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This program pays for medical care to assist persons and families who cannot afford it. History Medicaid was established under President Lyndon B. Johnson through the Social Security Amendment of 1965, to provide medical coverage to all elderly aged 65 and over and to the poor. In 1972, the social security Act were more developed creating ederal Medicaid benefits to disable people and persons in the end stages of renal disease. Eligibility Medicaid is the nation’s largest health coverage program for over 60 million Americans including children, pregnant women, parents, seniors and individuals with disabilities. For someone to be eligible for Medicaid one must satisfy federal and state criteria regarding residency, immigration status and documentation of United States citizenship. Medicaid aims at providing medical and other health care services to eligible people so that they are able to remain as self-sufficient as possible.

Medicaid payments for medical expenses are paid directly to physicians, hospitals and or treatment facilities. Medicaid eligibility rules are different for each state but similar in numerous areas, however, Medicaid benefits are solely connected to the main factor ‘income’. Each State have its own guidelines that are subject to federal rules and regulations, therefore, certain services must be covered by the state in order to receive federal funding. On the other hand, some services are optional and are elected by states. Features of Medicaid Features of Medicaid include medical care and prescription drugs benefits for ndividuals in full or in portion. In some cases, depending on the individual income they may be asked to pay a portion of the cost of medical coverage insurance depending on their income. Major services that are covered by Medicaid are: * Home health care services * Care in nursing homes * Health screening and services for children and treatment of problem if detected * Inpatients and outpatient hospital and physician services * Laboratory services and x-rays * Family planning and supplies * Medical and surgical dental services for adults * Prescription drugs * Health clinic services Pediatric and Family nurse practitioner services Other benefits that states must cover for children and may cover for adults are: Case management * Personal care services * Hospice services * Respite and other in home long term care * Mental health services * Prosthetic devices * Audiology, hearing aid * Physical, occupational and speech therapy * Doctor visits, eye care and glasses Medicaid eligibility is limited to certain factors in almost every state. These factors are: * Low-income children * Pregnant women * Families with dependent children * People 65 or older * People who are blind and disabled

In some states, people with disabilities qualify automatically if they get Supplemental security Income benefits. Children are automatically eligible and enrolled in Medicaid when they are born until their first birthday if the mother is enrolled in the medical program when baby is born. Special Medicaid for Women Pregnant Women Medicaid eligibility is varied by states. Pregnant Women with income up to $20,000 per individual annually must be covered by Medicaid. In some states pregnant women with higher incomes are covered under Medicaid and some under Children’s Health insurance Program (CHIP).

The coverage for infants and pregnant women are at little or no cost if their incomes are limited. Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment (BCCPT) Medicaid program are available to eligible women who are diagnosed with breast and cervical cancer through state screening program. Income does not play a role in this instance. Who pays for services provided by Medicaid? Medicaid does not pay money to individuals. The system is organized in such a way that the Program directly sends payments to the health care providers instead. States make these payments based on a fee-for-service agreement or through prepayment rrangements such as health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Each State is then reimbursed for a share of their Medicaid expenditures from the Federal Government. This Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP) is determined each year and depends on the State’s average per capita income level. States that tend to be richer receive a smaller share than poorer states. However, by law the FMAP must be between 50% and 83%. Many States are known to have imposed nominal services. However, there are certain Medicaid beneficiaries who must be excluded from sharing this cost.

These include pregnant women, children under age 18, and hospital or nursing patients who are expect to contribute most of their income to institutional care. Significantly, all Medicaid beneficiaries must be exempt from copayments for both emergency services and family planning services. Medicaid in Texas Medicaid in Texas is administered by Texas Health and Human Services. It is referred to as an ‘entitlement program’. What this means is that neither the State nor Federal government can limit the number of persons who enroll, once these persons meet the eligible requirement they should be awarded the benefits of Medicaid.

As previously mentioned Medicaid is a Jointly funded program, so too is the case in the State of Texas, both the State and Federal Government contribute a share. The population of Texas is almost 26 million persons. For the fiscal year 2011 3. 5 million were enrolled in Medicaid. Significantly, 55% of them were females and 77% were under the age of 21 . The number of enrollees on Medicaid is expected to continue to rise. In the State of Texas this has resulted in a constant struggle between the different political parties. The Democrats who are advocates of the welfare system strongly support this cause.

On the other hand, the Republicans would prefer certain reforms to the system. Statistical data has shown that eliminating Medicaid in the State of Texas would potentially save them $40 billion biannual. However, this fght goes beyond the political arena. If this were to happen it would be a much debated legal battle between the State and Federal Government. Medicaid is a Federal law and rightfully Federal law should take precedent over all else. Impact on the economy For the fiscal year 2011 the U. S. National Budget was $3. 6 trillion. The Federal tax revenue largely financed this budget. Over 23% of the budget was attributed to

Health Care (Medicare and Medicaid). This was second to Defense, which amounted to 24% of the budget. Of the 23% awarded to the Health care systems, 8% was for Medicaid and the remainder to Medicare. Presently, there are over 65 million Americans on Medicaid. Total expenditures are in excess of $250 billion. Of the persons enrolled, 50% are children, 27% adults, disabled, and 8% elderly. Significantly the largest part of the Medicaid funding is spent on the disabled even though they only amount for of the persons enrolled. This is quite understandable because where as children and adults and even the lder are sick for a while, the disabled are in need of constant care. It is quite difficult to say that Medicaid has a negative impact on the economy. Many may argue that human life is priceless and that the government and society should do everything to sustain it. What we can argue is that with technological advancement health care would become more expensive. Yes, it might be more affordable to individuals but logically the government would be paying the difference. And where would the government get this money? It would be from the members of society through increased taxes. Truly it is a never ending cycle.

The Giver by Lois Lowery

The Giver by Lois Lowery.

 Write a discussion contrasting three specific elements of the movie versus the novel. Also, please discuss what young adult readers are missing from a “novel reading” experience in relation to The Giver versus only watching the film. Why is this important?

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