BE SURE TO WRITE ONLY ONE INITIAL DISCUSSION POST, TO INCLUDE BOTH THE WRITTEN AND VISUAL TEXTS: DISCUSS BOTH IN ONE POST TO ENSURE FULL CREDIT AND AVOID DEDUCTIONS. DO NOT MAKE 2 SEPARATE POSTS!For this week’s discussion we will analyze and compare texts (written and visual) with specific focus on theme and tone.PLEASE DO NOT ATTACH WORD DOCUMENTS TO THE DISCUSSION FORUMS. TYPE DIRECTLY IN THE TEXT BOX, OR TYPE IN WORD AND THEN COPY/PASTE.Definition of Tone:Tone is the attitude of a writer/artist toward a subject. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint. Written and visual pieces have a central theme or subject matter. The manner in which a writer approaches this theme and subject is the tone. The tone can be formal, informal, serious, comic, sarcastic, sad, or cheerful, or it may be any other existing attitude.Read about Stance (tone) on p. 66 in Norton Field Guide to Writing For this discussion, complete one main post and two peer responses. For full participation credit, posts must occur on three or more days during the active week. First post should occur on or before Wednesday. See rubric for full assessment of discussion posts.Post #1 Defining tone by analyzing details. For your initial post, respond to all questions on written text and on visual texts (3 + 3 =6)Read both selections:”Us and Them” David Sedaris, pp 883- 889″Who is Malala?” Malala Yousafzai, pp 900 – 905 For the Written Text answer the following questions:What is author’s purpose in each piece?Describe the tone of each story. Share a section of each that illustrates the tone and mood.Compare and contrast the two pieces. What elements are similar? What elements are different? Which is more effective in reaching the author’s purpose?Visual Text:Compare and contrast the following portraits. You can identify them as Left, Middle, Right.Describe each one by using sensory details, the tone or mood the portraits present. Imagine who one of these men are and write a brief (two sentences) biography.For Your Peer Responses: Respond to two of your peers’ posts by commenting on your peer’s thesis and significant detail. Encouragement is welcome but try to do more than simply agree with their choice, ask a question, offer suggestions, share an example, or comment on the thesis or message. Minimum 150 wordsRequirements:For full participation credit, a minimum of three posts must occur on three or more days during the active week.First post should occur on or before Wednesday.All posts should include word count. Initial post should be 250 words minimum and peer responses should be 150 words minimum.Posts discussing written texts should include quotes with APA in-text citation and reference.See Discussion Rubric for full assessment of discussion posts.36
ESOL Keiser University Comparison Between Two Pieces of Written Discussion
MATH 101 Bergen Community College Geometry in Architecture Discussion
MATH 101 Bergen Community College Geometry in Architecture Discussion.
For this last journal entry, I want you to find images that utilize
Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry in some way. To earn a 10/10 on this assignment,
perform the following three tasks:
1. Upload a photo of a piece of architecture that you find interesting and utilizes Euclidean
Geometry in some way. Briefly explain how!
2. Upload a photo of a piece of architecture that you find interesting and utilizes NonEuclidean Geometry in some way. Briefly explain how!
3. Can you think of an example of a scene from a movie or TV show or a piece of artwork
that utilizes Geometry in a cool and interesting way? Include a screenshot/image of this
instance and explain why you think it’s interesting
MATH 101 Bergen Community College Geometry in Architecture Discussion
Connections between Different Realms of Being: Upanisads Expository Essay
essay writer Introduction The term upanisad has attracted the attention of many scholars. In fact, the term has created a schism between the older generation of scholars and more recent experts in this field. For example, the older generation of scholars views this concept in terms of the relationship that exists between a teacher and a student. In essence, they view the concept as a form of teaching. On their part, more recent scholars in this field view the concept in terms of the different realms of being. To this end, they view it in terms of the various connections between the various realms of being. The current essay is written against this backdrop. In this essay, the author explores the idea of connections as a way of understanding upanisads. To this end, the author will analyze the various characteristics of the people who enjoyed this work in the past. In addition, the author will analyze what these people expected in a literary work and other cultural products. Their expectations will be analyzed in the context of their relationship with upanisads. Overview Upanisad is a name that has Hindu origins. The word encompasses upa and shad connotations. The former segment of the word literally means to “sit”. On its part, the latter segment translates to “near.” From an etymological point of view, the word refers to “sitting down near”. The translation simply refers to the act of seating at the feet of an enlightened instructor. The instructor referred to here is a teacher offering intimate spiritual instructions to the student. It is important to note that the instructor is different from his students in the sense that he has retired from the world of ashram where students exist.1 Different scholars have described upanisad concepts in different and compelling ways. Their descriptions vary depending on their belief systems. For example, Olivelle describes the term upanisad in terms of connections. Olivelle is one of the modern scholars who have written a lot around this concept. He describes the term as the connection between different realms of being.2 Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the sections that follow, the author of this paper will discuss the existence of different realms of being with regards to Upanisad. Before embarking on this analysis, however, it is important to first give a brief historical background on the origins of upanisad. The historical context will help analyze and understand this term better. Upanisads: Themes and origins Upanisad is thought to have emerged between 800 and 500 BCE. It emerged during the later Vedic period. There are more than 200 forms of upanisads, but only about 14 of them are regarded as important. The 14 forms include, among others, the Isa, Mandkya, chandogya, and Katho.3 It is important to point out at this juncture that the 14 upanisads are not meant for instruction or inspiration. On the contrary, they are meant to be elongated by an illuminated instructor based on their personal experience. Students exhibit intellectual deficiency that is in accordance with the various upanisad doctrines. As such, the intellectual realm of being tries to connect with the inadequate intellectual realm to enable the brain deal with relations and other things. To this end, direct perception and intuition is what encompasses full understanding as far as intellectuality is concerned.4 Basic connections and principles in the upanisads There are basic principles and connections associated with the upanisads concept. They include, among others, explanation of the concepts of life, death, existence, as well as knowledge. In addition, the element of skepticism is distinctively shaped by the existence of principles like samsara, karma, and moksha. The principles above describe the kind of connections that exist between different realms of being.5 Samsara, according to Doniger and Olivelle, literally means reincarnation.6 In this regard, it is believed that after death, souls are reborn and come back as another being. There are different realms with regards to this reincarnation. The realms encompass, among others, animals, humans, and even other gods. We will write a custom Essay on Connections between Different Realms of Being: Upanisads specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such gods attain the realm in a specific way. Some involve death and resurrection.7 Therefore, samsara may also be regarded as a continuous flow. The concept is prominent in different religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism among others.8 Karma is another concept that describes the connections between different realms of being. The concept refers to the effects of actions and deeds that determine the kind or quality of life in a given cycle. With regards to human beings, the concept dictates the future destiny of a person. Such a destiny is determined on the basis of what was done by the person in a previous life cycle. In essence, what this concept means is that what went into one cycle will come out or be reflected in the next life cycle. Adherents of different religions believe that there is no distinct beginning or end to these vicious cycles. They seem to build on (and into) each other. Connections between these different realms may lead to discomfort. That is why individuals should struggle and avoid events that may lead to such discomforts in a later cycle.9 Karma leads into another concept that is believed to help beings not to deviate from the norm. Moksha, as a concept, is very important. It sets one free from samsara. The latter revolves around death and rebirth. From an eschatological point of view, moksha is liberation from ignorance. Such liberation leads a person to a path of enlightenment and self realization.10 Yoga is another concept through which an individual can realize or achieve supreme reality. For instance, it is believed that karma leads to maksha. Apart from karma, there are other forms of yoga that leads to liberation. They include, among others, bhakti and jnana. The former is an aspect of devotion, while the latter is an element of knowledge.11 Section Summary From the analysis provided in this section, it is clear that there are different connections existing between realms of being. The author agrees with Olivelle’s assertion that upanisad is the connection between different realms of being. Definition and Description of Terms Upakosa Upakosa is one of the many mythical expressions of Hindu philosophy. In a mythical story of the Seven Vazirs, Upakosa is regarded as the wife to Vararuchi. When Vararuchi was away, Upakosa attracted many suitors, including the domestic priest of the King. Others included the Guard’s Commander and the young prince. The suitors annoyed her with their importunities. Not sure if you can write a paper on Connections between Different Realms of Being: Upanisads by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Upakosa hatched a plan to not only expose them, but also to punish their persistent behavior. The story is called Upakosa and the Four Lovers. It is constantly used to teach people how to avoid the bother of people who want to exploit them.12 Upakosa is importuned by the three suitors and decided to teach them a lesson by persecuting her husband. She welcomed each one of them at intervals. The arrangement was that by the time the second one was arriving, the other one was taking a bath. The second was told that Vararuchi was around and was having a bath. He would be hidden in a bin full of feather. All of them are treated this way. They were later embarrassed and chased out of the door. The whole village snapped at them and made fun of how they were running away.13 Mahadevivyakka It is another term common in Hindu philosophy. It refers to a 12th century mythological poet from the Karnataka region. The name was coined by a woman named Akka Mahadevi. It literally means elder sister Mahadevi of South India.14 Akka Mahadevi was in love with her Lord and she created poetic phrases that referred to him as Chenna Mallikarijuna. The term meant the Lord who is as white as jasmine, the glittering object. Akka Mahadevi remains a household name in India, especially in Karnataka region. She is famous for her poetic and mythological expressions. For instance, she is of the opinion that many people know her name. However, many people forget that she had dedicated her entire life to Lord Shiva. She refused to live a luxurious life and opted to wander around. She was referred to as the wandering poetic saint who expresses her praises to Lord Shiva.15 As an anachronistic expression, Mahadevivyakka is important as it empowers women. Many women associate themselves with Mahadevvyakka phrases. The expressions are regarded as declarations made by a woman. They touch on monotheism and related belief systems. The concept, therefore, expresses the belief that there is only one God through declarations and praises to Lord Shiva.16 Allama Prabhu Allama Prabhu is a mythological saint found in poetic expressions called Vachanakara. The expressions originated from the Kannada language during the 12th century. They regard Prabhu as the patron or the master of the saints. Prabhu is regarded as the undisputed spiritual saint famous among the Lingayata. Lingayata are those devoted to God Para Shiva.17 Allama Prabhu led to a movement that changed the entire Karnataka. It is also present in the Trinity of Linyatism activities. It spurred socio-religious activities characterized by poetic expressions that reshaped Karnataka and the surrounding regions. The socio-religious movement involved a number of prominent persons. They included Lady Akka Mahadevi, who is regarded as the most prominent female poet.18 Prabhu is a common term in India. It is used in reference to Supreme Lord. The name is also used by male devotees when addressing each other, especially for the first time. Is some regions in Asia, the name of a devotee is appended to Prabhu. In some instances, the name is also used when referring to royalty. Therefore, Allama Prabhu is a word associated with leading a saintly life. It is also used when referring to those who are devoted to religious aspects of Allama Prabhu.19 Vira-Saiva (veera-shaiva) The religion was introduced by Panchacharyas in the late 11th century. It became popular in early 12th century. Basavana was one of the prominent persons who made Veerashaivism popular in 12th century. The religion was a shift from the common Hinduism and centered on Lord Shiva. The shift was in the form of linga and up to date, it is famously referred to as Lingayatism.20 Individuals who are devoted to this faith are referred to as Langayats, Vera-siva, in religious terms, means absolute reality. The authority of the Vedas and agamas takes precedence in these devotions. Other Hindu beliefs, including Karma, were abolished by those who followed lingayatism.21 The Veershaiva or Lingayat encompasses five important spiritual souls that define the belief system. The five included Renukacharya, Vishwaradhya, and Marularadhya. Many people are of the opinion that the five spiritual souls are related to Linga Shiva. They are teachers who have a lot of experience. Apart from Basavana, there are other prominent personalities that have made contributions to the emergence of Lingayatism. They include, among others, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. Therefore, it can be stated that Veera-shaiva is the kind of devotion centered on Lingayatism. It glorified Lord Shiva in the form of Linga doctrines.22 Annamaya Annamayya, also referred to as Annamacharya, is another Hindu saint. He lived between 1410 and 1503. He was the first Indian musician to compose songs that were referred to as sankirtanas. The songs he composed praised Venkateswara, a Hindu God known as Vishnu.23 The music produced is in the form of keertana. It involves eulogizing and praising. During devotions, the songs involve one person calling out as the others respond through chanting. The keertana songs are common in carnatic, a kind of music found in Southern India.24 Annamayya is recognized for many things. He not only led a saintly life, but also devoted himself to Bhagwaan Govinda with the help of other saint musicians. Bhagwaan Govinda refers to Vishnu. The latter simply means the one who has graduated and recognized by Vedas. Over 36,000 sankeertanas have been composed and are used in Vishnu devotions. However, only 12,000 can be found today.25 In summary, Annamayya is the origine of songs and poems used in worshiping Vishnu. The praise involves expression of love, as well as arguing and quarreling with Vishnu. Apart from surrendering to the Venkateshwara, the songs are also used by the devotees to confess their sins to God.26 Bibliography Buitenen, Van. The Maitrayaniya Upanisad: A Critical Essay, with Text, Translation, and Commentary. Gravenhage: Mouton, 2001. Doniger, Wendy, and Patrick Olivelle. “Upanisads. The World’s Classics.” The Journal of Asian Studies 56, no. 3 (1997) : 829-901. Mittal, Sushil, and Gene Thursby. The Hindu World. New York: Routledge, 2004. Olivelle, Patrick. Ascetics and Brahmins Studies in Ideologies and Institutions. London: Anthem Press, 2011. Olivelle, Patrick. Language, Texts, and Society Explorations in Ancient Indian Culture and Religion. London: Anthem Press, 2011. Olivelle, Patrick. The Dharmasuì-tras the Law Codes of AÌ„pastamba, Gautama, BaudhaÌ„yana, and VasistÌ£hÌ£a. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Sastri, Nilakanta. A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, 2002. Vail, Lise. “Unlike a Fool, he is not defiled: Ascetic Purity and Ethics in the Samnyasa Upanisads.” Journal of Religious Ethics 30, no. 3 (2002) : 373-397. Footnotes 1. Patrick Olivelle, Language, Texts, and Society Explorations in Ancient Indian Culture and Religion (London: Anthem Press, 2011), 59. 2. Ibid, 63. 3. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India from Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar (New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press, 2002), 104. 4. Sastri, 105. 5. Patrick Olivelle, Ascetics and Brahmins Studies in Ideologies and Institutions (London: Anthem Press, 2011), 69. 6. Wendy Doniger and Patrick Olivelle, “Upanisads. The World’s Classics,” The Journal of Asian Studies 56, no. 3 (1997) : 834. 7. Van Buitenen, The Maitrayaniya Upanisad: A Critical Essay, with Text, Translation, and Commentary (Gravenhage: Mouton, 2001), 72. 8. Lise Vail, “Unlike a Fool, he is not defiled: Ascetic Purity and Ethics in the Samnyasa Upanisads,” Journal of Religious Ethics 30, no. 3 (2002) : 378. 9. Vail, 379. 10. Patrick Olivelle, The Dharmasuì-tras- the Law Codes of AÌ„pastamba, Gautama, BaudhaÌ„yana, and VasistÌ£hÌ£a (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 85. 11. Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, The Hindu World (New York: Routledge, 2004), 43. 12. Vail, 380. 13 Ibid 381. 14. Olivelle, Language, Texts, and Society, 87. 15. Ibid, 89. 16. Olivelle, Ascetics and Brahmins Studies, 73. 17. Olivelle, Language, Texts, and Society, 89. 18. Olivelle, The dharmasuì-tras, 88. 19. Ibid. 20. Vail, 386. 21. Ibid, 385. 22. Ibid. 23. Ibid. 24. Ibid. 25. Olivelle, Ascetics and Brahmins Studies, 89. 26. Ibid, 90.
The Great Gatsby’ by Scott Fitzgerald Literature Analysis Essay (Movie Review)
The Great Gatsby’ by Scott Fitzgerald Literature Analysis Essay (Movie Review). In his novel The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald pays much attention to the behavior and attitudes of women. In particular, the author describes them as subordinate figures whose choices are not fully independent. It is possible to look at such characters as Daisy Buchanan, Jordan Baker, and Myrtle Wilson. Overall, their choices are driven by the desire to belong to the world of elite. Moreover, men can use and manipulate them by showing that they can bring them into this world. Overall, the author introduces these characters in order to describe the experiences of women during the Roaring Twenties. To some degree, this issue is explored in the film adaptation of this novel. These are the main questions that should be discussed more closely. First, one can describe the behavior of Daisy Buchanan. This female character wants to shows that she belongs to the higher classes of the society. Nevertheless, this woman is very vulnerable, and she is strongly dependent on the wealth that men can offer to her. This is one of the reasons why she chooses to marry Tom Buchanan. Moreover, she confesses that she “never loved him” (Fitzgerald 103). On the whole, she understands that her sophistication does not enable her to feel self-sufficient. This issue is also explored in the film adaptation of this novel that was released in 2013 (The Great Gatsby). Overall, this example is important because it shows that many women, who lived during the Roaring Twenties, did not receive liberation that they could crave for. Further Research When and Why Did Gatsby Change His Name? 4.4 673 Why Did Daisy Marry Tom in The Great Gatsby? 5 197 What Does Gatsby Want from Daisy in Chapter 6? 5 47 Who Attended Gatsby’s Funeral? 5 79 Where Is Nick Carraway From? 5 33 What Does Nick Mean by the Last Line of The Great Gatsby? 5 30 It is also possible to mention such a character as Jordan Baker who is both cynical and self-centered. This woman enjoys the idea that she can manipulate men. Nevertheless, she does not want to accept that her life has been mostly driven by deception. For example, she chooses to avoid men who attach much importance to the inner world of a woman. This is one of the reasons why she does not want to continue her relationship with Nick. Overall, this woman wants to demonstrate that she is a successful person, but she understands that her behavior is a form of pretence. Her tragedy is typical of many women who lived during the Roaring Twenties. This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished. One can also discuss the behavior of Myrtle Wilson since she reflects the values of some women who lived in America at the beginning of the twentieth century. For instance, she wants to gain access to the elite world. This is one of the reasons why she despises her husband. Moreover, she is attracted to Tom because he can enable her to achieve her ambitious goals. This is one of the details that can be identified. The screen version of the novel demonstrates that this woman is unhappy. One can say that each of these three characters is important for the writer because they enable the viewers to understand the values of many women living at the time when the novel was written. This is one of the issues that can be singled out. On the whole, these examples show that women in the novel cannot act in an independent way. To some degree, their behavior is a response to the actions of males. However, at the same time, they emphasize that they belong to the elite world. This is one of the reasons why men are able to manipulate them. These are the main arguments that can be put forward. Works Cited Fitzgerald, Scott. The Great Gatsby, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Print. The Great Gatsby. Ex. Prod. Lucy Fisher. New York: Warner Brothers, 2013. DVD. The Great Gatsby’ by Scott Fitzgerald Literature Analysis Essay (Movie Review)
Therapeutic Value of Art and History of Art Therapy
Therapeutic Value of Art and History of Art Therapy. Therapy Emotions Artistic Becoming An Art Therapist “Art therapy is a type of psychotherapy that encourages the expression of emotions through artistic activities such as painting, drawing or sculpture; psychotherapy based on the belief that the creative process involved in the making of art is healing and life-enhancing” (Webster’s Dictionary). Art therapy opens a creative world for those who cannot express the way they feel by use of verbal communication. To some people, are not enough. Expression through painting, sculpting, and drawing assists one in overcoming the effects of traumatic or unpleasant happenings in his life. Art therapy is a field that is beneficial to people of all ages, gender, emotional status, or mental ability. It is necessary to examine the knowledge of products resulting from and various methods utilized in a variety of disciplines in order to fully understand the vast benefits of implementing art therapy (Repko, 2005). It is used for a wide variety of conditions such as: the terminally ill, mentally challenged, emotionally disturbed, those afflicted with eating disorders, the abused both physically and verbally, and many more. The goal of Art Therapy is free and open expression, emotional well-being, mental stability and well-balanced coping skills for the client. In the profession of Psychology, use of Art Therapy is considered a most crucial component in evaluating, diagnosing and treating patients. Analysis of a person’s psyche and mental health is often difficult with the single use of verbal communication. The use of art in healing dates back to the ancient drawings on walls of caves, revealing that although the profession of Art Therapy appears very young in the family of mental health disciplines it is very old and personally natural in practice. There is even evidence that the creative act of art may have prevented or forestalled more serious mental disorders for painters such as Blake, Munch or Van Gogh (McNiff, 1980). Patients who are given the opportunity to free themselves of inhibitions stemming from inner hesitations of new experiences, parental influences, cultural or economic are able to express deep fears, even fantasies or wishes through the expression of art. It is the symbolic language of images that initiates the surfacing of feelings and emotions that one often cannot or dares not to express verbally (Meltzer, 1948). As people outgrow inhibitions their personalities are freed and they can express and project feelings as well as face events that once disturbed them. In therapy, the developmental stages of art expression go from quite restricted and simplistic stereotypic models to images with actual faces or events expressed. Frustrated or once disassociated personalities are released and reintegrated through the use of art expression (McNiff, 1948). Art is often neglected as a serious academic subject in educational institutions. However, with further investigation it can compliment even the most difficult educational programs. Art is important to every student, but especially in programs educating handicapped or exceptional children. J. Dewey expressed in his drive to develop humanness in exceptional children that “…artistic activity is the way in which one may gain in strength and stature, the belief in his own powers, and the self respect which makes artistic activity constructive in the growth of personality” (Dewey, 1970 as sited in Integration of Art Education into Special Education Programs, 1976, n.p.). Curiosity is emerging about the therapeutic values of art, where once there was an emphasis on cognition art is becoming recognized as beneficial in the development and growth of individuals. The goal of both art therapist and art teacher is for an individual to realize his full ego. Teachers and therapists strive to master techniques which affect and develop the inner psyche of students. Margaret Naumburg was the first educator who had a sophisticated understanding of the importance of art in education. She incorporated free art expression into her work and published writings about her experiences. Teachers joined clinicians and educators in institutions dealing with handicapped, the bereaved and the mentally ill (Rubin, 1980). Intense and long-term education with clinical practice is required for an Art Therapist to obtain certification. The very nature of altering one’s personality or well-being in therapy necessitates the seriousness in consideration of the academic and practical preparation of an art therapist. The American Art Therapy Association was formed to regulate and determine and delineate the degree of education and training of art therapists. Standards of registration include strict guidelines with requirements including a master’s program with a highly valued emphasis on graduate training under the supervision and tutelage of art therapists and psychotherapists within clinical settings (McNiff, 1980). A wide variety of disciplines could be examined to understand the value of Art Therapy. Some are: sociology, psychology, economics, artand education. The scope of this paper will focus onhow art therapy is used in analyzing the psychological health of patients and treatment of; the development of individuality through art incorporated into education; and the aesthetic value of expression through the creative act of art. The most critical disciplines to determine the benefits of Art Therapy incorporated into its goal are psychology, art, and education. Examining the perspective of psychology will allow understanding of how a person can be evaluated for emotional and mental health, and methods of treatment prescribed to achieve the ultimate of balanced well-being through the use of the creative act. Psychology is the science of the status of the mind and it processes. Many conditions and happenings in life affect an individual’s physical and mental health. It is imperative to evaluate and prescribe the most beneficial methods of treatment to achieve this balance of mental status. Examining the perspective of art will reveal how expression of emotion and experience within the freedom of verbal communication has a healing affect on an individual and can rid him of past traumas or harmful experiences that prevent ultimate health. Art is the production of what is appealing, considered beautiful or that which is of more than ordinary significance. The avenue of communication through this type of creative expression enhances all individuals who utilize it. Not only is aesthetic value received through artistic expression, rather the therapeutic value far outweighs the former benefits. Finally, in looking at the perspective of education may explain why there is a necessity of years of academic instruction and clinical practice to obtain the certification of art therapy. Education is considered the intellectual preparation for mature life through acquiring knowledge. Its goal is to develop the power to reason based on knowledge and instruction that is imparted to the student. The profession of Art Therapy requires many years of academic study as well as clinical study and internship to obtain certification. Intense focus is on the importance of proper study and training to perform art therapy with an individual. Research of articles, journals and literary information pertaining to each discipline will be conducted. Products of the three disciplines mentioned concerning art therapy will be discussed such as American Art Therapy Association standards and requirements, artistic work of individuals before and after treatment, and exhibits of artistic expression from a variety of painters. The effectiveness of art therapy will also be revealed through drawings and paintings exhibited by different artists and individuals. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the therapeutic value of free expression in drawing, sculpting and the use of images; how art expands the imagination and educational scope of children and adults; and how the development of personality and character is affected when allowed expression through non- verbal means. By looking at similarities in the end product of individuals through various disciplines, the benefits of implementing art therapy will be revealed. Background Art Therapy (All in bold will be defined in Appendix A) began its history in the 1930s in America because of the efforts of Margaret Naumburg. In thirty years it developed into seven courses taught in five institutions by four art therapists including Ms. Naumburg. By 1971 four programs offered master’s degrees in art therapy. These degrees were offered in universities, a medical college and a college known for its fine arts studies. Single courses in art therapy were offered across the country in academic institutions as supplemental education. The historical background of art therapy began very slowly with seemingly nothing happening and then it developed with great speed (Agell, 1980). In the early development of art therapy professionals used it as case work for treating children with behavioral problems in residencies and special schools, hospitalized patients and private clients. “Art therapists who, convinced of the special qualities inherent in art, persuaded others – artists, teachers, and clinicians – that art expression provided an enduring, moving, and sometimes exquisite message of human experience” (Agell, 1980, p. 9). During the pioneering days, many therapists had been doing art therapy but didn’t know what to call the process or results of something special that was happening in their work. Elinor Utman founded the American Journal of Art Therapy in 1961. This publication provided information regarding the therapeutic use of art in professions. It also enabled art therapists who had formerly been isolated to be unified. This ultimately led to the founding of the American Art Therapy Association (AATA) in 1969 that gave therapists a structure for promoting their field of work, and its ultimate priority was to support the training development of art therapists. Two documents, Guidelines for ArtTherapy Training and Guidelines were created to provide the fundamental standards for training and the educational level required for certification of art therapy. It was determined that professional certification should be with a Master’s degree with recommended didactic and practicum experience (Agell, 1980). Art therapy has developed into four categories: recreational, occupation, general therapeutic and actual art therapy. These types of therapy are typically used with a variety of patients; the most intensive application of the therapy was used on institutionalized tubercular patients. Handicrafts and major arts were used to aid in the depression caused by elongated institutionalization. Physically handicapped patients were trained how to use other limbs or a different set of learning functions. Neurologically impaired patients such as those with cerebral palsy, mongoloid or the blind experienced the benefit of release or development of a satisfactory degree of intellectual functioning through the creative act of art. Those with mental and psychologically deviant conditions experienced art therapy as a therapeutic process and sometimes as a curative process. Art therapy was used for the occupational benefit as well as for enjoyment. “With the retarded and pathological child we have begun to realize the great help that can be gained from art psychotherapy in the youngest age group (Harms, 1975, p. 242). Research in progress shows that we ought first to distinguish between intellectual and perceptive learning. An impaired child will comprehend a branch of green leaves or a flower much more readily if it is not only explained to him but if he also has drawn it with crayons. The creative method of comprehending is not only much simpler but also reaches deeper into the apperceptive nature of the young child” (Harms, 1975, p.242). Development of Art therapy is used for people with health issues. Anna, age twelve, is a patient who came to treatment after having suffered many traumatic experiences due to a heart defect. She endured five major cardiac surgeries and had many problems that compounded her condition other than the physical difficulties. Having been sexually abused by a family member she exhibited difficulty coping with her feelings about the issues in her life causing stomach aches and a lack in friendships. Anna’s treatment included art therapy and resulted in better management of her anxiety and depression. A part of her treatment was to create a collage to draw out the subconscious feelings she had reached regarding her life issues. The focus of treatment and healing was her serious medical condition along with abuses. Anna’s depiction of herself in the collage was a figure with a large head and small body shown in the center of the paper. She had cut out magazine and placed the “good” describing herself on the right of her head and to the left, the “bad”. It was determined that she could not see both sides as a part of the whole head indicating she viewed herself as divided. It was only through art instead of traditional verbal therapy that this depiction of self was revealed. Though she was initially unaware of the divided view of herself through art therapy she reached a measure of healing resulting in healthier coping skills. This was confirmed by the change of images in her art, proving the benefit of art in treatment as well as recovery (Lees, 2003-2005). Victims of violent physical abuse also benefit from art therapy in that they are able to express in images horrible experiences that are either no longer conscious or are too painful to verbalize. As a sexual abuse survivor Susan exhibited a common theme of confusion of feelings and devaluation of self that is often only revealed through art. Art therapy reveals through images the impact the violence of sexual abuse creates. The first drawing of Susan reflected her pain with a single tear on an expressionless face. Her torment was silent, but through continued use of art she was able to express her suppressed emotions and the feelings that overwhelmed her. Progressive pictures depicted images of her feelings of loneliness and helplessness. Art allowed Susan to step outside herself and view what her feelings look like. This was a step used for her to learn how to own her true feelings. Through art she was able to see herself as a grown woman with an inner child. The colors in her art turned from black and colorless to vibrant and vivid. Emotions of anger appeared after the fifth drawing and as art drawings continued through treatment deeper emotions were depicted in the images and color selection. Through art therapy Susan was able to work through the steps of healing which brought hope of a new life without the pain from past experiences (Lees, 2003-2005). A third use of art therapy is with people who have challenges living in the normal realm of life. Children with autism benefit from art therapy by the opportunity to express and communicate with the world through images since they often cannot verbally. Sung, a Korean five year old girl, was filmed with a 35 mm camera to determine the benefit of art in autistic children. In her first session she became familiarized with the supplies used in art – sketchbook and a box of bright wax craypas. Her first drawings were banana-like arcs with heavy lines or large solid dots also containing rectangular patches. Other forms come and go in her depictions. Eventually she became “mesmerized by activity which fills her entire visual field and is absorbed by the deepening color and her rapidly moving hand seen from scant inches away” (Kellman, 2004, p.13). Sung’s art developed into additional shapes and a common images of heads with big solid eye dots and facial features. As time went on her pictures became more detailed including bodies with clothes and thinner lines. Paints and origami were introduced which developed dexterity. She was able to develop keen vision with spatial capacities as well as the control of fine motor skills. Her art revealed that autistic children frequently “focus on the geometric structure of a visual scene and on the forms and structures of objects themselves in their drawings” (Kellman, 2004, p.16). Sung was developing her available skills through art. Art therapy has developed into an essential and beneficial form of treatment and therapy. The above three scenarios prove the variety of uses in the expressive language of art. People with physical, mental or emotional difficulties are able to heal or develop with the use of art expression. The extent of healing/development can be measured through the progression of detail in the images. The scope of treatment is determined by the extent or type of art medium necessary. From its beginning in the 1930s, art therapy has developed and become recognized as an authentic therapy to assist people through a variety of disciplines. The objective of this paper is to explain how to become a successful art therapist by showing examples of treatments and giving the guidelines of the educational process. Integrating several disciplines forms a holistic, comprehensive understanding of how to accomplish this profession by using the Comprehensive Perspectives Model (Repko, 2005). Psychology not only benefits the therapist but is also the core reason patients turn to art therapy. Having a background in psychology will give an understanding of the brain and gives insights of how to cope and treat the issue. Art consists of the therapeutic process of learning to show emotion by using drawing pencils, paints and clay for sculpturing. Any individual can benefit from art alone because it subconsciously uses all the senses. Education is what ties the two above disciplines together. Psychology and art alone are very different but with having the proper process in both, together they form a creative solution for those not only in need of therapy, but for all. References Psychology Evans, R.,Therapeutic Value of Art and History of Art Therapy