Although women have made great contributions in science, only a few were credited for their work. Many of these women faced a wide variety of challenges that inhibited their contributions to the science community. Others were unable to attain positions they were interested in, as women were often strongly criticized in the academic fields. Although criticism lessened in the 20th century, both the 17th and 18th centuries proved to be extremely difficult for women in science.
For most women during this time, the only education they received was from private tutors if they were able to afford it. While this is a good way to begin an education, women were constantly discouraged from attending private universities. Both Maria Winkelmann and Laura Bassi were some of the first women in science to be acknowledged for their accomplishments in science and set foundations for future women to peruse an education in science. Although women constituted roughly 14% of Germany’s astronomers, only a few such as Maria Winkelmann directed and published their own work.
Because most women were not regarded as legitimate scientists during the early 16th century, the apprentice system was one of the only ways for women to train in sciences such as astronomy. Maria was born in 1670 at Panitzch and was the daughter of a Lutheran minister. She was well off and was educated privately by her father and after his death, her uncle. Maria Winkelmann was very proficient in the arts and sciences from an early age, and she was especially interested in astronomy. She received even more special training in astronomy from Christoph Arnold who lived in the neighboring town.
Maria Winkelmann achieved her nobility after marrying Gottfried Kirch, a prominent German astronomer, and used its benefits towards her advantage. In 1710, Maria Winkelmann petitioned the Academy of Sciences for a position as calendar maker. During an observation in 1702, she discovered an unknown comet. This alone should have secured her a position in the astronomical community, but her status as a woman did not change. In the 1930s, F. H. Weiss published her original report of this comet after sighting it again. The report of a new comet was sent immediately to the king, and it was sent in Kirch’s name, not Maria Winkelmann’s.
Although she should have received full credit for the discovery, she did not have a full understanding of Latin, the current language of the scientific community in Germany. Her previous publications was in her mother language, German. Maria Winkelmann worked hard to gain acknowledgment, and frequently wrote letters to the director of the academy, Leibniz, who later presented her to the Prussian court where she explained her sighting of sunspots. Through her meeting with the Prussian court, she gained a lot of followers who praised her for her contribution to the astronomical community.
Through this she released two pamphlets in 1709 and 17011 which increased her fame. Maria Winkelmann’s husband died in 1710, leaving an open spot to appoint a new astronomer. Despite her immense qualifications, Maria Winkelmann did not appear once in the deliberations. This was mainly due to the fact that all of the other candidates had degrees, which she was lacking. She argued for a position as assistant calendar maker, which sparked a conversation with the director of the academy about the precedent it may be setting in hiring women.
This caused her rejection, as the academy did not want to have a reputation for hiring women. After continually appealing, she received a final rejection without any specific reason. She was cautioned to retire into the background, and let the other astronomers talk to guests asking about the observatory. Laura Bassi’s case was a little different from Maria Winkelmann’s. Bassi was the only woman in the eighteenth century whose circumstances allowed her an opportunity to engage in the scientific activities of her male counterparts. Laura Bassi lived from 1711 until 1778.
She was fortunate enough to receive an education privately, being the daughter of a lawyer, from Gaetano Tacconi. Tacconi was a professor at the University of Bologna and a member of the Institute academy. She excelled in her academics, and was fluent in Latin, Cartesian, and Newtonian philosophy and earned a title as a, “monster in philosophy. ” The Tacconi family eventually allowed a select group of professors to hear Bassi dispute privately among various scientific studies. News of her disputes spread and she eventually engaged in a public dispute with five university professors.
After receiving her degree at the University of Bologna, she was offered a permanent role in the academic city, and her duties were those as a lecturer restrictively. Unlike Winkelmann, she received a university degree and was the second woman ever to do so. She was also the first woman ever to be offered an official teaching position at any university in Europe. She attended the University of Bologna and after graduation, introduced newer teaching techniques in the university’s curriculum. She became the first woman in Italy to teach Newtonian natural philosophy.
In 1749 she presented a dissertation on the problem of gravity and in 1763 she presented another on infrangibility at the institute. In 1757 she published a paper on hydraulics that worked out certain theorems that were posed by Newton. Along with her husband, Giuseppe Veratti, she made the University of Bologna a center for experimental research in electricity. Maria Winelmann faced many challenges in her persuit of scientific achievments. Although she had many, she was unable to receive credit for her astounding discoveries strictly because she was not a male.
Although she did not always receive recognition, her activities in the field of science served as a benchmark for future women scientist such as Laura Bassi. Bassi, having lived slightly after Maria Winklemann, encountered less problems publishing her own work and receiving recognition. Her special circumstances allowed her to participate in public debates and had special leverage in the University of Bologna. Because she was one of the first women ever to receive a university degree, Bassi served as a benchmark to install women in Italy’s university system as well as install new teaching techniques in the University of Bologna’s curriculum.
choose one composer and work. The presentation must contain the following; – brief biography of the composer – relationship with other composers – composer’s famous works (other than the research project) – background information about the work – sty
choose one composer and work. The presentation must contain the following; – brief biography of the composer – relationship with other composers – composer’s famous works (other than the research project) – background information about the work – sty.
choose one composer and work.
The presentation must contain the following;
– brief biography of the composer
– relationship with other composers
– composer’s famous works (other than the research project)
– background information about the work
– style, genre, force(instruments used), public, society etc…
– significance, influence, contribution of the work
-URL of video on Youtube
-citation is very important. Please site all quotations. (Chicago manual style preferred)
Please go to the HCC library online.. click on databases and go to “Oxford Music Online.” You must have a
reference from the “Oxford Music Online.”( if it is not relevant, you can cite peer-viewed articles on-line.)
-800 words or more.
J. Haydn “London Symphony”
S. Bach “Well-tempered Clavier”
A. Mozart “Cosi fan tutte”
v. Beethoven “Eroica symphony”
Schubert “die Schöne Müllerin”
Brahms “German Requiem”
Liszt “grand etudes”
Puccini “Tosca” or “la Boheme”
Wagner “the Ring of Nibelung”
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