categories of media, traditional media, and new media. Traditional media includes newspapers, television, books and radios while new media is very specific to the Internet. While the two types of media differ in various aspects, the Gramscianism approach can be used to analyse both of them. In the same breath, the approach encompasses several other aspects of life and clearly shows how they are intertwined with the media. It suffices to mention that the Gramscianism approach also questions the role of the media. There are three primary functions of the media. It is true that the roles of the media have changed with time. In the earlier centuries, the media was used as a public advocate. It acted as the watchdog of government and kept people breast of all government activities. However, for the media to have done this job well, the state had to be democratic. It might be difficult to prove whether a state is democratic or not, but one thing is clear. There are no liberal media in any country in the world today. All media platforms are either oppressed by state governments or are radical and not desire to be liberal. In the same vein, the media has changed the perception of the world. The attitude encouraged by the media typically benefits the elite in the society, according to the Gramscianism approach. Works Cited Alexander, Jeffrey. The Civil Sphere. London: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print. Baker, C. Edwin. “Media, Markets and Democracy” CUP. London: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print. Calabrese, Andrew, and Colin Sparks (Eds). Toward a Political Economy of Culture. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. Print. Chakravartty, Paula, and Yuezhi Zhao (Eds). Global Communications: Towards a Transcultural Political Economy. Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008. Print. Chomsky, Noam. Media Control. Canada: Seven Stories Press, 2011. Print. Christians, Clifford, Theodore Glasser, Denis McQuail, Kaarle Nordenstreng, and Robert White. Normative Theories of the Media. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 2009. Print. Croteau, David, and Williams Hoynes. The Business of Media: Corporate Media and the Public Interest. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2006. Print Curran, James, and Myubg-Jin Park (Eds). De-Westernising Media Studies. New York: Routledge, 2000. Print. Curran, James. Media and Democracy. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print. Curran, James. Media and Power. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print. Davis, Aeron. Political Communication and Social Theory. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print. Dayan, Daniel, and Elihu Katz. Media Events. London: Harvard University Press, 1992. Print. Hardy, Jonathan. “The Contribution of Critical Political Economy” In Curran James (Ed.) Media and Society, London: Bloomsbury, 2005. Print Hardy, Jonathan. Critical Political Economy of the Media. New York: Routledge, 2014. Print. Hesmondhalgh, David. The Cultural Industries. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2007. Print Meehan, Eileen, and Ellen Riordan (Eds). Sex and Money: Feminism and Political Economy in the Media. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. Print. Mosco, Vincent. The Political Economy of Communications, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2009. Print. Thornham, Sue. “Media and Feminism” in Curran James (Ed.) Media and Society, 5th edition, London: Bloomsbury, 2005. Print. Tomlinson, John. Globalisation and Culture. Cambridge: Polity, 1999. Print. Winseck, Dwayne, and Dal Yong Jin (Eds). The Political Economies of the Media. London: Bloomsbury, 2011. Print.
How to be an Antiracist Article Analysis
How to be an Antiracist Article Analysis.
Your reading portfolio will be a record of your engagement with readings over the course of the term and will serve 2 objectives in the class. First and foremost, it encourages you to engage with the readings as many scholars do: deeply and thoroughly. Second, I will be using the portfolio’s as a way of guiding discussion based on what you find important in the readings. Third, it is a lower-stakes alternative to reading quizzes, which are often used as a mechanism to ensure students do the reading.Each portfolio entry should use the provided template in the files section of canvas and address each of the following:List 2 questions of points you would like clarified, issues you would like raised, or ideas you would otherwise like to talk about during discussion sections. Reading Reactions. Identify, list, and briefly explain (2-3 sentences each):The extent to which the reading’s arguments were familiar or a surprise.What you find plausible in the arguments.What you find challenging to accept.
How to be an Antiracist Article Analysis
Project Plan Overview and Preliminary Project Plan
Project Plan Overview and Preliminary Project Plan.
Part 1: Preliminary Project Charter WorksheetAll teams will be using the project of “Building a House” to complete a project plan. Why you are building it/how is up to the team. Please note that the project plan concepts, etc must be detailed or you will have issues submitting future assignments related to the project. Here is what I mean in just a few examples. In the past some groups have just said that they intend to buy all materials at Home Depot and that is the extent of their procurement plan….or they intend to have all volunteer labor and therefore they do not need to develop anything for budgets, etc. Or all team members are experienced so there are no risks so that is why none are listed and explained (yes I am serious I have seen these and the teams score rather poorly) Do not do this. You must have details and carry out the plan to adequately address all concepts for the course. I am not asking you to be an expert home builder but you have to have enough detail to APPLY the scenario to the concepts we are looking at in the course…at times you will have to use your imagination and come up with your answers…..for example. When looking at risks I have had teams in the past go to online text/books/websites and search and search for home building risks when this is completely unnecessary…..you are wise enough to think of your own risks that can come with building a home….I am sure you can even think of some now (i.e. the workers do not show up on time (by the way can’t use that one since I just gave it to you)……in other words do not feel that you have to research everything.Complete the project worksheet in 350 words.Part 2: Preliminary Project PlanWrite a 700- to 1,050-word paper composed of the following sections:· Project Selection Criterion: Describe the project and the criteria used in the selection process.· Overview: The objective of this section is to provide an overview of the scope and nature of the project to help enable the team to select one project to work on for the rest of the course. · Preliminary project schedule: The objective of this section is to show a preliminary project schedule with the project tasks/subtasks including the primary deliverables and the activities associated with them. Do not just only insert your schedule/gantt chart…need to have some words/discussion associated with it.· Preliminary budgetary plan: The objective of the budget section is to capture cost estimates, which include resources, capital expenses, materials, and miscellaneous. The cost analysis must consider the following elements (at a minimum): labor, subcontractors, rental or purchase of equipment or facilities, travel, telecommunications, supplies and materials, and documentation. Do not just only insert a budget table…need to have some words/discussion associated with it.· Use Microsoft® Word for your overview.· Utilize Microsoft® Project for your Project Plan/schedule. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. The paper can use tables to communicate various sections. The tables can be within the main body of the paper even though APA guidelines normally require them in the appendix.Submit both your Preliminary Project Charter Worksheet and Preliminary Project Plan.
Project Plan Overview and Preliminary Project Plan