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Community Policing and Community Safety and Security

What, if anything, can community policing do to reduce crime and improve community safety and security? Introduction While an original concept of community policing may be found in what is referred to as the Peelian Principles (the police are the people and the people are the police[1]) modern definitions have become much more complex. A comprehensive definition developed by the United States Department of Justice, describes it as “a philosophy that promotes operational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder and fear of crime[2]“. In this essay an attempt is made to evaluate current community policing practices to determine if they present a viable strategy to reduce crime and improve community safety and security. Policing in the 21st Century What has made implementation the community policing philosophy difficult has been that, while the words “serve” and “protect” appear in the mottos of many police forces/services throughout the world, the changing social order of the mid 20th century coupled to advancing technology saw the police become more isolated and disconnected from the communities they were ostensibly serving and protecting. At the same time, crime and social disorder left society feeling threatened and, to an extent, abandoned leading to an “us and them” scenario emerging within both the police and society. The police were seen, at best, as crime fighters and, at worst, instruments of the state attempting to enforce order. Academic papers in the late 20th century saw the emergence of Zimbardo’s broken windows theory[3] and Wilson and Kelling’s (1982) work distinguishing between crime and the fear of crime leading to what was ultimately termed “zero tolerance policing”. While successful in certain areas, this approach further entrenched the “us and them” mindset and served to alienate large portions of certain communities. Furthermore, by the end of the 20th century the increased global focus on human rights, transparency and accountability required a more holistic approach to addressing crime, safety and security. Fundamentally, the works conducted by Zimbardo and Wilson and Kelling correctly identified psycho-socio aspects of modern living but, at that time, the response by authorities failed to take into consideration that the issues could not be dealt with solely by the police acting in an enforcement or crime fighting role. Furthermore, while law enforcement and crime fighting remain important functions of the police, recent research indicates that one third of incidents that police respond to are social work as opposed to crime related (Karn, 2013)[4]. In considering responses to these issues it was recognised that collective efficacy needed to be developed with the community reinforcing informal control mechanisms over itself in partnership with the police that could, when required, act as a law enforcer, mediator or conduit to other means of assistance. Community policing has thus emerged as a mechanism through which collective efficacy can be developed or reinstated in communities. In essence, public safety, security and policing change from being police business to being everyones’ business[5]. Building this collective efficacy through a community policing programme is, however, both complex and time consuming requiring a fundamental change in both the philosophy and practice of policing using a decentralised and proactive, problem solving approach to the work carried out by the police which, in turn, is supported by community engagement and through partnerships with other agencies (Mackenzie and Henry, 2009). More specifically, the changes that are required cannot simply be a modification of existing practices but rather requires actual changes to be made from senior management through to front line officers. Requirements for effective community policing For community policing to be effective, the priority has to be the establishment of mutual trust which is required for effective interaction. Where this trust is missing, no amount of legislation or policy documents will be able to progress effective police/community interaction. For example, in South Africa, the Interim Constitution requires the establishment of Community Police Forums (CPF)[6] which is further strengthened through the South African Police Service Act of 1995 which formally directs the functions of the CPFs at station level. So while there appears to be intent at the highest political level to implement community policing, the implementation has been described as largely symbolic (Pelser, 2000)[7] with little being done to ensure the establishment of close mutually beneficial ties between the police and community. This stems partially from the history of the country which saw a paramilitary force acting as law enforcers for the government thereby alienating much of the population. The transition to a police service saw some key elements required for community policing to be enacted, such as decentralisation of authority, but the police service has of yet been largely unable to effectively engage with the majority of communities. Establishing this trust with the community cannot however take place unless there are changes changes brought around to the traditional bottom-down management styleapplied in the police. While strategic implementation requires policy decisions to be made at senior levels and directed downwards, a bottom-up approach is required if meaningful community engagement is to be achieved. This requires a restructuring to empower and support the front line officer who interacts with the community on a daily basis so that the officer is in a position exercise initiative and make decisions that are both relevant to the community and supported by police management. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to ensure that the officers engaged in community policing receive specialised training in a variety of non-traditional law enforcement disciplines such as conflict resolution, mediation and engagement in culturally diverse environments. In addition to human resources, financial resources are also required to ensure an effective community policing programme. Government funding is imperative to ensure that problems identified by the community are met in an effective and timely fashion. If this does not occur, the trust required will be eroded and the perceived usefulness of the community policing officers to the community will be undermined. At the same time, community resources can also be tapped to supplement government funding, whether these resources are human, financial or other in-kind contributions. By mobilising the community to accept some element of financial responsibility collective efficacy may also be catalysed. The Impact of Community Policing on Crime, Safety and Security Recent studies have shown that higher numbers of police does not necessarily lead to a reduction in crime (Bradford, 2011)[8] indicating that more focussed interventions, as opposed to to sheer numbers, are required. This along with overall moves to professionalise the police has led, internationally to a move away from reactive policing towards a more proactive approach with a focus on problem orientated policing (POP) and intelligence-led policing (ILP) and being observed. Problem orientated policing fits with community policing strategies as it focusses on tackling problems identified by local communities and developing an understanding of these problems[9]. This includes determining why they are occurring and identifying appropriate courses of action that can include actors beyond the police. This approach has been recognised as being effective in reducing victimisation and perceptions relating to antisocial behaviour (Quinton and Tuffin, 2006)[10]. The approach most often used to drive POP is known as SARA (scanning, analysis, response and assessment). SARA has proven effective in problem solving as it breaks a complex concept down into easy to manage steps. In the scanning phase, problems are identified, prioritised and stakeholders identified thereby providing a valuable opportunity for the community engagement. In the analysis phase the dynamics, cause and effect of the problem are identified which leads to a response being developed that is specific to the issue at hand. Finally, the actions taken need to be assessed to determine if the problem has been permanently resolved and that the response contributed to the resolution (Clegg et al, 2000)[11]. By following this model, in addition to resolving issues of concern, trust with the community can be developed and strengthened. Importantly, police attention is focussed on issues that are of community concern and not based on political priorities received from central government or one-sided analysis and prioritisation by the local police force/service itself. Recently, the civil unrest that developed in Ferguson, Missouri following the killing of Michael Brown could have possibly been avoided if effective police community engagement mechanisms based on POP/SARA had have been in place. While POP has proven effective in addressing crimes that directly and visibly impact a community, organised crime poses no less of a threat but, due to its often clandestine nature, communities may not be aware of its existence within their neighbourhood. From a policing perspective, intelligence-led policing has proven an essential and effective tool in addressing organised crime. The investigative techniques applied to ILP such as telephone intercepts, informers and undercover operatives may appear, at first glance, to run contrary to the goals of community policing. However, where effective community/police interaction takes place, the community can be made aware of the existence of crime of this nature and local knowledge may prove useful to investigators, be it from victims, witnesses or even perpetrators. The goal however should not be to turn the community into informers but, based on shared interests, provide a service to the benefit of their community. Once again, the issue of trust is of paramount importance with the community feeling free to share information and confident that the police will act on that information in a responsible and effective manner. Conclusion Community policing is a complex and time consuming endeavour however there are clear benefits to be gained from the implementation of functioning programme. Through the development of trust with the community the police will gain access to a larger amount of information that can be useful in the identification of and arrest of offenders. That however cannot be the sole purpose of community policing or where the key value lies. Through the promotion of collective efficacy, communities can start acceptinggreat responsibility for issues of their own safety and security, leading to the police not always being the first or only responder to a variety of problems. In this way, many social order issues can be dealt with through informal mechanisms that may or may not involve the police which as a result can allow the police more opportunity to focus on criminal issues raised by the community. Furthermore, the police are also in a strong position to raise criminal issues, whether petty or of a more serious nature with community, explain the police response and, if possible, devise a course of action that is effective and agreeable to all. Increased police community contact can also be used to diffuse a variety of local issues whether they be of a political, social, ethnic or cultural nature, there by reducing intra or inter community tensions and creating a greater feeling of safety and security for all involved. [1] Police Reform: Power to the People, The Economist, 2 December 2010 [2] Community Policing Defined, US Department of Justice at, e030917193 accessed on 02 September 2014 [3] Zimbardo, P.G. 1969 The Human Choice: Individuation, reason and disorder versus indivduation, impulse and chaos, Nebraska Symposium on Motivation Vol 17 237-307 [4] Karn J 2013 Policing and Crime Reduction, The Police Foundation, Pg 7 [5] Pelser E, Schnetler J, Louw A, Not Everybody’s Business: Community Policing in the SAPS’ Priority Areas, EU Pg 6 [6] Rakgoadi P (1995) Community Policing and Governance, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Pg 2 [7] Pelser E, 1999, An Overview of Community Policing in South Africa, in Clegg I, Hunt R, Whetton J (2000) Policy Guidance on Support to Policing in Developing Countries, University of Wales, Pg 114 [8] Bradford B, 2011, Police Numbers and Crime Rates Pg 7 accessed at on 5 September 2014 [9] Karn J 2013 Policing and Crime Reduction, The Police Foundation, Pg 19 [10] Quinton P, Tuffin R 2006, Neighbourhood Change: the Impact of the National Reassurance Policing Programme Pg 159 accessed from at the Periodicals Section, LMU on 05 September 2014 [11] Clegg I, Hunt R, Whetton J (2000) Policy Guidance on Support to Policing in Developing Countries, University of Wales, Pg 187
The Vietnam War and the Korean War had many similarities. First of all, the decision to start both wars had an ideological background. According to the Truman Doctrine, the government of the United States supposed that in case if Korea and Vietnam choose communism as the ideology, the United States has to stop this process. Such measure seamed only one good solution used to prevent the expansion of communism around the Asian continent and around the world. However, the way battles, the use of chemical weapons and millions of victims demonstrated that those wars were unfair regarding the citizens of Korea and Vietnam. While the United States and the URSS were solving their ideological conflicts, millions of the local citizens were involved in this process. Although the Vietnam War and the Korean War had the same ideological roots, methods of battles, both countries were separated for two parts where North parts were favored communism and South were supported democracy. There were also several differences such as the way of development of the conflicts where the Korean War was during three years, and the Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle, the participation of the Chinese troops in the Korean War, the use of chemical weapons in Vietnam and the different outcomes. After World War II, the world faced a new way of ideological wars. The world was separated between the United States and the URSS, democracy, and communism. Considering the expansion of the communism among the Asian countries, the United States had to develop the measures which could stop the expansion of communism and to spread the ideas of democracy and liberalization on the Asian continent. In the end of 50s, when the Cold War started to be more open and transparent, the United States and the URSS decided to find out which political system is stronger. According to the article The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam, “it grew out of long-standing disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union over which type of government and the economic system produced the most liberty, equality, and prosperity” (The U.S. Department of State publication). Both of the systems did not want to start the open conflict and especially to do it on their territory. They chose Vietnam as the base where both systems could examine their forces, fighting with each other. Such politics was the continuation of colonial rule that always existed in this part of the earth but with a different face. The conflict of two economic and political systems, communism and liberalism, caused a number of problems and led to several military conflicts. The Vietnam War and the Korean War were two of those conflicts. After World War II, the leaders of Vietnam started to accept the system offered by the URSS and considered communism as the only one possible and acceptable system for this country. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The conflict occurred in the middle of 50s and located in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia (Edwards 1998). In the beginning, it was not an evident war; it was rather hidden, latent conflict overage to the serious and prolonged war. According to the Digital History, the project of University of Huston, “between 1945 and 1954, the Vietnamese waged an anti-colonial war against France and received $2,6 billion in financial support from the United States” (Digital History). The United States did everything to get support and to provide protection to this area. Thereby, when Vietnam decided to choose a communistic way of development, the United States did not want to lose their power in the country and had to answer. The county was divided into two parts: North and South. The United States sent 2,000 soldiers to help South Vietnam which preferred liberalism. In 1963, a number of U.S. soldiers in this area was about 63,000 (Digital History). The conflict lasted until the 1970s and ended only in 1973 when the U.S. forces were withdrawn. South and North Vietnam were reunited only in 1975. The situation in Korea was different. This war started as the apparent military conflict when in 1950 North Korea with the help of the URSS crossed the border with South Korea. North Korea favored communism, while South Korea tried to build the country based on the liberalism. Again, as it was in case of Vietnam, the country was a base on the confrontation of two political and economic systems supported by the United States and the URSS. One crucial difference between the wars in Vietnam and Korea lies in the presence of the third force. The Chinese troops participated in the Korean War as the country had its interest in this area and wanted to protect it. The United Nations attitude and influence on the Vietnam War and the Korean War was similar. The war is always a terrible event that should be stopped as soon as possible. No matter who started the conflict and why, the UN has to do everything to make both sides arrange a peaceful agreement. However, in the case of the Vietnam and Korean Wars, the UN did not provide an appropriate solution. It is evident that the UN could make something and prevent conflicts. However, during the Cold War, the situation in the world was complicated, and even the UN was unable to change this. We will write a custom Research Paper on Compare and Contrast Paper: The Vietnam War and Korean War specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The UN supported South Korea during the War. The United Nations Security Resolution decided to help South Korea and to stop the forces of North Korea. In the case of the Vietnam War, the UN supported the US and Korea to arrange a peace agreement in 1975. In honor of this agreement, North Vietnamese Prime Minister Tho and the US Secretary of State Kissinger got Nobel Peace Prize. In both situations, the United States wanted to protect their interests as well as the Soviet Union tried to help the communistic regime. It would be wrong to claim that the United States only particularly participated in the conflicts. The United States and the URSS supplied the Vietnamese or Korean armies and both the U.S. and the URSS started those wars; moreover, both countries wanted this to happen. Because it was a real chance to prove their strengths, although it sounds terrible, the Vietnam War and the Korean War were the games of two world’s superstates. Although the UN could not stop the wars, they had to forbid the use of chemical weapons. Besides, after more than 40 years since the Vietnam War, one can notice that no one was punished for the crime towards the Vietnamese nation. Differences of battle way consisted of the various weapons used in those wars. Thus, first of all, the Vietnam War is noted by the use of chemical weapons and the terrible consequences for the nation. As a result, the Vietnam War “cost the United States 58,000 lives and 350,000 casualties; it also resulted in between one and two million Vietnamese deaths” (Digital History). As it was mentioned before, this war started as the latent conflict; therefore, the way of battles was different than during the Korean War. Although the United States provided weapons, ammunition and military advisors for both South Korea and South Vietnam, the way of ballets in Vietnam was more aggressive and terrible. As a result of the use of chemical weapons, millions of Vietnamese were infected and got terrible diseases. Even today the nation can still feel the influence of those events. Although the same reasons caused both the Vietnam and Korean Wars, the circumstances and the peculiarities of them were quite different. The similarities of the two wars were the same ideological background, the confrontation of two super nations, the US and the URSS, and their economic and political systems. Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle and lasted more than 10 years, while the Korean War – only three. Vietnam War was the most unpopular event in the history of the United States. The chemical weapons were used during the Vietnam War. Two wars had different outcomes: the US protected South Korea but lost South Vietnam. Besides, the territory of Vietnam was exposed to severe damage including people’s loss, spreading of diseases and mass destruction of the cities and villages. Reference List Digital History, n.d. Learn About the Vietnam War. Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and Contrast Paper: The Vietnam War and Korean War by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edwards, Paul M., ed. 1998. The Korean War: an annotated bibliography. US: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. The U.S. Department of State publication. n.d. The Cold War, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam. In USA History in Brief, .
Business communication class. I need support with this Business question so I can learn better.

The theme of this report will be from the following:
BUSINESS CAREER TOPIC – pick a job that you might obtain after you get your degree in a career that you are interested in and research it ( majoring in Business Finance). This should include: job requirements (education, work experience, licenses, skills), salary, benefits, job duties, employment outlook, and more.
See me for a different topic
The following is an outline describing the format and content to follow for the Written Report.
FORMAT: (Please put your information in the following order)
1. Title Page (separate page) +
2. Table of Contents (separate page) +
3. ½ page Executive Summary (separate page) +
4. Minimum of 5 full pages of text, maximum of 7 pages; double-spaced- meaning one blank space between lines (including headings and sections), indent at the beginning of paragraphs. Make sure you write in paragraphs, not outline or listing information. +
5. Bibliography- (separate page) Minimum of four sources and they all can be online sources. You may also interview people doing that job now right now for 2 of your sources.
6. Total # of pages will be between 9 – 11 pages.

Spacing – 1 blank space between Headings, Lines and Paragraphs
Indent at the beginning of a paragraph
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Proofread for spelling, punctuation and grammar.
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Business communication class

Table of Contents Introduction Financial Convergence Income Convergence Industrial Convergence Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Globalisation is the influx of ideas, capital goods, information, and culture in a borderless society (Rajan 3). Over the decades, globalisation has been the buzzword in many economic studies. Aided by market liberalisation and the collapse of communism, economic globalisation has shortened “economic distances” among countries (Westerfield 181). This phenomenon has dominated many academic literatures, as researchers strive to understand the effects of globalisation on the global business space (Rajan 3; Westerfield 181). However, few studies have explored the extent of economic convergence in a global world. From this background, this paper explores the extent that world economies are converging. This focus draws our attention to income convergence (among developing and developed countries), financial convergence, and industrial convergence. These three analyses outline the pillars of this discussion. Financial Convergence Financial convergence partly explains economic convergence in the global economy (Kiely 89). According to Kiely (89), rich and poor nations create a financial complex where both groups of nations exhibit financial surpluses and deficits (depending on their economic power). However, since both groups of countries trade in one global market, they have to co-exist through financial convergence. For example, the Bretton-Woods system outlines one framework where different countries (with different economic structures) trade in one market. Global financial institutions, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have also fostered financial convergence in the same regard (Kiely 88). These institutions support rich and poor nations by providing a framework where rich countries use their surplus money to support nations with deficit budgets. This balance occurs through loans, financial grants, and similar agreements (Kiely 91). This way, the global economy achieves financial stability. Another way that financial convergence occurs in the global economy is using a single monetary currency to benchmark the value of global financial transactions. For example, many nations use the US dollar as the global currency (in most international transactions) (Kiely 91). In this arrangement, the global economy uses the dollar as the main reserve currency. The use of one reserve currency eases global transactions because countries can avoid the confusion and inconvenience of using different currencies in international trade. Furthermore, different economies, around the world, compare their domestic currencies with the dollar. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The trade liberalisation theory explains the streamlining of international trade through a common financial framework (Zafar 4). This theory advocates for the removal of international trade barriers to foster international trade. Although the theory includes a wide scope of trade barriers (such as policies, tariffs, and the likes), using a single currency in international trade equally expresses the need to have a borderless economy. Stated differently, financial convergence (using a single monetary currency), supports the trade liberalisation theory because it allows different countries to trade easily among themselves (Zafar 4). These assessments show that, in the context of economic integration, world economies converge at a financial level. Overall, this analysis shows that global economies converge through financial convergence. Income Convergence Globally, globalisation has manifested itself differently. According to Arrighi and Silver (3), although the economic divide between wealthy and poor nations steadily diminishes, the income divide between members of both groups of countries remains the same. According to Maddison (67), the average income in developed countries (mainly European countries, America, Australia, and Canada) was lower than other countries (in the 1000s). In fact, he says, between the year 1000 and 1800, Asian countries had a higher income than other countries around the world (Maddison 67). However, this balance shifted in favour of western countries, during the 1800s (Maddison 67). Globalisation played a significant role in causing this shift because it created a new capitalistic society that benefitted western countries (in terms of the ownership of capitalistic structures). This situation led to the convergence of high income groups in western countries. In fact, according to Maddison (67), although many countries had increased their incomes through capitalism, developed nations managed to outpace the rate of income growth in developing countries by growing the same index three times faster than their developing counterparts did (Maddison 67). We will write a custom Essay on Convergence of World Economies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Statistics show that by 2003, developed countries had increased their income by about 21-fold, while developing countries had increased their income by a paltry sevenfold (Maddison 67). Consequently, economic integration has created a “convergence club” among members of wealthy states because the income distribution in these countries is favourable to their people. The income disparities between wealthy and poor nations largely stem from the principles of the comparative advantage theory, as explained by David Ricardo (cited in Mankiw 57). The comparative advantage theory advocates for the concentration of production and manufacturing sectors in nations that traditionally enjoy this advantage (Mankiw 57). In other words, the theory suggests that all countries should specialise in producing goods and services that they enjoy a competitive advantage (Mankiw 57). Similarly, the theory proposes that these countries should import goods and services that they do not produce (Mankiw 57). This theory explains why high incomes have traditionally concentrated in wealthy countries because these countries have dominated most manufacturing and production sectors. Comparatively, poor countries are net importers of these goods and services, thereby earning a low income. The comparative advantage theory advocates for this imbalance by supporting the domination of manufacturing and production firms in wealthy countries (Mankiw 57). Therefore, although third world countries have made tremendous progress in economic growth, they still do not enjoy the “high end” income distribution that first world countries enjoy. Consequently, Arrighi and Silver (8) believe the main preoccupation of third world countries is to increase their income distributions to match their first world counterparts (in a globalised society). The convergence of high income in wealthy countries fails to live up to the spirit of economic integration because proponents of globalisation have supported the concept for its potential in reducing income disparities, poverty, and inequality in the global society (Dolvik 6). Indeed, proponents of globalisation say economic integration increases global trade, thereby fostering technological development and labour mobility (especially between wealthy and poor countries) (Dolvik 6). In this regard, proponents of globalisation have suggested a universal best standard of managing the global economy. Similarly, their views propose an “invincible” influence of market forces in correcting income and social inequalities (Dolvik 6). However, based on high-income convergence in wealthy countries and low-income convergence in poor countries, we see the weaknesses of this view (Maddison 67). Stated differently, economic integration has failed to reduce inequalities between developed and developing countries (particularly concerning income distribution). Broadly, it is correct to affirm the existence of a biased income convergence between poor and rich nations (Arrighi and Silver 12). This situation prevails despite the increased industrial convergence between wealthy and poor countries. Not sure if you can write a paper on Convergence of World Economies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Industrial Convergence Industrial convergence refers to the spread and growth of manufacturing firms among different countries in the world (Arrighi and Silver 15). At the start of the industrial revolution, first world countries controlled the world’s manufacturing sector (because most manufacturing companies originated from these countries) (Arrighi and Silver 12). However, in the last five decades, developing countries have shifted this balance and reduced the gap in industrial development between developed and developing countries (Arrighi and Silver 12). This convergence occurred between the 1960s and 1980s, when more third world countries started to produce goods for export to the global market (Arrighi and Silver 12). Adam Smith (cited in Fleischacker 91) has explained this phenomenon through his book, the Wealth of Nations. He said competition among nation-states creates wealth and prosperity (Fleischacker 91). At the centre of his argument is the role of selfish interests in creating wealth among different nations. Stated differently, many countries try to outpace one another through economic development (Arrighi and Silver 12). In the modern world, this competition has occurred through industrial development. Therefore, according to Adam Smith, developing nations have narrowed the gap in industrial development by competing with wealthy nations on the same front (Fleischacker 91). Based on a complete analysis of the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in developing countries, Arrighi and Silver (15) believe developing countries have outpaced developed nations, in terms of industrialisation. They support this assertion by saying, the manufacturing GDP of wealthy countries has dropped in the last decade, while the manufacturing GDP of developing countries has increased in the same period (Arrighi and Silver 15; Maddison 67). The growing dominance of emerging economies, such as China and Thailand, in the global manufacturing sector explains the industrial convergence between developed and developing countries (Maddison 67). Researchers have highlighted many reasons for this industrial convergence, but the de-industrialisation of developed countries emerges as the main explanation for this convergence (Arrighi and Silver 15). In sum, economic integration has helped poor countries to compete with wealthy economies by producing goods and services that compete with capital goods that originate from wealthy countries. This trend has led to the growth of different industrial sectors in developing nations. Particularly, this trend has contributed to the industrial convergence between wealthy and poor nations (Dolvik 6). Conclusion After weighing the findings of this paper, we see that world economies converge on the premise of financial, industrial, and income integration. However, income integration manifests a dual outcome because economic integration has converged high incomes in wealthy countries and low incomes in poor countries. This way, economic integration has strengthened income inequalities between wealthy and poor countries. This outcome emerges from a backdrop of industrial convergence because both groups of countries have narrowed their divide in industrial growth. Therefore, developing nations have caught up with the developed nations by expanding their industrial sectors. Lastly, this paper identifies financial convergence as another attribute of economic integration. The use of the US dollar to benchmark international trade and the use of financial surpluses from wealthy countries to correct budgetary deficits in poor countries are some examples of financial integrations that characterise the global economic space. Overall, this paper highlights financial, income, and industrial convergences as the boundaries of economic convergence in today’s globalised society. Works Cited Arrighi, Giovanni and Silver Beverly. “Industrial Convergence, Globalisation, and the Persistence of the North-South Divide.” Studies in Comparative International Development, 38.1 (2003): 3-31. Print. Dolvik, Eric. The Globalisation Challenge: Convergence or Divergence of National Labour Market Institutions, Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 1999. Print. Fleischacker, Samuel. On Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations: A Philosophical Companion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009. Print. Kiely, Ray. Empire in the Age of Globalisation: US Hegemony and Neoliberal Disorder, London, UK: Pluto Press, 2005. Print. Maddison, Angus. “Shares of the Rich and the Rest in the World Economy: Income Divergence Between Nations, 1820–2030.” Asian Economic Policy Review, 3.1 (2008): 67–82. Print. Mankiw, Nate. Principles of Economics, London, UK: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print. Rajan, Ramkishen. Economic Globalization and Asia: Essays on Finance, Trade and Taxation, New York, NY: World Scientific, 2003. Print. Westerfield, Robert. Current Issues in Globalization, New York, NY: Nova Publishers, 2004. Print. Zafar, Ali. Revenue and the Fiscal Impact of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Niger, Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2005. Print.

Revision to this PowerPoint FLE Agency Presentation PowerPoint – Narrated Revise with this feedback. Add more content to each note section. Great presentation! It was easy to follow along with your

 Add more content to each note section.  Great presentation! It was easy to follow along with your presentation, but one slide was out of order. Considering the subtopics, there is useful research, but there needs to be more content added to your script to give them concrete ways to use this in the classroom. Also, revise the learning task to match what you listed. Be more specific about things they could reflect on after you give them more ways to use this strategy in the classroom. Please make sure to download this copy of your presentation with my feedback and make all necessary changes to receive approval. 

Apple Company’s Design Thinking and Innovation Case Study

nursing essay writing service Table of Contents Most important facts surrounding the case Key issue or issues Alternative courses of action Evaluation of each course of action Recommended best action Most important facts surrounding the case Apple was a troubled company in the 1980s and the early 1990s before it became a successful company. The company faced increased competition and at one time wanted to compete in the cloning space. Its ideas were not taking off and customers at the time were facing a challenge of picking the right products for their needs. There was too much proliferation of models. Apple at the time was using a traditional approach in the manufacture and sale of new products. Apple eventually abandoned the traditional approach to business and embraced the design thinking approach. It took up a cohesive method, which includes four key steps. It is characterized by excellence in execution, platform strategy, iterative customer involvement, and eventually beautiful products. Key issue or issues Apple’s excellence in execution began when Steve Jobs returned to the company. He spearheaded the quest to develop insanely great products and wanted to have a core working approach that ensured there was a big rise in sales. In the use of a platform strategy, the design of the initial product as a platform was critical to its relevancy and eventual success in the market. A platform allowed the company to come up with derivative products. For example, the iPod was a platform and iPod mini was its derivative product. The company insisted on ensuring that customer experience goals were part of design and development. It embraced the belief that the interface was critical to device functionality and acceptance by users. Therefore, there were increased tests for users to ensure execution happened smoothly. Lastly, Apple put design at the centre of manufacturing to make sure products came out beautiful and attractive in all standards. Beauty also called for the use of new materials and manufacturing processes and allowed the company to stay bold and not stick to playing it safe. The key issue was the sustainability of the design approach and the transition of leadership, given that the CEO was the chief innovator in the company. Alternative courses of action One alternative would be to apprentice a new leader, who would work closely with the CEO in understanding the chief innovation culture at the company. Another option would be to come up with self-executing teams and a standard board of approval within the company. The board would ensure that new products meet specific company ideologies and best practices before they are introduced into the market. On the other hand, the independent teams would retain their freedom to be creative. Evaluation of each course of action Apple, with Tim Cook working closely with Steve Jobs as the operations director, adopted the first course of action. The transition was smooth because Jobs left work and still served as chairman of the board. This would ensure that he could still direct strategy to some extent and play a critical advisory role. The second option would still allow Steve Jobs, upon resigning, to advise the company’s product quality board. Teams would be able to come up with independent designs and product concepts faster and conduct parallel user tests, while following the beautiful and user-friendliness design approach. The board, on the other hand, would ensure products stuck to a platform mentality, as either core products or additions. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommended best action The best course of action is to go with the one CEO successor, who retains absolute control of the company’s innovation process. Although the second alternative is enticing, as it can increase the rate of innovation, it is susceptible to misdirection and high expenditures. Therefore, a strong position of the CEO as chief innovator is crucial for Apple’s success. The company should think of either developing new platforms or improving the beauty and useful features of the present design.

Physics homework help

Physics homework help. Respond thoughtfully to five (5) questions from the Post-Reading Reflections questions in Chapter 7, and five (5) Post-Reading Reflections questions in Chapter 8. Make sure you write the question first and number each response.ÿÿChapter 71.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Explain the role hedonistic thinking played in the origins of Stoicism.2.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ How did Cynicism Influence Stoicism? Be specific.3.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ What is the relationship of Socrates to Cynicism and Stoicism?4.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ How are the Logos and fate related in Stoicism?5.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Identify and discuss possible problems with the Stoic notion of fate.6.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Stoicism was quickly absorbed into Christianity. Identify and comment on any similarities you are aware of.7.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ What is the disinterested rational will, and why is it important to Stoic doctrine?8.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ What do the Stoics think falls under our control? What do the Stoics think does not fall under our control? Do you agree? Why or why not?9.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Discuss the difference between avoidable and unavoidable suffering. How can we tell which is which? Why does it matter?10.ÿÿ Explain the Stoic attitude toward relationships. How does it differ from today?s attitudes? What do you see as important strengths and weaknesses of each perspective?11.ÿÿ What does Seneca mean when he says ?I account you unfortunate because you have never been unfortunate because you have never unfortunate?? How do the Stoics interpret suffering? What do you think of this view?12.ÿÿ What do you think of James Stockdale?s claim that a good philosophical education is highly practical? Give his position and then comment on it.Chapter 8 1.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Compare and contrast the classical worldview with the medieval.2.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ What basic conditions led to the development of Christian philosophy? Where did the need for interpretation come from?3.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ In your own words, describe the chief characteristics of Scholastic scholarship.4.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ In what ways is the medieval scholar the forerunner of the modern professor?5.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Which of the Five Ways do you think is the weakest? Explain why.6.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Which of the Five Ways do you think is the most convincing? Explain why.7.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ In general terms, compare and contrast scientific attempts to explain the origin of the universe with theological or philosophical ones.8.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ What is evil, according to Thomas?9.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ According to Thomas, what is the relationship of free will to love?Physics homework help

IT 407 SEU Innovation Systems Analytical and Methodological Issues Discussion Ques

IT 407 SEU Innovation Systems Analytical and Methodological Issues Discussion Ques.

Q1- New technology is created to solve problems in everyday life. However, the use of technology can create new issues that need to be solved. Give three examples for such technologies and explain the new issues created from using them. (Examples should not be from the book in attachment). 2$Q2- Ahmad uses a caller ID app which helps him identify undesired calls or spam calls by showing him the name of the caller even if the caller phone number is not in Ahmad’s contact list. The application works by uploading Ahmad’s and other users’ contact list to a database after taking permission from users such as Ahmad. However, the application does not take the permissions from the people who are in Ahmad’s contact list. From Kantian 1st and 2nd formulation perspective, is it wrong for Ahmad to use This application? 2$ ( answer should not be just yes or no)Q3- What are the five characteristics of the Internet that make censorship more difficult? 2$Q4- There is a close correspondence between rights and duties. If you have a right to free health care when you are ill, then others have the duty to make sure you receive it. Rights can be classified according to the duties they put on others. List and explain each classification. 2$______________________________________ you can use the book in attachment or search for answers in other sources if this book not enough (except for Q1)I hope that your answers are as required in each question and are accuratePlease write by using your own words.
IT 407 SEU Innovation Systems Analytical and Methodological Issues Discussion Ques

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