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Unit-1 Communication Skills ? ? ? ? ? ? Concept of Communication Process of Communication Types and Levels of Communication Technical Communication and General Communication Important Elements of Technical Communication Importance and Need of Technical Communication 1. 1 CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION Human beings cannot live in society without the help of communication. Even a small baby cries to make others understand its need – is one type of communication. Communication is the very basic need of any organization and any individual. Without it, it is not possible for any organization to exist, function effectively and achieve its objectives.

Communication brings people together by establishing commonness among people. It is a social need for an individual and lifeblood for an organization. We communicate 75% of our working time, an organization communicates 90% of its working time. If individuals communicate for their personal purposes, commnication in an organization is for the business purposes. Thus, the role of communication is to bring all the aspects of business together – manufacturer, employees, customers, suppliers, agencies, distributors etc. Communication is an art of sharing meaningful ideas, informations,knowledge, experience and feelings.

The word Communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’, which means ‘to make common, to transmit, to impart’. It stands for a natural activity of all human beings to convey opinions, informations, ideas, feelings, emotions to others by words spoken or written, by body language or signs. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills Communication has been defined by many theorists; some of these definitions are quoted here : ? According to W.

H. Newman, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. ” ? The American Management Association defines communication as “any behavior that results in an exchange of meaning. ” ? George Vardman in his book `Effective communication of ideas’ defines effective commnication as “Purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding andagreement between the sender and the receiver of the message”. ? Peter Little says “Communication is the process by which informations are transmitted between individuals or organizations so that an understanding response results. Allen Louis says “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another it involves a systematic and continuous process. ? To quote Norman B. Sigband, “Communication is the transmission and reception of ideas, feelings and attitudes both verbally and non-verbally eliciting a response. It is a dynamic concept underlying all kinds of living systems. ? Dalton McFarland says, “Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings.

More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human beings. ” Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 2 PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Process of Communication is a full cycle of events from sender to the receiver abd back to the sender. Communication is a two way process in which the exchanege of ideas links the sender and the receiver towards a mutually accepted direction.

The transmission of the sender’s ideas to the receiver and the receiver’s feedback or reaction to the sender constitutes the communication process. The process of communication may be represented by the following figure showing the steps in the process. ? Sender : The process of communication starts with a sender, the person who has an idea and wants to convey it to the receiver. In other words, we can say that the person with ideas to share is called sender. So communication process begins with the sender. The Sender is known as Tx. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology

Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills ? Encoding: The conversion of the idea in to message by verbal or nonverbal method is called encoding. While encoding a message, one needs to consider what will be interpretation of the message. This process of converting the thought of the sender into message is encoding. ? Message: It is an important part of communication. Message is the content that sender wants to convey. A message could be verbal or non-verbal.

The thought, idea, emotion or anything that the sender wants to convey is called message. ? Channel : The way or the medium of sending the message is called channel. The choice of the medium is influenced by the inter relationship between sender and receiver. It also depends upon the urgency of the message. Medium orchannel can be oral, written or it can be non verbal. ? Receiver: The receiver is the person who notices or attaches meaning to the conveyed message. In the best way, if it reaches to the receiver then there is no problem to the receiver to understand the massage properly.

In other words, we can say that the receiver is the other party who receives the message of the sender. The Receiver is known as Rx ? Decoding : It is a process where the received message is converted in to understanding. It is not necessary that the message reached to receiver will be understood by the receiver but decoding is a process which converts the message in to understanding. There are chances of misinterpretation of the massage. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com

Unit-1 Communication Skills ? Feedback : This is the last part of communication process. After receiving the message, the receiver reacts or responds to the sender. The response can be based on the perfect understanding of the message or it can be based on the misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the message. This reply from receiver to sender is called feedback. Feedback has its own importance as the success or failure of communication is decided by feedback only. The process of communication begins with idea, which refers to the formation of the idea or selection of a message to be communicated by the sender.

The scope of the idea is generally determined by the sender’s knowledge, experience and ability. Encoding is the next step in communication. It is the process of changing the information in to some form of logical and coded message. It means the selection of language, medium of communication and formation of communication. Transmission refers to the flow of message over the chosen channel. It confirms the medium selected for encoding and keeps the communication channel free from interference or noise so that the message can reach the receiver without any disturbance.

Decoding is the process of converting a message into thoughts by translating it. It involves the message, which will become his/her idea sent by the sender and on the basis of this idea; the receiver can give reply that is known as feedback. So feedback is an important and last part of communication process. Questions from Gujarat Technological University Final Exam : ? ? ? ? Explain the term “Communication”. What is Communication Cycle. Explain with figure. (June-2010) Define Communication Process. What are its elements. (March-2010) Explain Communication Process. (Jan-2010) Define ‘communication’.

Explain communication cylce. (Dec -2008) Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 3 TYPES OF COMMUNICATION The efficiency of an organisation depends on a regular flow of messages of all kinds. Communication between members of a large corporate house is very necessary for its proper functioning. It may be upward, downward, diagonal and grapevine. It is also known as dimensions or channels of communication.

Communication in an organisation may be either external or internal. External communication concerns with correspondence with those outside the organisation. Internal is concerned with communication within the organisation. Internal communication can be classified into different communication like Downward, Upward, Horisontal,Grapewine. [1] Downward Communication : Downward communication is generally found in all major organizations. It is communication in the organization which starts from higher authority to downward authority, like the board of directors-managers-assistant managerpurchase officer-executive-clerk etc.

Communication passes in this order is called downward communication. • (1) (2) (3) (4) Objectives of Downward Communication : To give specified directions about the job being entrusted to a subordinate. To explain policies and organizational procedures. To appraise the subordinates for their performance. To give information to the subordinates about the rational of their job so that they understand the significance of their job in relation with the organizational goal. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. ripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) • Advantages : It is a convenient channel through which simple information can be spread easily. Major decisions are conveyed through this type of communication. It helps to assign specific duties to a newly appointed individual. Individual members can interact with those to whom they are accountable. Appreciation can be done through this type of communication. Limitations : Downward communication is often found either under communication or over communication. i. e. superior may either talk too little or too much about a job.

Downward communication being a very long channel, transmitting information to the lowest worker is a time consuming process and in this process there is a chance of loss of information. Sometimes message can reach beyond time limit. In this process there is a chance of exaggeration,under statement, twist of matter due to its long time. Downward communication is too much authoriatian process where subordinates do not get any opportunity to participating in the decision process. [2] Upward Communication : The communication channel which starts from the bottom level to the top level is called upward communication.

For example, worker conveys message to production manager, he conveys it to the director of company etc. It is a channel which passes the flow of information upward. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills ? Objectives – advantages of Upward Communication : Upward communication provides the management with necessary feedback. It also provides valuable information on what the employees think of the organization and its policies.

It gives an opportunity to workers to say their problems and complaints. Upward communication is also important for workers’ suggestions for the welfare of an organization. This process provides a chance to workers to take part in the decision making process which creates harmony between the workers and the management. ? Limitations of Upward Communication : Upward communication is difficult as it moves upward against the force of gravity – means workers hesitate to initiate for upward communication. Workers cannot enter easily in the area of management. They afraid of the reaction from management.

At bottom level people have less power, it is very difficult for them to give their views, suggestions, and complaints to top level. There is no surity of complete communication in upward communication as there are so many barriers in its path. Workers at the lowest level are not efficient communicators so their communication oral or written may not be accurate and may not be welcomed by superiors. ? The upward and downward flow of information along the formal lines of authority in the organisation structure is called vertical communication. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof.

Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills [3] Horizontal (or Lateral) Communication Horizontal communication refers to the flow of communication among the people at the same level of authority. Many time people with the same level of authority considers it necessary to exchange thoghyts or views amongst themselves. This channel is very common in big organizations. The main objective of horizontal communication are developing team work and promoting group coordination within an organisation. 4] Diagonal (or Crosswise) Communication Communication between departments or employees in the same organization without any hierarchy is called diagonal communication. It is the most used channel of communication. Workers communicate with other workers, clerks sharing information with one another, managers discusses some organizational problems are all engaged in diagonal communication. Diagonal communication is extremely important for promoting, understanding and co-ordination among various departments. It can take place among any employees of the organization.

In this type of communication anybody without any hesitation can enter into this process for discussion. It most effectively carried on through oral communication. Group discussion, face to face exchange of views or a brief conversation are diagonal communication. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills [4] Grapevine Communication : An informal channel of communication in an organization is called grapevine.

It follows no set lines or any definite rules but spreads very fast in any direction. For example people working together take interest in one another and talk about appointments, promotions, demotions or even domestic and romantic affairs of another. Though all these things are top secrets some people take great pleasure from gathering such secrets and transiting to others. This is nothing but rapevine. It is basically a channel of horizontal communication because people working at the same level can do it. • Importance of Grapevine : (1) (2) (3) It provides much needed release to emotions.

Any information in the name of `secret’ spreads very fast. Information which can’t be transmitted to employees through official channels can be sent by grapevine. (4) It provides feedback to the management. The management can tactfully spread some information through it and wait for the reaction. • Limitations : (1) One of the major limitations of the grapevine is that it may spread baseless news which may harm the employees. Misunderstanding can be taken place because sometimes it transmits incomplete information. It can cause serious damage before management becomes aware of it. (2) (3) Dr.

Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 4 LEVELS OF COMMUNICATIONS The levels of communication can be described under the following heads. (I) Intrapersonal Commnication (II) Interpersonal Communication (III) Extra personal Communication (IV) Organizational Communication (V) Mass Communication (I) Intrapersonal Commnication This communication occurs within the individual’s brain in the form of internal dialogue, as one can’t stop communicating with himself.

Infact when we communicate with other person, internal dialogue with oneself continues verifying the truth,using logical reasoning etc. For example, when one gets injured, the brain gets information and then sends the feedback that he should consult a doctor or take medicine. This is nothing but intrapersonal communication. (II) Interpersonal Communication This level of communication includes ideas or informations shared by people. This can assume in the form of face to face conversation, video conferencing. and telephonic talk and soon.

It takes place in our day to day life. This level of communication is beneficiary as doubts can be clarified instantly and immediate feedback is possible. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills Interpersonal communication depends on the chemistry,between two parties involved. The environment and cultural context also play their vital role. Besides it can be formal and informal. III) Extra personal Communication Extra personal communication occurs between human beings and non-human beings in which sign language is used to transmit information or to respond. For example when a pet dog feels hungry, it comes to its keeper wagging its tail; it is nothing but an extra personal communication. (IV) Organizational Communication Communication between members of a big organization is organizational communication. It may be upward, downward, diagonal and grapevine. This type of communication is extremely necessary for the smooth working of any organization. V) Mass Communication In this level of communication, informations are transmitted to the public at large through media such as television, radio, internet, books, journals and newspapers. Information in the oral form requires equipments such as microphones, amplifires and information in the written form requires electronic or print media. It plays an important role in boosting the image of the organization and attracting customers Questions from Gujarat Technological University Final Exam : ? ? Name Various levels of communication and explain any three of them. June-2010) Discuss levels of communication. (Dec-2008) Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 5 TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION AND GENERAL COMMUNICATION Technical communication is the process of conveying technical information. It is the process of communicating a specific message to a specific purpose. Technical communication is an exchange of technical ideas and information, knowledge and experience through writing, speech or by adopting .

It includes simple definitions and descriptions of tools and machines and interpretation of principles which they follow scientifically. It is the soul of any organization. It not only makes professional interaction possible but also directs the flow of technical information and knowledge for the guidance of technocrafts, engineers, and others in their professional activities. The following are the characteristics of technical communication that make it different from general communication. Technical communication General communication . Always factual. 2. Formal elements. 3. Logically organized and structured. 4. Specific audience. 5. Complex and important exposition techniques. 6. Usually involves graphics. 7. Always formal in style. 8. Technical content. 9. Objective in nature. 10. Special vocabulary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. May not be always factual. No formal elements. Not always structured. Not always for a specific audience. No specific exposition techniques required. 6. May or may not involve graphics. 7. Both formal and informal in style. 8. General content. 9.

Both objective and subjective. 10. General vocabulary. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 6 Important Elements of Technical Communication The important elements of technical communication are as follows : 1. Nature of the audience is considered 2. Content can be such that it can be understood clearly. 3. Audience needs are satisfied by providing the information in appproprate form 4.

Some authors may be devote themselves for writing technical communication. Technical writing consists of aim of the audience, collection of required information, organisation of information, Preparation of the first draft, Revision and editing of writing 5. Technical communication is created with a particular aim. 6. Technical writing includes project proposals, technical manuals and guides. Following are the important steps in writing technical document. 1. Writing first draft. 2. Revinsing and editing the documet 3. Adjusting and recognising the contents. 4.

Editing for style. 5. Good style of writing makes it more interesting and readable. 6. Editing and grammar errors corrected 7. Required context is provided. 8. Simplified English and controlled language. Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com Unit-1 Communication Skills 1. 7 IMPORTANCE AND NEED FOR TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION ? Technical communication is the soul of organisational life and prerequisite to effective management.

It not only makes professional interaction possible but also directs the flows of technical information and knowledge for the guidance of technocrafts, engineers and others in their professional activites. ? It stimulates scientists and reasearchers to act to achieve individual as well as social and organisational objectives and develops information and understading essential for effective group functioning. ? The whole world has become a global market and the trasfer of technology is playing an important role in economic growth and trasformation.

As the professional world becomes more diverse, cometitive and result oriented, the importance of technical communication skills continues to increase. ? Revolution in information technology creates a profound impact on technical communication tasks . Theses skills will be required in the changed technological enviroment. These skills include knowledge of high tech communication capabilities, ability to present and expain complex technical information, capability to understand and explain quantitive data, cultural awareness, capability and ability to analyse and prioritise information..

Questions from Gujarat Technological University Final Exam : ? ? Distinguise between General Communication and Technical Communication. (March-2010, Dec-2008) Explain the factors to be considered in technical communication. (June-2009) Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology Prof. Chintan Mahida to download soft copy of notes. mahidachintan@gmail. com Log on to my website : http://chintanmahida. tripod. com

WRITING PROJECT 2: Analysis—Rhetorical Analysis

WRITING PROJECT 2: Analysis—Rhetorical Analysis.

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Minimum 100 words (successful cover letters are often longer)

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Address letter to your instructor

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Answer at least 3 of the 6 questions below (where applicable) provide brief, specific examples of the following in your cover letter:

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What is your primary motivation or purpose for writing your draft? Who is your intended audience? What revisions did you make in order to improve how you accomplish this purpose and/or appeal to this audience?

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What feedback did you receive from your peers? How did you use this feedback to revise your draft? How do these revisions improve your draft?

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What feedback did you receive from other sources, such as your instructor or tutors? How did you use this feedback to revise your draft? How do these revisions improve your draft?

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What have you decided to revise in your draft, apart from feedback you received? Why? How do these revisions improve your draft?

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What problems or challenges did you encounter while writing or revising your draft? How did you solve them?

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What valuable lessons about writing effectively have you learned as a result of composing this project?

Place the cover letter at the beginning of your final draft, before the first page of your actual composition; delete your purpose statement

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A Rhetorical Analysis of the core reading you wrote about for Writing Project 1

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Clear identification, early in the draft, of the core reading by full author name and full article title (following  APA style for formatting titles) and brief overview of the article’s content (This is usually part of the introduction.)

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Clearly developed thesis statement making a claim about the purpose or effectiveness of rhetorical features of the core reading

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Well-reasoned analysis of the core reading’s rhetorical strategies, supported with evidence

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Use of at least one additional source found using the Ivy Tech Virtual Library databases. ( Library username: zdu5, Password: Ed961024

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Use of at least 10 quotes (words, phrases, or key sentences) and/or paraphrases (key details or ideas rephrased in your own words), of the core reading and/or your additional outside source, cited using correct in-text citations

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APA manuscript style, as specified by your instructor, with in-text citations and a References or Works Cited list that includes ALL sources used. (References or Works Cited list does not count in the minimum word-count requirement)

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Observation of the conventions of Standard English

1000 words minimum for final draft (the minimum 150 words for the cover letter is not included in this count)

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