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Compare CAD and Manual Drawing

P1) Identify and describe a range of equipment, furniture and media necessary to produce manual and CAD drawings for the projects. Manual There are four types of materials traditionally used for drafting, which come in arrange of sizes including; A1, A2 and A3. Types of Paper used for drafting; Bond – This is similar to the paper used everyday in office printers. It’s the least expensive paper and is usually supplied in roll form for drafting plotters. Bond paper is most commonly used in weights from 18 lb all the way up to 24 lb, but much heavier weights are available and used for mainly posters and presentation work. Mylar – This is a drafting film made from plastic material. It has the advantage of being erasable which, if you are working in ink, is a great advantage. It’s also semi transparent, making it possible to overlay mylar drawings on a light table to check if line work matches up. The film is however more resistant to tears but is more durable than paper. It is still used with drafting plotters and is available in roll form and in cut sheets. Mylar has a matte side and a shiny side which you draw on. The surface of mylar is quite slippery, and therefore pen companies in the past have released special pens and inks which are developed specifically for drawing on it. Modern plotters have found problems printing on mylar as the material does not absorb ink quickly and therefore is prone to smudging as well as unclear lines. Where as bond paper is far more absorbent and does not smudge so easily. Mylar is also quite expensive. Vellum – This is a linen based paper that has traditionally been used for historical building plans along with many drafting offices. The high linen content makes it durable and allows pencil work to be easily erased and revised multiple times. It’s not as strong as mylar material but is not as expensive. Vellum also has a smooth surface which does not absorb ink as fast as bond paper. That may cause problems with the ink smudging and therefore is not fit for purpose if used for printing. With this said vellum paper is no longer used today to draft plans. Photo – With the advances in drafting printers, photo media became available in roll form for printing super size renderings and images. It’s a costly media and is usually reserved for the best of presentation graphics. But it allows the engineering office to do more by taking on work that was previously done by printing shops and the graphic designer. Although these are the four main materials used for drafting tracing has also been used in the past in the drawing industry, but is still heavily used for smaller scale work, such as; school/college/university projects, art projects and much more. Tracing Paper – this paper is thin and translucent which enables the drawer to copy the image/design several times easily. The faint lines of the image/design are then re-drawn in pencil and are later filled in using a specific drawing pen. The paper comes in a range of grades for drafting work. They start at around 80g/m2 and go up to around 110g/m2 when there are master copies needed. In the past tracing paper when copied using a ammonia copier it was prone to fading in the light and therefore was not clearly visible. However this problem does not occur anymore due to the introduction of photocopying machines which have no side effects as yet. Drawing boards – The drafting table is still in use despite all the advances in computer aided drafting. There are still many individuals who still use the traditional drawing table. Architects, graphic artists and many structural steel drafters use the drawing table to make and modify there drawings on paper along with pencil or ink. Drawing boards are large tables which are angled with a lip and a rule which slides up and down the board. The instruments allow you to create parallel, perpendicular and diagonal lines. Drawing boards are becoming less popular due to the introduction of Computer Aided Design. Pencils – These are the main working tool of a draftsperson and are available in arrange of harnesses’. The darkest pencil used for technical drawings is a ‘B’ which is used for shading and adding texture to a drawing. The ‘HB’ pencil follows which is the most commonly used on a day to day basis but is only used for rough sketches for drafting. The ‘F’ is used for printing and general line work. Following on from the ‘F’ is the ‘H’ pencil which is used for dimension lines and hatching by draftsperson’s. Finally is the ‘2H’ which is used for construction lines. For the finest drawings, all pencils used must be permanently sharp and have standard, smooth point. A soft rubber is used for rubbing out pencil lines. Scale rules – Drawing are produced to a particular scale which will fully fit onto a drawing sheet. The main tool which helps you draw scale drawings more easily is a scale rule, the most common scales; 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:250, 1:500, 1:1000, 1:1250 and 1:2500. g/m2: refers to the paper quality and weight Tee Square – It can be used as a guide for architectural and mechanical drawings. It consists of two arms joined at 90 degree angles. The smaller arm moves along the edge of the drawing board and the larger arm is used to draw straight parallel lines. It can also be used to support set squares which can draw lines at different angles. Adjustable set squares – These are mainly used to draw vertical lines at 90 degree angles to the parallel motion arm. A set square can also produce a line at any angle on the paper by adjusting the scale of the protractor. Propelling Pencils – A propelling pencil is very thin and can be easily replicable. Unlike a normal standard pencil a propelling pencil always stays sharp due to the thinness of the lead. The most common leads are 0.5 and 0.7. You can also purchase leads in thicknesses of 0.3, 0.9 and 2mm. Compass – These are used to create circles and arcs when drawing. Precision sets include a thumbwheel compass. A standard compass set includes an extension arm, a pen clamp and replaceable leads. The purpose of an extension arm is to draw larger arcs and circles with the same amount of precision. Protractor – They are generally made from transparent plastic. Protractors can come either in semi-circle or full 360 degree form. There are bevel protractors which are circular protractors with a pivoted arm used for accurately measuring and creating angles to draw from. Rubbers – Rubbers come in a large variety of shapes and form. The trapezium shaped is preferred as its points can rub out pencil lines more accurately. Plastic and putty rubbers can be moulded into points to carry out similar work. CAD For CAD to be successfully installed and used the computer which will run this software must have CPU with 3 GHz or more. This number of GHz will allow the CAD software to run at the correct speed rather than it crashing/freezing. Microsoft Windows Vista or Microsoft XP are both operating systems which allow CAD to be used successfully. The computer will also need 2GB of RAM on its operating disk and 2GB of free space minimum on its hard drive. The computer screen must have revolutions of at least 1280×1024 pixels which will include a display adapter which is able to produce 32-bite colour 128MB or more if possible. There are three main hardware configurations for the use of a CAD system. Depending on the size of the company and office will decide which hardware will be in use. The first software configuration is a standalone single user which simply means that the information and software is held by a private domain. Therefore CAD drawings can only be sent by email or sent by post. The next main hardware configuration is a small office based intranet where CAD drawings and document information is held in a project folder which is within the computers server. The work is organised by a plot management function which segregates the drawings in order of importance. Therefore the company can easily track and record the drawings within the software easily. Finally the third main hardware configuration is a large multi located extranet set up for a wide area network which contains various members of a project team which are more often than not in different parts of the country or countries. As there may be members of the project team in another country this extranet allows the members to easily access the drawings or information which has been uploaded from the drawing office onto the internet through subscription. Mouse’s, keyboards, digitisers/pads and light pens are used everyday by CAD workers. Mouse’s – A standard mouse has two buttons which are positioned where your fingers lie on the mouse. 2D motion ball mouse’s are also used and easily direct the mouse much like a standard mouse. More advanced mouse’s include scroll buttons or additional buttons which are found on the side of the mouse which allow the user to carry out a task quicker. Laser mouse’s are far more accurate than a standard mouse as the movements are a lot more refined. There are more advanced mouse’s like the trackball mouse which are far more accurate due to the trackball which is located at the top of the mouse. These mouse’s are used by designers, gamers and web designers. The actual trackball contains optical and mechanical sensors which are able to track movement and therefore gain on accuracy. Keyboards – The most common is the QWERTY keyboard which is used for everyday life and has all requirements covered. However if you are sat at your desk in the office all day you may face some health and safety issues due to the basic design of the QWERTY keyboard. Therefore there are keyboards specifically designed for this issue which are called Ergonomic keyboards which are designed to relieve stress. Using a keyboard can result to carpal tunnel syndrome and repetitive stress injury therefore the ergonomic keyboard was designed for this purpose and is recommended by doctors. Finally there is the DVORAK keyboard which is an ergonomic alternative to the QWERTY keyboard. QWERTY keyboards were designed to comply with typewriters and therefore they are ineffective for touch typing. For that reason the DVORAK keyboard was invented for touch typing which also adds to the comfort of the typer. Digitisers/pads and light pens – These are electronic drawing pads which allow people to easily draw and scribe free hand. This enables easier usage of the computer. P4 AutoCAD AutoCAD is usually used on Microsoft desktop software and is available in around 20 languages. It is a form of CAD software which is used to produce 2/3 dimensional designs. AutoCAD can be used for a range of tasks including designing landscapes, buildings and automotive machinery. The earlier versions of AutoCAD used basic functions which included lines, circles, arcs, plotlines and text. The latest version of AutoCAD is more advanced than the earlier additions and is able to form solid modelling such as creating prisms, boxes and spheres. There are also far more detailed and accurate models which use 3D tools. There are many support programs which use AutoCAD such as Auto LISP, VBA, Object ARX and Visual LISP. Object ARX is a base model which helped create AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Civil 3D and AutoCAD Electrical. AutoCAD LT – This is a smaller, cheaper version of AutoCAD which can easily be purchased from computer stores unlike the full version of AutoCAD, purely due to the cost of the who AutoCAD programs. AutoCAD LT costs around $900 where as the full version of AutoCAD costs around $4000 which is far more specialist. AutoCAD LT costs around a quarter of the price of the AutoCAD full version as it has to compete with other similar software’s where as the full version of AutoCAD is unique and is the only software of its type used by company in this sector of work. However due to the cheapness of AutoCAD LT software there are some features which are excluded from this software which are included on the full version of AutoCAD. One of the features excluded from the LT version is the 3D function, others include the exclusion of LISP programs and the inability to interact with 3rd party programs. AutoCAD student version – This version has a noticeable price difference for student, teachers and lecturers, and can be licensed for 14 months. There are few features which are included on AutoCAD but of which are excluded from the AutoCAD student version. However when a DWG file is created or changed by the student the file is given an educational flag and when this type of file is printed on AutoCAD software it has a plot stamp or banner on all four sides and therefore makes it invalid for commercial use. If a student imports a DWG commercial file they will infect the file so that it can then be used commercially. Also a registered student can has access to free AutoDesk applications from the AutoDesk community. Hence the student therefore has access to the Civil 3D version and the Architectural version of AutoCAD software’s. Other AutoCAD software’s – There are many vertical programs which have been designed such as AutoCAD Architecture or AutoCAD Civil 3D. These vertical programs allow the designer to illustrate 3D objects with more intelligent data rather than using sample lines, circles and other solid objects. The program can also be programmed to symbolize products used to construct the design. Therefore the data can be used to estimate the overall cost for the construction of the building, the cost of the materials and other values needed for the building as a whole. Managing CAD Designers need to be assured that the CAD software will save, store and manage their work efficiently so that it can easily be found if changes are required. To achieve this, major company’s have different files for their software. Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD is an example of this. This software depending on whether the data is two or three dimensional, Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD uses a filing system of which the designers work is stored in a drawing database. DWG files can be easily imported onto this system and this allows a larger range of information to be stored. Thanks to the DWG software, the latest version of CAD has been strengthened and developed by using the DWG software as the primary file format. Due to the filing system employed by the DWG system it is popular with most designers. Due to frequent updates CAD is now a well-built piece of software and has helped improve modern day computers due to the requirements needed to run the CAD software successfully. The modern day computer now has a greater ram, better resolutions, far more memory, superior CPU and more enhanced hard drives which means that the computer can easily support the software’s which are ran through them. CAD can project an image in several ways, of which include; Orthographically, Isometrically, Axonometrically and can use perspective views but sometimes an exploded view is used. An exploded view can take apart an image to show the parts and layers which enables you to examine all parts of the original image. This view is used by Architects and Engineers to enable them to perfect their projects. A designer can use pre-set symbols to represent objects such as doors for a cross section of a building. CAD also allows you to use standard house designs, which can save time for architects and therefore allows them to be ahead of the project and deadlines. The CAD software allows you to easily save work into electronic drawings and also enables you to transfer drawings by email. CAD enables you to create very realistic designs and images depending on the specific CAD software which you are using. The software allows you to create 3D virtual environments which include pictures of real life buildings and people. Other software’s enable you to create naturalistic textures including sunlight, shadows, plants which move in the wind and people walking or moving. To meet the clients needs certain CAD programs allow you to create walkthroughs. This allows the client to visually see their building in a realistic view rather than two or three dimensional form drawing. Advantages and Disadvantages of using CAD and Manual drawings Manual Drawings Advantages; Cheaper to buy the equipment needed to construct the drawings such as set squares or scale rules. If the equipment is broken or not working correctly the user can simply buy a new one without having to go to allot of trouble. The equipment never needs updating as it is already adequate to carry out the job correctly. If you are on site it is far easier to use a manual drawing as you are able to get a better perspective and scale. Easy to modify a manual drawing. You do not need as much technical ability. You always have a hard copy. Disadvantages; Takes a long time to post or fax the drawing to the client. Need a large, light area to set out and work on the drawing. The equipment can be effected by human error maybe a shaky hand. It takes a long time to construct or reproduce a drawing when manually drawing. It is difficult to get the pressure applied to the pencil to determine the type of line you are looking to achieve whether it is a tracer line or primary line. A manual drawing can get easily damaged. A manual drawing is far harder to store as each drawing takes up space and you need put a storage system in place so that each individual drawing can easily be found. CAD Advantages; The drawing can be accurate as the tolls on the software are electronic so they won’t be affected by human error such as the incorrect thickness of line. The user can save their work to any electronic storage device such as the hard drive of the computer or a CD or even a memory stick. The computer memorises the drawing in every dimension possible so that the user doesn’t have to waste time trying to remember what the drawing looked like and which is which drawing. It is very easy for the user to rectify any mistakes they have made or to move a part of the drawing. Rotate a 3D drawing or to erase any irrelevant parts. The drawing can be transferred by email, saving on postage time and cost. CAD is far quicker to use. The storage and organisation of drawing using CAD software means drawings can easily be stored, don’t take up any office space and are well organised and maintained. Disadvantages; Some shapes are still very difficult to draw using CAD software. It is very expensive to purchase CAD software no matter what version you choose. The computer and the necessary equipment needed have to be maintained and regularly updated which adds to costs. If the software was to crash or something went wrong it will need to be fixed by a professional in this field of work which costs time and money. CAD is very difficult to use and is regularly updated, therefore it is very hard to use and understand. As a result you will regularly need to be trained on how to use the software which adds to costs and time. If the software was to break all of the drawings and information ever saved on the computer software may be lost. CAD is not always suitable for site work. There are always doubts concerning glitches or viruses to the computer system. How the quality of graphical information significantly affects the quality of the completed civil engineering/construction project. In the construction industry ‘finished work ‘it contains a number of things such as the written specification; whether the designers requirements were met or not; whether the contractor has estimated the cost accurately or not; the products are ordered within time; whether the design and construction team have kept misunderstandings to a minimum. Consequently the graphical information for the civil engineering/construction project must always be correct and accurate. The graphical information should include every single material or item that is needed for the civil engineering/construction project with all its specifications. The designer must ensure they have created an accurate drawing along with a detailed schedule plan. This will ensure the contractor has the all of the correct products ordered before the work is supposed to commence. However if the architect or designer knows they have not achieved an accurate drawing they may include a schedule which they have used already on a similar project so that they can spend the remaining time modifying their drawing so that it meets their own and the clients standards. Though this may save time for the architect to create a perfectly accurate drawing the schedule is inaccurate and therefore lowers the standard of the project and also may add to costs as they may have the wrong equipment as the schedule is not specific to the project. If the schedule initiates up to the construction stage this may cause the project to run past the deadline dates and therefore add cost to the overall project. If the designer creates an accurate drawing for the project which is specific and contains the specific schedule it means that the overall finished construction of the project should also be of a high quality because it allows the contractors to plan ahead before the construction work starts. But if a schedule of high quality is used on the project which has originally used on a similar project the quality of the overall construction will suffer as a result. So no matter how detailed a schedule or information is on the drawing will only create a high quality project if it is specific and accurate to the job.
HR 310 Park Inclusion Practices in High School Case Study Discussion.

Unit 5: Case StudyDue Sunday by 11:59pm Points 40 Submitting a file uploadIntroductionA case study analysis requires that you investigate a business problem, examine the possible and/or alternative solutions, and propose the most effective solution using supporting evidence.Read and examine the case carefully.Focus on the issues/problems.Brainstorm possible solutions or changes that need to be made.Select the best solution with reasoning.Unit Learning OutcomesAssess the complex processes of diversity and inclusion (CLO 4).Devise strategies for working productively with members of a team (CLO 6).Case Summary – 9.1 What’s in a Name?Springfield High School, a high school in a small town in the rural Midwest, experienced a challenge in updating the name of their athletic team from the Redskins to the Redhawks. When individuals came forward arguing that the “Redskin” name was offensive and not culturally sensitive, there was significant backlash in the town. Students voted to change the name to the “Redhawks,” replacing the “Redskin” name. Although the school board approved the motion by a 5-2 vote to change the name, community members, concerned with preserving the Redskin name recalled the five members of board who had supported the name change. This led to the two remaining board members holding a special meeting to change the name back to Redskins.The state Department of Civil Rights and the state’s Commission for High School Athletics interjected and told the board that a name change could not be reversed, leading to no name for the high school teams. During that time, new board members were elected, and after four years had concluded, students voted once again for the “Redhawks” name. Despite the recognized change, a small contingency of adults still supports the Redskin name, selling merchandise using the old name.DirectionsRead the full case study in the textbook: Case 9.1 What’s in a Name?Answer the case study discussion questions.Submit your work for review. Case Study QuestionsDo you agree with the assertion the athletic team name should be changed? Why or why not?Describe how Ferdman’s Model of Inclusion Practices (Table 9.4) worked in this case.What barriers to embracing diversity and inclusion did the school board and community experience in this case?By changing the name of the athletic teams, do you believe the school board was showing inclusive practices? If so, which ones?Case Study RequirementsFull points will be earned if the case study(s):responds to every aspect of the assignmentcontains fully developed answersdisplays a familiarity with the related materials and topics being referencedExhibit the ability to apply the related concepts to the case study.Each question warrants a response that is well developed and is well-formatted.At least one page in length, typed, and double spaced.All cited material must include both internal citations and a complete reference list at the end of the paper.Due DateSubmit by 11:59 p.m., Sunday, CT.RubricCase Study RubricCase Study RubricCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIdentification of Main Issues or Problems10.0 ptsExcellentIdentifies and understands the main issues in the case study.9.0 ptsProficientIdentifies and understands most of the main issues in the case study.7.0 ptsSufficientIdentifies and understands some of the main issues in the case study.5.0 ptsDevelopingIdentifies and understands few of the main issues in the case study.3.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryDoes not clearly identify main issues in the case study.10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResearch and Review10.0 ptsExcellentExcellent research with clearly documented associations and links between problems or questions and key course concepts.9.0 ptsProficientSatisfactory research with documented associations and links between problems or questions and key course concepts.7.0 ptsSufficientLimited research with documented associations between problems or questions and key course concepts.5.0 ptsDevelopingIncomplete research with documented associations between problems or questions and key course concepts.3.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryLittle or no research with documented associations between problems or questions and key course concepts.10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis Solution Options10.0 ptsExcellentInsightful and thorough analysis of all the key issues. Alternative solutions/options cover all the key issues with descriptive well-reasoned and logical discussion.9.0 ptsProficientInsightful and thorough analysis of most all the key issues. Alternative solutions/options cover most the key issues with well-thought out reasoning and logical discussion.7.0 ptsSufficientInsightful and thorough analysis of some of the key issues. Alternative solutions/options cover some of the key issues with solid reasoning and discussion.5.0 ptsDevelopingDeveloping analysis of the some of the key issues. Further development is needed. Alternative solutions/options cover few of the key issues with minimal reasoning and discussion.3.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryIncomplete analysis of the key issues. Incomplete solutions/options without sound reasoning or discussion.10.0 ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Organization Format10.0 ptsExcellentWriting is free of grammar and spelling errors. Clear, concise, and creative presentation of ideas. Organization is effective. Sources are identified and in APA format.9.0 ptsProficientWriting is mostly free of grammar and spelling errors. Most ideas are clearly presented. Organization is effective. Sources are identified and in APA format.7.0 ptsSufficientWriting contains several spelling or grammatical errors. Some ideas are clearly presented and organized. Sources are identified with errors in APA format.5.0 ptsDevelopingWriting contains many errors with grammatical mistakes. Ideas are difficult to follow. Sources are not identified or errors in APA format.3.0 ptsUnsatisfactoryErrors in grammar and spelling distract from the overall message. Ideas are incomplete. APA format was not used correctly.10.0 ptsTotal Points: 40.0PreviousNext
HR 310 Park Inclusion Practices in High School Case Study Discussion

MKT 411 Post University Unit 1 Value of Performing Marketing Research Paper.

The value of performing marketing research is undeniable. You need to do research, and it needs to be well-rounded and unbiased. Asking the right questions to the right people, and to enough people. Not just for product development and usability, but also for distribution, advertising, marketing, building a brand, and ultimately selling more products and making more money… Review the attached article and share your thoughts in a 2-page analysis on the concepts presented in the piece. Explain how you agree or disagree and back up your position with outside resources.
MKT 411 Post University Unit 1 Value of Performing Marketing Research Paper

ENG 111 Ivy Tech Michael Moss & Michael Pollans Junk Foods and Western Diet Essay.

Assignment SummaryHalf DraftClearly developed thesis statement that takes a position about the similarities and differences between the two closed research theme readingsAn introductory paragraph that attempts to gain the interest of reader, introduces the closed research theme readings, and presents the thesis statementBody paragraphs that compare and analyze key similarities and differences between the closed research theme readings (For this half draft, include as much of your analysis as you can develop within the word count restrictions.)Well-reasoned analysis based on relevant and complex comparisons, illustrated and supported with evidence from the closed research theme readingsIn-text citations of “They Say” summaries and quotations of the closed research theme readings and other sources you might useAPA or MLA style formatting, as specified by your instructor, with a References (APA) or Works Cited (MLA) pageObservation of the conventions of Standard Written English450-600 words (no more, no less) for the half draft (Works Cited or References list does not count in the minimum word-count requirement)See the assessment rubric in the assignment page “M04 Writing Project 2 Comparative Analysis: Half Draft” for an understanding of how the half draft will be graded
ENG 111 Ivy Tech Michael Moss & Michael Pollans Junk Foods and Western Diet Essay

UNH Economic Recession Research Paper

UNH Economic Recession Research Paper.

Description of the current economic topic Thoroughly describe the topic Find, document, and write 2 – 4 supporting sources to validate the topic Description of how the topic affects the US economy/Other economyThoroughly explain how this topic is affecting the US economy/Other economyIII. Description of the strategies used by the government towards the topicThoroughly describe at least two strategies used by the governmentExplain how these strategies would affect the topicProvide strategies you would use towards the topic (must be different from the Government’s strategies)Thoroughly explain at least two strategies that you would use to affect the topicExplain how these strategies would affect the topicConclusion: What do you feel will happen in the future based on both the government strategies and those that you propose on this topic?Note: Follow MLA formatting guidelines.
UNH Economic Recession Research Paper

Pasadena City College Peer Review Coronavirus in California Discussion

best essay writers Pasadena City College Peer Review Coronavirus in California Discussion.

I’m working on a biology question and need a sample draft to help me study.

This purpose of this assignment is to remind you to complete your two Coronavirus in California Fact Sheet peer reviews this week, and I am also using it as a placeholder to be able to give you credit for those reviews. You do not need to submit anything here.You can access the Peer Review area through your To Do list:Or through your Coronavirus in California Fact Sheet – Text and Graph Only assignment submission area:Please review the assignment directions and the rubric first and then give written comments. Choose at least two of the prompts below to formulate your comments for each of your peers.What are two things you think they communicated in their fact sheet really well?What is one place they used a source or the data in their fact sheet that worked really well?What is one place they might be able to strengthen their fact sheet by making better or different use of a source or the data? Make one or two general suggestions for how they could strengthen their fact sheet. This could be to add material, reorganize a paragraph or sentence, clarify language, or make any other changes to increase clarity.Suggest corrections to any grammatical issues in the text or formatting issues with the graph.TipBe aware that if you submitted your fact sheet late, the automatic process that takes place to assign peer reviews can fail. If you do not see your Assigned Peer Reviews, contact me ASAP. In order to complete the peer review, you will need to leave written comments as well as complete the rubric! If you have a caution sign icon, this indicates that the peer review has not been completed. A checkmark icon, indicates that you have completed the peer review.Helpful ResourcesHow do I know if I have a peer review assignment to complete? (Links to an external site.)How do I submit a peer review to an assignment? (Links to an external site.)Where can I find my peers’ feedback for peer reviewed assignments?
Pasadena City College Peer Review Coronavirus in California Discussion

Content Marketing and Social Media Marketing Discussion

Content Marketing and Social Media Marketing Discussion.

Learning Objectives CoveredLO 02.01 – Define digital media and electronic marketing and recognize their increasing importance in strategic planning.Career RelevancyGetting potential customers to buy into a new product or service is important. But it’s also important to get internal stakeholders, like employees, to buy in as well. This strengthens branding and motivates employees to produce and sell that product or service. This understanding is crucial to go from simply surviving to thriving.BackgroundImagine you’re a new employee at Apple. What would your reaction be if you walked into work on your first day and employees were using a mixture of Apple, Microsoft, and Google products? You’d probably wonder if you’d wandered into the right office.This scenario would never happen, and we’ll get to the why. It would demonstrate a lack of an internal marketing strategy. If you spend one day walking around a city like Manhattan, flipping through a major newspaper or magazine, or browsing the Internet, you can clearly see Apple’s external marketing efforts.External marketing is when a company advertises its products and services to potential clients and customers outside of the organization. Internal marketing is when a company inspires buy-in from employees and stakeholders which are involved in the internal functions of the company (Pretorius, 2016).Apple is known for many positive aspects: sleek design, innovation, powerful software and hardware, entertainment solutions, and more. They also have a reputation for being elitist. No doubt Apple enthusiasts would argue they have the goods to back up that attitude.This image, this reputation, this branding is a result of Apple’s external marketing efforts. But Apple also cares about its internal marketing efforts. The Apple company still stands strong despite having to face the strong PC world.Digital Marketing—Internally and ExternallyDigital marketing casts a broad umbrella. Sheltered beneath it, you’ll find tactics like content marketing, social media, and website design. These tactics exist to realize the organization’s strategy.Let’s get back to imagining you work for Apple. Pretend the company is about to launch a new product—a ring that produces a holographic screen so the user can compute like Tony Stark in the Iron Man and Avengers movies, like in this montage (2:34 min):You might want to start by internally marketing this new product. You can send out a memo to employees explaining what the product does, who might buy it, and how it fits into Apple’s brand image. In true Apple style, you might even release a keynote with early internal access to start to build support from employees. You might offer to let employees test out the product or purchase it at a discount.All of these are efforts to internally market this new product.When it comes to external marketing, that’s where you’ll use marketing tactics to reach outside customers. But internal marketing should happen before external marketing, or at least simultaneously. Attempting to market internally after marketing externally can seem disingenuous.Resources and ReferencesMitchell, C. (2002, January). Selling the brand inside. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2002/01/selling-the-brand-inside (Links to an external site.) Pretorius, F. (2016, August 12). Internal vs external marketing. LinkedIn. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/internal-vs-external-marketing-francois-pretorius/ (Links to an external site.) Sass, K. (2012, July 3). Iron man 2: Amazing interfaces and holograms. Retrieved from YouTube: https://youtu.be/mRi1dmFgRfo (Links to an external site.)PromptAssume that your company is new to content marketing and using social media. Explain why the company would want to consider using both of these tactics for communicating with internal and external audiences.In response to your peers, choose either content marketing or social media marketing, and describe how the company might leverage your chosen marketing tactic either internally or externally.For your citation, consider case studies on internal marketing, external marketing, content marketing, and/or social media marketing. You might also look at articles written by industry professionals about internal and external marketing, and/or digital marketing.Your initial and reply posts should work to develop a group understanding of this topic. Challenge each other. Build on each other. Always be respectful but discuss this and figure it out together.Reply RequirementsYou must submit:1 main post of 550+ words with 1 in-text citation and reference (follow the Institution Writing Guidelines)Responses can be addressed to both your initial thread and other threads but must be:Your own words (no copy and paste)Extend the conversation deeper,Challenge the post being responded to, orTake the conversation in a career-relevant tangentRemember that part of the discussion grade is submitting on time and using proper grammar, spelling, etc. You’re training to be a professional—write like it.
Content Marketing and Social Media Marketing Discussion

Post-operative Prevention of Pulmonary Complications

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Introduction Based on scenario 1, Mr Man is now in post-operative day-1 for triple Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) due to triple vessel disease with preserved left ventricle function. Firstly, patient complained about incisional pain during cough. There will be raise in intrathoracic pressures(300mmHg) and expiratory velocities(800km/h) during vigorous cough. (Polverino M. et. al, 2012). Thus, the high pressure created will cause pain over the incision site. Coughing keeps the lungs clear and work optimumly. Normal ciliary action works to maintain patency of airways. The amount and thickness of bronchial secretions will be increased due to the effects of anaesthesia. (Davis J.R., 1973). So, coughing is important after thoracic surgery to prevent pulmonary complications by removing secretions. Secondly, patient has diminished thoracic movement after the surgery which might be caused by pain. Postoperative pain increases the risk of the patient to develop many complications especially dysfunctions of the respiratory system. Pain causes reflex muscular tension which leads to difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living or even immobilizes patients. (Zubrzycki M. et. al, 2018). The patient experienced pain over the incision site and it causes reflex muscular tension which results in diminished thoracic movement. The diminished thoracic movement will lead to dysfunctions of respiratory system. Osborne (2009) argues that the change in thoracic volume is caused by muscle contraction. It then changes the alveolar pressure that assist air flow into the lungs by pressure difference. So, when patient has diminished thoracic movement, there will be reduced air flow into lung. Thirdly, patient is having shallow breathing with increased respiratory rate (25bpm). Coronary bypass surgery usually takes between three to six hours and general anesthesia (GA) is required. (Mayo Clinic, 2018). GA causes respiratory impairment and also affects oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. (Saraswat V., 2015). Pharmacological agents used in anaesthesia affects the contraction of respiratory muscles, it might even last for some time after the end of the operation. (Siafakas N. M. et. al.,1999). Patient’s shallow breathing pattern can also cause by incisional pain. (El-Kader S., 2011, p.51). A research was carried out in 1991 by Tulla H. et. al found that after surgery in supine position, there is an increase in the contribution of rib cage to tidal volume suggesting reduced motion of the diaphragm. The shallow breathing in combination with increased ventilatory demand, impaired gas exchange and the surgical trauma may lead to postoperative respiratory complications. Lastly, patient also complain of slight pain and swelling over the affected peripheral limbs. This causes patient to be reluctant to move his limbs. Pain is caused by the damage done to tissue by the incision and the procedure itself. When patient does not move the limb, movement of water from the interstitium into the capillaries or lymphatic vessels will be decreased thus results in edema. In a research carried out by Suehiro K. et. al. in 2014 found that venous stasis is the main cause of leg edema in immobile patient due to the immobility. A lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common complication after musculoskeletal injury or surgery. This is because of prolonged immobilization, or bed rest after the surgery or injury and is attributed to venous stasis, injury to and inflammation of the walls of a vein, or a hypercoagulable state of the blood. (Kisner C. and Colby L. A., 2012, p.359). On the other hand, reduced upper limb movement will cause shoulder stiffness and sore as well. Thoracic movement will also be restricted due to the tight scar tissue. (UPMC, 2011). Main Body l