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Comparison Of Maslows And Skinners Theories Education Essay

The motivation drives the behaviors of human to attain some level in the society. The following discussion will make our understanding relating the humanistic and behaviorist vies of motivation and learning. The foremost paragraph will give small introduction to the two theories and later on will move to the comparison relating different elements. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was presented by Abraham Maslow in 1943 as “A Theory of Human Motivation”. The humanism aspect was considered by this psychologist with respect to motivation. The five stages predicted by him relating fulfillment of need are physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs. These needs describe the process through which human motivation drive. Maslow focus and research was only conducted relating exemplary people rather than the unfit people. The theory was accepted as a contribution to psychology in 1954 (Cherry, 2012). B. F. Skinner was a behaviorist psychologist. B. F. Skinner’s theory of behaviorism is based on operant conditioning. The organism is taken as in operating process in the environment. During this “operating,” that organism faces the pressures from stimulus to mold his actions, called a reinforcing stimulus. This stimulus influences the operating process. This is termed as operant conditioning. In this process the behavior is followed by an effect, and this process modify the future behaviors of that organism. Responses to stimuli can be reinforced with positive or negative feedback to condition desired behaviors. Punishment is sometimes used in eliminating or reducing incorrect actions, followed by clarifying desired actions. Educational effects of behaviorism are significant in developing basic skills and foundations of understanding in all subject areas and in classroom management (Tayo, 2001). Comparison of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs with Skinner’s Behaviorist Theory: The chart table that present the comparison of the Maslow theory and Skinner theory is described below: Issue Maslow Skinner Define Motivation Motivation arises from the desire to satisfy the basic needs, defined by Maslow as a hierarchy, moving from physiological to self-actualization Motivation stems from the way behavior is rewarded- good behavior rewarded, bad behavior punished and warned Motivation Changes from Secondary to Elementary Students Moves from basic to more advanced, from emotional needs to more intellectual needs, the ability to capture concepts that are more detailed, less static, and to analyze problems that have open-ended answers Work from simple to complex steps; performance/feedback motivation and actualization changes; amount of reward changes; kind and quality of reward changes Similarities/Differences Set of needs must be met, and to move to next level reward occurs; melding of layers of needs; primary human focus is establishing inner needs Behavior affected by consequences; theory of operant conditioning always manipulation of reward/punishment; humans desire belonging, feedback important Miscellaneous Set of complex inner needs to be filled Set of complex rewards to be filled Implications in education Some implications in education system based on Maslow hierarchical needs are outlined below: Psychological: discount at food items in school, breaks and healthy environment Safety: planning of lectures, behavior control, well maintained discipline Social: emphatic teacher attitude, provide support and don’t be harsh, class parties and meetings Esteem: focus on each student’s strength and weakness, respect students and guide them properly, involve all students in class participation Self-Actualization: create positive expectations, allow freedom to explore the talent, allow creative activities to reward students Skinner’s theories have been very impressive when applied to education system (Cortland Education, 2012). Some implications are outlined below: Teachers and parents should give rewards to students for good behavior The immediate praise, feedback, and/or reward when seeking to change troublesome or encourage correct behavior in the classroom Teachers seeking to implement a reinforcement system in their classroom should use strategies such as a “token economy” to reward students immediately for behaviors that they are reinforcing. Teachers should promote using and manipulating environmental effects on student behavior. Teacher should identify “triggers” of student behavior to enhance The above mentioned ideas are also enhancing the learning environment in schools but the combination of both theories can also be applied to enhance the education system. By applying Maslow’s hierarchy, regardless of the level of classroom, it is important to help each individual student reach their potential by using self-actualization within any given subject. Using Skinner’s view of motivation, each task, depending on its complexity, degree of importance, etc. should have a desirable award. However, one of the most important aspects in the modern classroom is the manner in which an instructor maintains order and influences positive behavior in the classroom. Using Skinner’s Operant Conditioning model, different technologies can be used in teaching that include well-defined objectives (Andrius, 2012). Rather than broadly teaching a concept, take small units with high levels of student involvement; use technology if at all possible to enhance the learning experience, and combine Maslow by forming these lessons with a highly-motivation and fun objective. Moreover, both Maslow and Skinner is the idea of utilizing behavioral research towards specific reinforcement techniques that allow a so-called “open” classroom. In this form of learning, students are able to move forward at their own speed, based on their own systems of reward and actualization, within the paradigm of the lessons necessary. This will allow, in some subjects, the instructor to work with slower students, while brighter students are able to leap forward and not be bored. Since the actualization and motivations are so different for each student, this approach allows a sense of accomplishment for all ranges of performance (Brennen, 2000). Conclusion: Of course, there are critiques of both theories, but the literature does show that, in the last three decades, both theories have had actual positive applications within the classroom, and in particular, bringing forth the paradigm of individual differences and needs, and the satisfying of those needs, to make a positive, influence, and creative learning environment

Communication Skills for Career Advancement

Assignment Content Search online and select a health care job posting you are interested in.   Imagine you have applied for this position and as part of the interview process, you have been given a questionnaire to complete. The prompts include: What communication skills do you believe are most important for success in this role?Why are these skills so important for career success and progression?What are your strongest and weakest communication skills, and what is your plan for developing your communication skills in alignment with this career path?  Write a 750- to 1,050-word response to the hiring manager with your answers. Include a link to the job posting, or a summary of it, with your response.

4.7 Assignment: Project – Applied Statistics

java assignment help 4.7 Assignment: Project – Applied Statistics. I need support with this Excel question so I can learn better.

Getting Started
The purpose of the Project assignment in each STAT-535 workshop is to provide you with an opportunity to demonstrate your ability to apply the statistical tools you have learned in this course.


Compute probabilities related to the sample mean and the sample proportion.
Apply the Central Limit Theorem.

Background Information
In each workshop, you will be asked to demonstrate some of the knowledge you have gained by applying a few of the statistical tools that you have learned.


Assume that the 129 patients in the Patients dataset (Excel) represent the entire population of interest. If you were interested in age of the patients and took a sample of 25 patients from this population, what is the standard error of the mean? What if you took a sample 64 patients from this population, what is the standard error of the mean? What happens to the standard error of the mean as the sample size increases? Why does that make logical sense? (15 points)
If you select a sample of 64 patients, what is the probability that the sample mean is below 75? (15 points)
When you have completed your assignment, save a copy for yourself and submit a copy to your instructor using the Assignment submission page by the end of the workshop. Showing your work is required, not just providing answers without showing how you arrived at them.

4.7 Assignment: Project – Applied Statistics

Starbucks Company as a Globalized Corporation Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Review of the company Conclusion References Introduction Today, coffee is a big and attractive business area. Most people can hardly imagine their lives without it either in the morning or during the day. If they choose to have a cup of coffee out of home, in most cases, they will grab one at Starbucks. Founded in 1971 in Seattle, this American company has turned into a real global giant represented in more than 60 countries worldwide and employing more than 20,000 people. The number of licensed stores and those operated by the corporation exceeds 21,000 (Starbucks Corporation, 2015). The company’s current position in the global economy and worldwide recognition of the brand itself is fascinating. However, one cannot deny the fact that reaching such spectacular results would be impossible without thorough planning and strategy based on the decision to go global and win customers in many countries across the globe. Review of the company Nowadays, Starbucks is one of the central players in economic globalization. It stands in one row with Apple, Ikea, Google, and McDonald’s (Smallman

how does Nietzsche criticize the ideas of older philosophers on causality? Discuss this in relation to one other philosopher we studied in class.

Why and how does Nietzsche criticize the ideas of older philosophers on causality? Discuss this in relation to one other philosopher we studied in class. *MLA FORMAT *Include Quotes *(Quote directly from Twilight of the Idols / PDF Book Attached) *Quote the other philosophers ( 2 POWERPOINTS ATTACHED)