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Communication and Problem Solving – Part One Essay

Communication is the process of conveying information from one person to another. It is a two way process because it involves listening and reflecting the responsibility of speaker or listener, its clear, and uses proper feedback, whereas problem solving is a mental process and involves finding the problem and solving it. All these concepts are important in health care teams. When issues are analyzed and people reach to a mutual understanding, problems will not arise. In this case, we perceive and solve a problem of the present situation and the desired goal. In this light, problems in the health care team were caused by conflicts which involved the following: competition that occurred when a person was trying to achieve what another person was trying to accomplish, when team members were treated differently especially by leaders, incompatibility of aims and objectives in a group, ethnic differences, and a clash on peoples’ beliefs. In essence, conflicts arise when people feel threatened regardless of whether the threat is real or not (Cornell, 2010). Communication in problem solving was important in solving the conflicts because solutions depend on how team members relate. With reference to group management, the steps of problem solving are discussed here. The first step is problem orientation, which involves accepting that a problem is within the team. Each problem is tackled with confidence and willingness to take the best action and devote time to arrive at a solution. The communication should be started in a positive way; this can only be achieved by avoiding finger pointing. Pawar (2007) expounds that good listening skills are applied in conversations and time should be given for discussion if there is much pressure to arrive to a solution and if the matter is too emotional it can be discussed later when people have cooled down. People should treat one another with respect especially if the issue being discussed is critical hence kindness must be maintained all through. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The next step is problem definition, which entails understanding the problem and knowing the cause of the current situation. This involves thinking about the problem, understanding it, and determining why the situation is distressing. This is vital and this is done by writing down the problem, discussing the problem with the idea of a positive outcome, and listing down the facts leading to the problem. Each idea is evaluated carefully and problems should be discussed one at a time because when many issues are raised they might cause confusion. In doing so, a feasible solution can be realized. Generation of alternative solutions is another step which involves taking measures of what can be done to work better. Possible options are written down and implausible ideas discarded. The next step is decision making which entails thinking about the discussed option and how to implement it and considering the likelihood that each option has in achieving goals. Solution implementation comes in when all the options are discussed, while examining the chosen solution, and how it is solving the problem. If a solution is not easy to implement, other options are considered, thus making the team to solve the conflicts. In conclusion, solving problems is not an easy task, and may take several solutions before it works. Listening is the best skill applied in communication and problem solving involving health care teams. This is because it demands that we set aside our agendas and thoughts and put ourselves in other people’s situation and see the world through their eyes. This requires that we suspend conclusion and approval to understand another person’s point of view. We should understand each others attitude, behaviours and motivation; in this case we will have an inner understanding of the problem and the solution to reaching into an agreement. When we listen and communicate effectively, we have a deeper understanding of another person’s perception and thus we are able to work with people who have different opinions, values, beliefs and needs than our own. We will write a custom Essay on Communication and Problem Solving – Part One specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Cornell, K. (2010). Webkaizen, Faster Cheaper Problem Solving for Business. Omaha NE: Prevail Digital Publishing. Pawar, M. (2007, May). Getting Beyond Blame in Your Practice. Family Practice Management, 14(5), 30-34. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/fpm/2007/0500/p30.html
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College Course Reflection.

Review and reflect on the knowledge you have gained from this course. Based on your review and reflection, write at least 300–500 words on the following:Identify 2–3 concepts from the course that you are able to say helped you the best in understanding the supply chain and logistics. Has this course given you tangible considerations that you can apply in your life?What approaches could have yielded additional valuable information?Quantitative MeasurementNo matter what kind of business the logistics function is a part of, the success of the logistic plan is measured by the success of the company, particularly from a cost and customer-service perspective. Although metrics of success will differ depending upon industries, the common quantitative metrics that are used by most firms would include the following:Percentage of on-time, complete shipmentsTotal shipping costs as percent of salesTotal inbound shipping cost as a percent of money of inbound freightsPremium freight money paid because of a logistics errorGeneral customer satisfactionThe following is an example of quantitative measurement:Qualitative MeasurementIn addition to quantitative measurements, there are frequently special qualitative assessments of logistics performance. Although the above metrics are pretty standard for large retailers, and there is not much interaction between delivery personnel and the actual customer, there are other shipping situations in which customer service takes on a whole new meaning. The following are a few examples:Consider drivers who deliver and assemble bulky, heavy, and very expensive products such as pianos, pool tables, and back some years ago, mainframe computers. Imagine the added challenge of delivering these items up three flights of stairs or into a newly carpeted facility such as an office, health club, or private home. Household relocation companies, or what consumers would simply call movers, are letting drivers and unpackers into their private home. They want care to be taken with special belongings, and damage to walls and doorways is also a concern.In the case of the residence move, both ends of the shipment are involved. A piano, for example, not only is an expensive piece of furniture, but a finely tuned piece of musical equipment as well.For new heavy strength-training equipment going into a newly remodeled health club, there is an extreme need for meeting reliable shipment dates because the club owner has probably arranged for a very limited installation window. Typically, in these situations, the club would close for one day to have new floors put down and any other remodeling work, and the new equipment must arrive on time for the club to be able to reopen the next day. Standard metrics may not account for these types of situations.Sustainability is more than just being green. A general definition of sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. In the narrow sense, this means the company stays in business. However, the broader supply chain view requires thinking of the sustainability of the entire network. The triple value model, developed through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), is being integrated into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s analysis toolkit as a framework for systems thinking that explicitly defines the linkages and flows of value among three major categories of systems—industrial, societal, and environmental. Each of these three systems must endure for the supply chain to endure. Sustainability––the enduring nature of a system––is not just a future issue. It is critical that logistics and supply chain managers consider sustainability during all phases of the product life cycle, now and in the very far future. At the very beginning, product development in the laboratories must consider the impact of the product design on the industrial, societal, and environmental systems that it will soon become a part of. Decisions about the materials used in the product, how it will be packaged, and how long it will last in use are set during the initial research and development. As the product goes into production, the manufacturing plant must consider energy usage, water contamination, and the exhaust gases that may enter the environment. Distribution of the product should consider sustainability in the ways the product is handled and transported––more greenhouse gases may be produced during shipping than in production. And at the end of life, how will the product be disposed of by the consumer? In a landfill, or recycled or reprocessed for potential recovery of precious and hazardous metals? Whether it is the acquisition of a major system with thousands of components or just basic, good sustainability at each phase of the product life cycle, this is critical for ensuring proper stewardship. First Student: Shannon I learned a lot in this course. One of concepts that helped me learn and grounded me in supply chain and logistics is the make-up or the elements that make up the supply chain (integration, operations, purchasing, and distribution). This information lays the groundwork to understand how all the pieces fit together. Another concept that stood out for me was about the triple bottom line-that instead of just having one bottom line (profit), companies should have three: profit, people and the planet. If companies only focus on the profit, neglecting people and the planet, it doesn’t account for the full cost of doing business and will be held accountable by the consumer, which is more socially and environmentally educated and has access to information more than ever. Lastly, the concept of performance measurement with KPIs and metrics was very beneficial to me. Learning about the definition, examples and applicability helped better understand these concepts. I will be leveraging at work and in future endeavors a quote I learned in a chat from Professor Justin Goldston, PhD: “KPIs measure strategic business goals…[while] metrics support the KPIs”.Has this course given you tangible considerations that you can apply in your life?Yes. Although I don’t work close to supply chain in current job role, I do sit in on meetings (especially lately due to COVID-19) where operations and supply chain sit at the same table. Before this class, I had some general knowledge of the supply chain and I now feel more educated on the concepts and how operations, specifically support supply chain strategy and logistics execution.What approaches could have yielded additional valuable information? The chunking approach to information and building up of concepts week to week was beneficial to me. Perhaps adding a case study assignment may have helped internalize the concepts and learnings. For example, say students would write up a high-level supply chain and logistics strategy plan for their newly formed company which is considering expanding international operations. Overall, I find value in the current approach, but this may help students put on critical thinking skills to work, on top of the research that must be done.References:Goldston, J. (2020, July 21). SCM 210: Live Chat 3 [Chat]. Retrieved from Colorado Technical University, Virtual Campus, Live Chats: https://ctuadobeconnect.careeredonline.com/pdmn5by7yekdplayer/?session= breezbreezs6zgg4mx93rqd9mf Second Student: Ivette I believe that the whole course taught me a lot about logistics and supply chain management but if I had to choose between 3 main concepts that helped me the best in understanding it would have to be the introduction to logistics. When it broke down and explained all the different types of logistics, the importance of logistics in a business.The second concept that not only did I learn from but that I enjoyed would have to be the customer relations metrics because it showed me that the customer opinion truly matters and that customer service is vital, customer satisfaction and making sure that the orders are accurate as well. All of these things play a big part in ensuring that customers will want to continue to come back.The third would have to be the total supply chain cost and performance because it shows that companies have different KPI’s but that no matter what those are, it will always come down to the same supply chain process, raw material, labor and overhead.Overall, this course has given me tangible consideration that I can use and apply to my everyday life and also for my future. I will now be more aware and attentive to things in the stores I purchase goods from and know the way products are manufactures which is really interesting to me. I also think that is has prepared me in knowing the pros and cons of doing international business and if ever I would want to open my own business I will be ready to do so having what I have learned as a guide line to lead me to manage my business the best way possible so I am grateful for that.
Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College Course Reflection

Were the Middle Ages Really Dark?

Historians refer to the period between the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance as the Middle Ages. It is often referred to as the Dark Ages. This specific name was given by Francesco Petrarch, an Italian Renaissance scholar, in order to denounce Latin literature which was common during this time period. The name also implies that there was little improvements and developments in comparison to those of the Renaissance’s “age of rebirth.” It has also been defined as a period of little or no recorded historical documentation. In contrast, historical information is now becoming available and has identified that this was not the case. In Sarah Pruitt’s “6 Reasons the Dark Ages were not so Dark,” she stated “the negative view of the so-called “Dark Ages” became popular largely because most of the written records of the time (including St. Jerome and St. Patrick in the fifth century, Gregory of Tours in the sixth and Bede in the eighth) had a strong Rome-centric bias.” With recorded history being dominated by the Roman Catholic Church, a historical era had been misinterpreted. To understand why it should no longer be referred to as Dark Age, we must look at the events and circumstance of the time period. At the beginning, the Middle Ages experienced the destruction of the Roman Empire and the barbarian invasions. Buildings, farming, art, and the Roman scientific advances along with its aqueducts were destroyed. In John Bryan Ward-Perkins’ The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization, he explains “that this means a clear decline in material culture and technical capacity between the later Roman era and the seventh century.” Slate Magazine’s “Why Are the Middle Ages Often Characterized as Dark or Less Civilized?” postulated that when the whole infrastructure of the earlier culture falls apart under a complex combination of economic and political failures and your region is assailed on all sides from successive waves of invaders and wracked internally by political division and warfare, there tend to be more important things to apply that intelligence to than building aqueducts or translating Aristotle from the Greek.” One would agree that society must first address rebuilding (Slate) The first area to be addressed was farming. As a result of the barbarian invasions, there was little or no trade. To feed the populations, farmers had to improve their agricultural techniques. One of the agricultural inventions was the horse collar and horseshoes which improved the plowing of fields. The farmers also built watermills for flour production. This became the model for the invention of windmills. According to World History, “the windmill was created to replace animal power in grinding grain. Like a watermill, the windmill could grind at least 1,000 bushels of grain per week and 6 bushels an hour based on the performance of the wind.” The art of farming was being revolutionized. Another factor facilitating the improvements in farming was Europe’s weather. During the Middle Ages, Europe experience one of its best weather cycles. This event accelerated the production of crops. Farming was not the only area that experienced new inventions. The mechanical clock, eyeglasses, gunpowder weapons, and the printing press were invented at this time. Prior to the Middle Ages, kingdoms had been ruled by emperors, kings, or queens who were endowed with limitless power, whatever they ordered was the rule of the land. The destruction of the Roman Empire saw the elimination of these unlimited powerful kingdoms. Over time, a new civilization developed, and it was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. Religion became the focal point of life in the Middle Ages. The feudal system was developed as a new form of government with its three-tier society; nobles, clergy, and peasant. Power was no longer the monopoly of kings or queens. Instead, it was bestowed on them by the church. During the Middle Ages, the Magna Carta, one of the most important historical documents, was written. Under the guidance of the church, it outlined that everyone was subject to the rule of law. It also stated the rights of the individual for justice and fair trial. In the future, this document would become a model for democratic governments. In the Middle Ages, the church controlled every aspect of society and everything was done for the glory of god. Orchestrated by the Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, churches, libraries, and monasteries were built for the glory of God. During this period, Gothic architecture was developed. Its churches were architectural wonders filled with religious themed paintings, woven tapestries, and sculptures. The arts flourished and were also enhanced with epics and ballads from illiterate peasants reciting stories of historic battles, romance, and adventure. This period also saw the writing masterpieces of Dante and Chaucer, the sculptures of Donatello, and the paintings of Giotto and Bencivieni di Pepo. As portrayed by historians, this was not the Dark Age, but an era filled with progress and advancements. In 800 A.D, Charlemagne was crowned by the pope as Holy Roman Emperor. According to Pruitt, he worked to uphold this lofty distinction, building a strong centralized state, fostering a rebirth of Roman-style architecture, promoting educational reform and ensuring the preservation of classic Latin texts. One of the advancements was “the introduction of a standard handwriting script, known as Carolingian miniscule (Pruitt) As a result, it accelerated the production of books and other documents. He together with the support from the Roman Catholic Church were responsible for the creation of universities. After the barbarian invasions, Europe was plagued with various Latin dialects. Charlemagne was responsible for preserving Latin as the cultured language. During his reign, foundations for classical music were developed. Pruitt further stated that “though the Carolingian dynasty had dissolved by the end of the ninth century (Charlemagne himself died in 814), his legacy would provide the foundations—including books, schools, curricula and teaching techniques—for the Renaissance and other later cultural revivals.” This time period was the beginning of the society’s pursuit of the arts and sciences. The period had a long span from the 5th century to the 15th century. As civilization was rebuilt, it experienced several religious wars and diseases. As a whole, the society had a healthy diet of vegetables, bread, and some meat but no sugar. Despite healthy food choices, their life span was about 31.5 years. Deaths occurred from child birth, war, or plagues. A major plague, the Black Death, reduced the European population by 1/3. The major wars were called the Crusades and were initiated by the Pope. Their purpose was to regain control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the infidels, the Arabic empire. Despite these setbacks, civilization continued to develop. In fact, the Crusaders returned home with Arabic customs, music, art, spices and mathematics that would be incorporated into the European culture. During the Medieval Age, algebra had been developed by the Arab nations. It was the incorporation of this knowledge into the Medieval universities that would provide the foundations for further scientific developments. In summary, the people living in the Middle Ages were smart and resourceful. They addressed their immediate need for survival, established a civilization and a culture based on strong religious beliefs, and a feudal system of government which was necessary to provide protection and reinforce the rebuilding efforts. It took some time, but their culture and technology flourished. It is certainly evident that this period was incorrectly named the Dark Ages. In “5 Things You (Probably) Didn’t Know about the Dark Ages,” Dr. Janina Ramirez stated, “a very quick glance at the remarkable manuscripts, metalwork, texts, buildings and individuals that saturate the early medieval period reveals that ‘Dark Age’ is now very much an out-of-date term.” In a society where the majority of their wooden housing structures were destroyed, modern-day archaeologists are digging to uncover the treasures of this era. Whether it is manuscripts buried in monastery walls or jewelry and pottery hidden at burial sites, medieval culture is being exposed for what it was which is not a dark age. Historians have gathered Medieval artifacts and now have a better understanding of the richness of its accomplishments. To reiterate, the improvements in farming, innovative art and architecture, a stable society governed by religious beliefs, the founding of universities and convents for the education of women, writing improvements, and scientific discoveries were an enlightened time and facilitated the movement necessary for the beginning of the Renaissance era. Historical research has validated that this was not the Dark Ages but the beginning of the European civilization. Works Cited Contributor, Quora. “Why Are the Middle Ages Often Characterized as Dark or Less Civilized?” Slate Magazine, Slate, 15 Jan. 2015, www.slate.com/blogs/quora/2015/01/15/medieval_history_why_are_the_middle_age_often_characterized_as_dark_or_less.html . Famous Artists of the Middle Ages | Middle Ages. www.thefinertimes.com/Middle-Ages/famous-artists-of-the-middle-ages.html. “Medieval and 19th Century Dentistry.” Dental Health by Herre, 7 Oct. 2015, www.dentalhealthbyherre.com/medieval-and-19th-century-dentistry/ . “Medieval Cuisine.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 9 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_cuisine “Medieval Food

Biology homework help

best assignment help Biology homework help. WHAT IS SNAP?-The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Links to an external site.) (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food for millions of Americans daily. Often this benefit is a family’s only access to food.,WHAT IS SNAP?-The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program,WHAT IS SNAP?, The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (Links to an external site.) (SNAP), formerly known as the ,Food Stamp Program,, provides food for millions of Americans daily. Often this benefit is a family’s only access to food. Food share has provided this exercise to educate and sensitize individuals about the importance of SNAP benefits and encourages people to take long-term action.,WHAT IS THE SNAP CHALLENGE?,The SNAP Challenge encourages participants to experience what life is like for millions of low-income Americans living on an average daily allowance of only $4.4. Some participants take the challenge for a week, others last a few days, and some participants have chosen to participate for the duration of Hunger Action Month (which is in September).,PARTICIPATION GUIDELINES:, Each person should only spend $4.40 per day on food and drink., All food purchased and eaten in this time must be counted in total spending – this includes dining out., During this time, do not eat any food purchased prior to the start of the Challenge., Whenever possible, avoid accepting free food from family, friends and co-workers since these opportunities are not always available to those in need., Eat as healthy as possible, keeping in mind that this is how many people eat every day, whereas you can make up for lost nutrients next week.,INSTRUCTIONS/DISCUSSION:,You are to participate in the SNAP challenge for at least three days, following the instructions above. Discuss your experience with your class mates by answering the following questions. If you have a health issue and cannot participate, please contact the professor for an alternate exercise.,QUESTIONS:,What are your initial thoughts of such an exercise?, Describe the food choices you had for the amount of money allocated?, Give an overview of your experience. Where did you shop? Did you become hungry? What were your thoughts before and after the exercise?, Lastly, What do you think are the daily struggles of people without enough food?,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Biology homework help

3-5 Page Book Report on Primary Source for Research Paper

3-5 Page Book Report on Primary Source for Research Paper.

The assignment is a 3-5 page book report/summary on the source that I provide you with. Please adhere to the assignment details below for more information on what should be written. Here is the source: Book : Hart, J. (2014). Herodotus and Greek History (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.My topic is Herodotus and the Oracle at Delphi. 1.Based on the proposal and bibliography you will provide for your final paper, select one secondary source to review. Due November 19. The source must be a book-length monograph – edited volumes composed of essays by multiple authors will not be accepted. Your review should be no less than 3 full pages and no more than 5. Please use 12-point Times New Roman or Cambria font, double-spacing, and 1-inch margins all around. Professional examples will be provided as a template. Some important points your review might include: a.What is the author trying to argue? b.Is the author looking to fill a gap in existing scholarship? Is the author trying to challenge any previous works? c.What sources does the author rely upon? d.What is the author’s method? Does he or she rely on any type of theory for interpreting his or her sources? e.Is the author’s argument made successfully? f.What unique contributions does this source make to your understanding of your topic?
3-5 Page Book Report on Primary Source for Research Paper

What Is Scientific Management Management Essay

Specialty café chains have grown ubiquitous only in the last twenty years, rapidly spreading to become one of the most prominent features of urban space. Starbucks, the paradigmatic example of a specialty café chain, has arguably ousted even McDonald’s to become the main symbol of globalized brands and cultural monopoly. This new breed of café shops is largely organized in franchises, a system which requires multiple controls that guarantee a uniformity of products, atmosphere and service in order to create a consistent brand experience for the clientele in any location. Starbucks has undoubtedly pioneered a new and distinct Taylorist layout of service production. By analyzing how the coffee counter is used by personnel and customers alike, I seek to unpack Starbucks’s innovations in employee management, in light of its oft-cited image as a tolerant and humane service industry employer. What is Scientific Management? Scientific management is a theory of management that emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and management practices as the way to improve efficiency and labour productivity. One of the most famous proponents of scientific management is Frederick Winslow Taylor, who is given the primary credit for developing the core ideas on which scientific management is founded. The objective of scientific management, often referred to pejoratively as Taylorism, is to discover the “one best way” to basic managerial functions such as selection, promotion, compensation, training, and production. Taylor wanted to deskill workers and required them to be specialised in one task which they would repeat constantly. Therefore logic would tell you that constant repetition results in enhanced productivity and ultimately superior quality. In 1911, Taylor revealed his findings and guiding principles in the book “Principles of Scientific Management”. These principles are: Development of a science for each element of work to replace the old “rule-of-thumb” methods. Selection of the best worker for a particular task followed by a programme of training to replace the practice of allowing the worker to select his own task and train himself as best as he can. Development of a spirit of heartily cooperation between management and workers Division of work between the management and the workers, each department taking over the work for which it is better fitted. In this essay, I explore Starbucks’s unique adaptation of the four scientific management principles to its own products and services in the 21st Century. Starbucks and Scientific Management Starbuck’s goal of creating uniform experiences in any location requires a centralized automation of processes that function regardless of who performs each step within them. Starbucks is organized around machines, and workers are divided between hyper-specific tasks around the equipment. Do it again! Repetition makes perfect A different employee is exclusively responsible for each of the areas of service: taking orders and passing these to the barista, serving food directly to the clientele, cashiering, blending (mixing and serving cold drinks), plus the barista who prepares coffee-based drinks on the espresso machine and serves them to the customer, who has already ordered, received any food and paid. Each of the products is processed and served by a separate employee so that each worker repeats the same preparation process on the same machine, sometimes for the duration of a whole shift, while alternating between the machine and side tasks such as cleaning and maintaining the storefront or restocking supplies. This hearkens back to the exigencies of Taylorized production, where constant repetition was believed to result in better productivity and ultimately higher quality. The barista position, considered to be the most skilled and stressful in the café operation, consists of only a few simple skills in combination: heating and frothing milk; grinding and “tamping” coffee grounds; making espresso shots according to company guidelines for water pressure and volume, timing and temperature; and adding flavoured syrups to drinks along recipe guidelines outlined and focus-grouped by Starbucks. However, even the little remaining barista skills are in the process of being phased out, as baristas at Starbucks began to complain of wrist pains caused by the repeated action of tightening espresso filters. Repetitive stress injuries such as tendonitis were creating a drain on the company and taxing its scheduling system, so they introduced new machines that automatically tamp and pour espresso shots at the press of a button. Thus, another layer of skill and knowledge is delegated to machinery, which does not only reduce the injury rates of employees but also ensures product uniformity. Machine-oriented labour flow provides a triple-pronged threat to Starbucks’s dependence upon its employees: it makes workers easier to train, so that disobedient employees can be quickly replaced; it makes management less dependent on the skills of individual employees, as none of the employees are particularly skilled; and it structures the flow of work around the machines, introducing greater procedural flexibility, which ultimately sets the pace of the work itself. This system leaves individual employees vulnerable to being easily replaced by another worker or by a machine. It has been argued that the ultimate purpose of Taylorism was to make employees interchangeable by making them accessories to the machines that regulate productive processes. “What speed shall I use?” The performance of the barista’s productive tasks is subjected to rigorously administered standards. Management teams travel around the US to different Starbucks shops, equipped with a Mr. Potato Head toy and a stopwatch. (!!) They teach the virtue of efficiency by first asking managers to assemble the Mr. Potato Head toy, and then challenging them to improve their performance by reducing the ratio of motion to work. The Taylorists then apply the same test to the fetching of coffee or to bean grinding; they draw “spaghetti diagrams” to portray any confused movements behind the counter or divagations across the shop floor; and they recommend new, more efficient coordination of action. For instance, any barista is expected to produce a “European” drink- espressos, lattes, cappuccinos or any of the numerous flavoured variations thereof-in less than 90 seconds, and a Primo Barista must be able to make at least five of these in less than three minutes. The layout of a Starbucks counter dictates how it is to be used. The spatial distribution of machines behind the counter provides the worker who operates each machine a specific productive function, so that a customer must start at one end of the line and progress down its length being served by each machine-operator in turn, a characteristic Fordist procedure. However, once the customer’s order has been placed, it is called out by the counter worker to the barista. This call-out system is standard in specialty coffee bars with espresso machines, and it bifurcates the labour flows of baristas who prepare the drinks and counter workers who process orders at the cash register. Starbucks, like most other business, is primarily interested in maximizing throughput of orders. More orders means greater revenue. They thus use asynchronous processing. This asynchronous system works well as one’s productive speed does not depend on the others. A barista can be backed up when there are more orders being called out by the counter worker than the barista has time to make. As each individual order is called out, the barista places a cup on top of the espresso machine and marks it to indicate the type of beverage it will be, then makes each drink in its turn while continuing to add more cups to the queue as more orders are received. When the barista receives too many orders to make separately, the milk is heated in larger quantities and the drinks are made in batches to reduce production time. The drinks are then served in order of completion rather than the order in which they were called out. This decoupling signals the departure of Starbucks from the strictly Fordist, linear structures which manifest in fast food chains, to the “one best method” for performing a particular task of Taylorism. Starbucks trains about six thousand baristi per year. The use of the title is particularly controversial as the barista tasks performed at the highly regulated Starbucks café are de-skilled and repetitive work and can only be done in accord to strict company guidelines. In Markman Ellis’s book “The Coffee House” it is stated that a Starbucks espresso shot must be poured between 18 and 23 seconds and the milk must be heated between 60 and 80 degrees Celsius and with the introduction of new automated espresso machines that tamp and pour espresso shots on their own, the barista’s remaining skills will be phased out. Such strict rules and the complete deskilling of workers are characteristic of a Taylorist environment. Starbuck’s automation has left more room for the “great theatre” that inspired the import of barista culture to North America, where dozens of green-aproned young employees create original drinks on mysterious machines amidst a buzz of blues and clouds of steam. The adapted Taylorist workflow has freed staff for other tasks, particularly from dramatic displays of their work and the social interaction that separates service labour from strictly industrial pursuits. This interaction is minimized to short spurts, so that workers do not actually engage with their customers for long. Management knows best The otherwise de-skilled Starbucks’s workers receive extensive training in the origins, preparation and history of the coffee products served in their cafés, in order to help in the training of clientele in coffee appreciation. Newly-hired Starbucks employees begin work with twenty-four hours of training in customer service, coffee and product knowledge from the company, and familiarization with the franchise’s products and policies. Thus, at Starbucks under scientific management, one-half of the problem is up to the management which provides the training for the “one best way”, while under the management of “initiative and incentive” the whole problem is up to the workman. Starbucks’s employees’ closest ancestor is unquestionably the Italian barista, a term that has been imported alongside the company’s exoticised European culture. In Italy, this title is given after years of training and official certification, and their work is still considered an art that for most is a career, rather than a transitional job. The artistry is illustrated by the practice of holding barista competitions where contestants are tested on quality, speed, originality of insignias created on the foam of an espresso and the taste of “signature drinks,” made from recipes innovated by the baristas themselves. At Starbucks, however, the Taylorization of tasks allows no room for innovation, while the automated procedures limit employees’ ability to work creatively, they thus have neither the time nor the skills for invention. In this “Management knows best” environment everything needs to performed according to the managers’ rules. In Italy, career baristas, in crisp white shirts and tuxedos, work for many years before earning the designation, and they’re paid €30,000 to €45,000 for their skills. The majority of their American equivalents start with little training at a “McJob wage”. Starbucks provides its employees with extra training and pays a little better, but also demands a bit more. Pleasing Employees and Pouring Profits It is a well known fact of industrial psychology that employees who receive greater training are more likely to identify with the organization, considerably reducing employee turnover levels and increasing goodwill. Briefly, if the employees feel that the company has invested time and knowledge into them they are more likely to consistently display a happy conduct and pleasant attitude and are less likely to leave. Starbucks can then market its employees as genuine examples of happy, affective workers in order to target a certain type of customer. The company simultaneously uses its human resource policies as advertising fodder and breeds new kind of workers who are attached to and identify with the company with whom they are productive “partners.” The good relations between company and employees are frequent fodder for Starbucks, which extensively advertises its better- than-average compensation packages, health coverage and stock options, in a marketing move reminiscent of Taylor’s wage incentives almost a hundred years ago. According to Fortune magazine Starbucks was ranked the 24th best company to work for in 2009 in the US. Starbucks publishes leaflets recounting Howard Schultz’s vision that “there is no more precious commodity than the relationship of trust and confidence a company has with its employees. If people believe management is not fairly sharing the rewards, they will feel alienated.” At the same time, however, Starbucks has crushed unionization drives at various locations throughout Canada and the US, still pay minimum wage or a bit more, and give their employees oddly staggered shifts and little to no job security, all within a productive system that has supposedly been managed specifically so that the company is freed from any dependence upon its employees. There is an obvious irony in the need to completely automate the productive workplace to make workers disposable, while providing pay incentives and novel training programs to entice workers to remain with the company, and even advertising the workers’ good will by citing these pay incentives. Although the regulation of tasks makes individual workers less valuable, it is still more economically favourable to keep the existing, already trained ones. Thus, for maximum productivity and profit, the best system is that which enables the company, whenever possible, to keep trained and functional personnel while maintaining flexible technologies and workplace structures so that employees who do leave can be easily replaced. Starbucks supports its implementation of Scientific Management by claiming that the objective is to free up time for the baristas to “interact with customers and improve the Starbucks experience.” But that is clearly management double-speak; the purpose is to sell more coffee and other Starbucks products, faster than ever before, and the baristas know it. Maybe you can do that by “interacting” with customers; but I believe that the Starbucks Taylorists plan to turn their employees into “robots” and “the café into a factory.” Undoubtedly, the most efficient Starbucks would be one that is completely free of slackers, an Automat with drinks served up by a mechanized routine and kiosks on the floor hawking Starbucks swag. My Personal Experience at Starbucks While passing through Tottenham Court Road the other day, I decided to stop at a Starbucks to see if I could discover any signs of Scientific Management. There wasn’t much of a queue – a sign of efficiency? or of slow business? – so I stepped up to the counter and ordered what I always order at Starbucks: a double macchiato. What size? the clerk behind the counter asked. A double, I said. Oh, she said, a doppio. Yeah, a double, and please, just a dab of foam. She turned and communicated something inaudible to the young man working the espresso machine. He looked confused. I don’t know how to make that one, he said. I guess he was just starting. Another man came over and took him through it. This certainly wasn’t going to be efficient: what I got instead of a caffè macchiato was a paper cup filled with foam, some espresso swishing around underneath. When I asked if he could take some of the foam out of the cup, he looked confused. The man who had been training him intervened, took one look at the foamy concoction, and said he’d make me a new one. But not too much foam, I said. It’s a macchiato. Macchiato. That means ‘stained’. The foam should just stain the coffee. Meanwhile, over at the counter, something else was happening – something very small and seemingly insignificant, but in its own way, magical. A woman holding a big cup of coffee approached the counter and asked the clerk where she could find the nearest tube station. This was way off script. But of course the clerk knew the tube system, and she asked what any Londoner would ask: which line do you want? There then followed a long discussion about where the woman wanted to go, and which line would be best. Another customer standing near the register joined in. A conversation among strangers had began. The social had asserted itself, in a way it could only in London, at that particular juncture in the transit system, and now there was no way around it, no science that could streamline it or predict it, time it or script it. No way to manage it.