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Communication and Personality in Organisational Psychology

Communication and Personality in Organisational Psychology. For several years, psychologists have been trying to understand personality and communication styles within the workplace. Psychologists have concluded that the style of communication of different people depends on two factors- openness and directness. Personality styles are how people act or react when they are placed in any type of circumstances. Researchers have found that people will tend to change and even adapt depending on the situation and their purpose. Our natural tendency in communicating is to use our own style because it is what comes naturally and automatically to us. However, if we want to be better communicators, we need to adapt our style to that of the other person. In the 1940’s research revealed there are four major styles of communication and personality. Some people combine two of these styles, but we all have a natural style of communication and personality that we prefer to use. We have learned that there are several different types of personalities. First, there is aggressive personality, which is a person that is self-centered, only thinks of their self, and tries to control others. When a person is, aggressive they tend to boost their self whereas derogates others and because of this, people around them will feel hurt and or humiliated. Second, is passive personality this type of person is just the opposite of an aggressive person. A person who is passive will express their self and contribute equally and give credit where credit is due as well as share in making any type of decisions. This type of person is responsible and tries to avoid confrontations. Third, we have passive-aggressive which has a few of each of the traits of passive and aggressive personality. This type of person seems to be honest but not always trustworthy. They will try to turn a situation in there own favor in order to win or come out ahead. Then the fourth and final personality type would be assertive. This type of personality seems to be very sensitive and care about others feelings. They and honest and direct in approach, they are very respectful to others, show affection, are honest and direct in their approach. We all know the importance of effective communication in the workplace as well as in our personal life. When we have lack of communication, it results in many misunderstandings and can lead to much confusion. Communication comes in four styles, first would be a controller, which would be considered a task-oriented, and one whom focus on the result, as well as always look at the big picture so to speak. A person that is considered a controller, does not beat about the bush, are direct to the point and prove how your ideas are goal-orients. Second style would be a collaborator this style give importance in interpersonal relationships, they always take the consent of others before moving forward. They are mainly good-natured but this hinders their work process. When they are communicating with collaborators, they make them feel as if they are interested in what they are doing so that they will be comfortable and will share their personal experiences with them. Third style would be an analyzer; their focus is mainly on details of a task. This type of style would rather work alone than with others. An analyzer is a thinker; they take things slowly and have to explain each thing in detail. They will try to convince everyone by using their logical supports and arguments. The fourth and final style is a socialize, someone who loves to meet new people, they believe in high standards and hold a good source of motivation for others. This style of person loves indulging in healthy discussions and brainstorming, they focus on new trends and concepts when communicating with the socializes. Every person has a certain style of communication and personality, once you really stop and think about that you are able to determine a style you can adapt to. Interpersonal communication is one of the most challenging and important aspects of a successful career. It is essential for leaders and managers to understand the basics of communications, their own communication styles, the critical role of emotional intelligence, and the impact of all of this on their co-workers and their organization. Persuasive Communication is a form of social influence, often confused with manipulation, which is the act of guiding another towards something that is not in their best interest by subverting their thought processes. Persuasion is meant to benefit all parties in the end. We have learned that you can change your attitudes through persuasion. If you are a person in a high position like a leader, your ability to communicate persuasively and effectively needs to be strong willed as it plays a major role in convincing others that what you are saying is true. Persuasive Communication requires us to get a group or audience to listen to what you have to say. People are not impressed with those that will beat around the bush they want someone who is going to be straight forward and to the point. By becoming a more effective listener, we need to concentrate more on what that person is trying to say, instead of listening to outside distractions. Another good point to learn is to always allow the person to finish what they are saying without interrupting. Always think before you speak so you do not sound ignorant. When we use communicate in an effective way it helps us to create a positive perception of how others see us. People who speak clearly and properly are accepted easier than people who are not able to communicate clearly. When people speak carefully formal and informal, they create positive impressions. Communication and personality play a very critical role in our success in life. Unfortunately communication skills and personality, is one of the most challenging and important aspects of a successful career. Speaking without listening means poor communication. It is very important for people understand the basics of communications, by this I mean their own communication styles, and their own critical role of emotional intelligence, and the impact of all of this on their life’s and everyone they come in contact with. When you have good communication, skills you are ensured to pose many good things in your life. One of the biggest misconceptions about being a good communicator is that you should also be a good talker. In fact, you need to be a strong listener instead of being a talker; you might actually be surprised to what you could learn just by listening. By developing and understanding of personality styles and learning styles theories, this can become very helpful when trying to improve your knowledge. Understanding personality is also the key to unlocking human qualities. Personality types are very helpful for appreciating that all people are different and that everyone has different values, strengths and qualities. As well as that, everyone needs to be treated with as much care and respect as they are entitled to. There are several different personality and motivational theories, and that everyone has different perspective to offer. Good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness, by understanding personal style of communicating this will go a long way toward helping you to create good lasting impressions on others. When you have good communication skills, you are able to influence others as well as pose effective leadership skills. Success dependent on good communication and personality styles that helps to build commitment in others while driving employees toward higher performance. When you have a strong communication style, you will have the opportunity to teach and learn tools as well as strategies for becoming a more impactful communicator. When you understand how people react to different situation, you learn to respond appropriately, this will help your ability to communicate more effectively, which promotes success in business, in marriage, in friendship, and in life. Communication can help solve problems in professional life and improve relationships in personal life. Communication is important in your career and throughout work life. Our ability to think has helped us to progress and success in the world. We were all born with a strong ability for communication, while we are talking to others; seldom do we stop and ask ourselves what is it that I am trying to communicate? We are taught that those who can talk faster are usually sharper than one who talk slower but this is not true. It is not the one who talks the fastest it is the one who listens turns out to be the best communicator as they are the one who actually has been taking the time to pay attention to what is being said, and how it is being expressed. However, while all human beings are gifted with the ability to use words, not everyone is able to communicate effectively. For instance, a lot of communication, not only involves body language but also the tone of voice adopted by a communicator. Your voice can be a very powerful took that can have a great impact. When you have good listening skills this shows others that you also have good communication skills, this makes others feel validated and heard which the greater tool you could have is. In any relationships, when you pose the lack of communication this has been known to cause many problems. However, when a relationship is healthily then the individuals are able to respect each other’s feelings and learn not to accept more out of each other. We are taught that communication is the transfer of understandable information from a person to another. Communications has two forms of perspectives, interpersonal communication, and organization communication. Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in several different ways. Interpersonal communication includes sending and receiving messages between two or more individuals. Organizational communication is a subfield of the larger discipline of communication studies. Organizational communication, as a field, is the consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of communication Communication is conducted in two forms, none verbal communication and verbal communication. Effective communication is complicated the message may be unclear due to mixed messages, or behaviors. Practicing effective communication developing and refining communication skills can help everyone in all parts of their life. Communication and collaboration seem to go hand in hand, some people can have different types of style they could include dominant, dramatic, contentious, animated, impression leaving, relaxed, open, or friendly. When we think about communication, we realize that the most common type of communication is speech. Since the beginning of time, people have had the need to communicate. Good communications in our life is a necessity, sometimes we do not even notice, when we are speaking in a hurtful loud tone. Our body language seems to play a huge part in our communication styles. Communication and Personality in Organisational Psychology
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Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp To investigate how interventions may work we will look at the effects of alcohol consumption on individuals and populations, and draw attention to the search for policies that protect health, prevent health problems such as liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease and disability, and address the social problems associated with the misuse of alcohol consumption. What alcohol policy is why it is needed, which interventions are effective, how policy is made, and how scientific evidence can inform the policy-making process? Also looking at why the higher the average amount of alcohol consumed in a society, the greater the incidence of problems experienced by that society. We will access the policy responses that are considered to reduce alcohol consumption: alcohol taxation, legislative controls on alcohol availability, and age restrictions on alcohol purchasing, media information campaigns, school-based education, community action programs, and treatment interventions. Considering the influence of environments that people live in, effects of cultures and social norms that define the appropriate uses of alcohol. The value of population thinking in alcohol policy, and its ability to identify health risks and suggest appropriate interventions comparing different intervention strategies in terms of their effectiveness, and the ever-changing process that needs to constantly adapt to the evidence of new research results and tested intervention if it is to serve the interests of public health. One of the biggest determinants to alcohol consumption is the advertising and marketing of alcohol products by the drinks industry. The extent and the nature of alcohol marketing will be examined to illustrate its effects on consumption, cultures and social norms. We will show that more evidence is needed to progress education as a viable intervention. Showing evidence that the majority of the population, alter their damaging drinking through the phenomenon of spontaneous remission, maturing out or self change. It is good practice to learn from the past to plan for the future, the control of alcohol production, distribution, and consumption, has been around for thousands of years, such as requiring that all wine be diluted with water before being sold, these were devised by monarchs, governments, and the clergy to prevent alcohol-related problems. But it was not until the rise of modern medicine and the emergence of the world Temperance Movement in the 19th century that alcohol policy was first seen as a potential instrument of public health. Between 1914 and 1921, laws prohibiting the manufacture and sale of all or most forms of beverage alcohol were adopted in the United States, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Finland, and Russia (Paulson 1973). Most of these laws were repealed during the 1920s and 1930s, and replaced by less extreme regulatory policies. To view alcohol policies through the narrowly focused perspective of prohibition, however, is to ignore the fact that most policy-making during the past century has been incremental, deliberate, and respectful of people’s right to drink in moderation.: Alcohol control policies in public health perspective (Bruun et al. 1975), Sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), the monograph drew attention to the preventable nature of alcohol problems and to the role of national governments and international agencies in the formulation of rational and effective alcohol policies. Alcohol control policies stimulated a heated debate not just among academics, but also among policy-makers. The most significant aspect of the book was its main thesis: the higher the average amount of alcohol consumed in a society, the greater the incidence of problems experienced by that society. Consequently, one way to prevent alcohol problems is through policies directed at the reduction of average alcohol consumption, particularly those policies that limit the availability of alcohol. In the early 1990s, a new project was commissioned by WHO to review the development of the world literature pertaining to alcohol policy. The new study produced Alcohol policy and the public good, a book that proved to be as thought-provoking as its predecessor (Edwards et al. 1994). The book concluded that public health policies on alcohol had come of age because of the strong evidential underpinnings derived from the scientific research that had grown in breadth and sophistication since 1975. After reviewing the evidence on taxation of alcohol, restrictions on alcohol availability, drinking and driving countermeasures, school-based education, community action programs, and treatment interventions, it was concluded that: The research establishes beyond doubt that public health measures of proven effectiveness are available to serve the public good by reducing the widespread costs and pain related to alcohol use. To that end, it is appropriate to deploy responses that influence both the total amount of alcohol consumed by a population and the high-risk contexts and drinking behaviours that are so often associated with alcohol-related problems. During the past decade there have been major improvements in the way alcohol problems are studied in relation to alcohol policies. With the growth of the knowledge base and the maturation of alcohol science, there is now a real opportunity to invest in evidence-based alcohol policies as an instrument of public health. In 1994, Edwards and his colleagues provided a broader view of alcohol policy, considering it as a public health response dictated in part by national and historical concerns. Though there was not an explicit definition of the nature of alcohol policy, its meaning could be inferred from the wealth of policy responses that were considered: alcohol taxation, legislative controls on alcohol availability, and age restrictions on alcohol purchasing, media information campaigns, and school-based education, to name a few. Public policies are authoritative decisions made by governments through laws, rules, and regulations (Longest 1998). The word ‘authoritative’ indicates that the decisions come from the legitimate scope of legislators and other public interest group officials, not from private industry or related advocacy groups. Based on their nature and purpose, alcohol polices can be classified into two categories: allocative and regulatory (Longest 1998). Allocative policies are intended to provide a net benefit to a distinct group or type of organization (sometimes at the expense of other groups or organizations) in order to achieve some public objective. The provision of treatment for alcohol-dependent persons is an example of a policy that seeks to reduce the harm caused by alcohol or to increase access to services for certain population groups. In contrast to allocative policies, regulatory policies seek to influence the actions, behaviours, and decisions of others through direct control of individuals or organizations. Economic regulation through price controls and taxation is often applied to alcoholic beverages to reduce demand and to generate tax revenues. Laws that impose a minimum purchasing age and limit hours of sale have long been used to restrict access to alcohol for reasons of health and safety. From the perspective of this paper, the central purpose of alcohol interventions is to serve the interests of public health and social well-being through their impact on health and social determinants, such as drinking patterns, the drinking environment, and the health services available to treat problem drinkers. Drinking patterns and behaviours that lead to intoxication, which leads to accidents, injuries, and violence. Similarly, drinking patterns that promote frequent and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with chronic health problems such as liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease, and depression. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 International Classification of Diseases codes (Rehm, Room, Graham, and others 2003); disease outcomes are among the most important alcohol-related problems. 4 percent of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, or about as much death and disability globally as is attributable to tobacco and hypertension (Ezzati and others 2002; WHO 2002). The conclusions for alcohol policy are the same, whether alcohol is the sole causal factor for or consequence, a causal factor among many others or a factor mediating the influence of another causal factor. In all cases alcohol contributes to social burden, and public policy must strive to reduce this burden, as well as the alcohol-related burden of disease. While there may be some offsetting psychological benefits from drinking (Peele and Brodsky 2000), from the point of view of minimizing the social harm from drinking, the general conclusion is that the lower the consumption, the better. The environmental determinants of alcohol-related harm include the physical availability of the product, the social norms that define the appropriate uses of alcohol (e.g., as a beverage, as an intoxicant, as a medicine), and the economic incentives that promote its use. Health and social policies that influence the availability of alcohol, the social circumstances of its use, and its retail price are likely to reduce the harm caused by alcohol in a society. Overall, the conclusion must be that alcohol consumption levels affect the health of a population as a whole. In addition to this, the predominant pattern of drinking in a population can have a major influence on the extent of damage from alcohol consumption. Patterns that seem to add to the damage are drinking to intoxication, and recurrent binge drinking. Another important determinant of health in relation to alcohol is the availability of and access to health services, particularly those designed to deal with alcohol dependence and alcohol-related disabilities. Alcohol-related health services can be preventive, acute, and rehabilitative, and can be either voluntary or coercive. Health policies have a major impact on the alcohol treatment and preventive services available in people within a country through health care financing and the organization of the health care system. Bondy S.J. (1996) Public health is concerned with the management and prevention of diseases and injuries in human populations. Unlike clinical medicine, which focuses on the care and cure of disease in individual cases, public health deals with groups of individuals, called populations. The value of population thinking in alcohol policy is in its ability to identify health risks and suggest appropriate interventions that are most likely to benefit the greatest number of people. The concept of ‘population’ is based on the assumption that groups of individuals exhibit certain commonalities by virtue of their shared characteristics (e.g., gender), shared environment (e.g., towns, countries) or shared occupations (e.g., alcoholic beverage service workers) that increase their risk of disease and disability, including alcohol-related problems (Fos and Fine 2000). They also provide epidemiological data to monitor trends, design better interventions, and evaluate programs and services. In the context of the “public good” served by effective alcohol policy refers to those things that benefit most for a given society. One such public good would be effective intervention that would reduce alcohol related harm. Just as the eradication of malaria or (HIV) infections globally are seen as “global public goods” (Smith et al 2003). By locating alcohol policy within the realm of public health and social policy, rather than economics, criminal justice, or social welfare, Authorities tend to approach alcohol as a major determinant of ill health. Health is viewed not only as the absence of disease and injury, but also as a state in which the biological, psychological, and social functioning of a person are maximized in everyday life (Brook and McGlynn 1991). The way in which health is defined and valued within a society has important implications for alcohol policy. If it is defined narrowly as the absence of disease, then the focus is often placed on the treatment of alcohol dependence and the clinical management of alcohol-related disabilities, such as cirrhosis of the liver and traumatic injuries. If health is defined more broadly, then alcohol policy can be directed at proactive interventions that help many more people attain optimal levels of health. Health is influenced by a variety of factors, including the physical, social, and economic environments that people live in, and by their genetic make-up, their personal lifestyles, and the health services that they have access to. An attempt is made to synthesize what is known about evidence-based interventions that can be translated into policy. By comparing different intervention strategies in terms of their effectiveness, scientific support, generalism, and cost, it becomes possible to evaluate the relative appropriateness of different strategies, both alone and in combination, to present problems and future needs. As the scientific basis for alcohol policy begins to take shape, it is becoming apparent that there is no single definitive, much less politically acceptable, approach to the prevention of alcohol problems; a combination of strategies and policies is needed. If this realization is sobering, so too is the conviction, argued in this paper, that alcohol policy is an ever-changing process that needs to constantly adapt to the evidence of new research results and tested intervention if it is to serve the interests of public health. It will require extraordinary measures, some of them relatively painless to implement, others more demanding in terms of resources, ingenuity, and public support. Another important factor is the “social norms” of a society where there are important differences in the cultural meaning of drinking for men and women. Societies’ normative expectations regarding the use of alcohol vary across age groups and between men and women. In some societies, drinking has been almost exclusively a province of men (Roizen 1981), In many societies, abstention rates increase in the later stages of life for both men and woman (Demers et al. 2001; Taylor et al. 2007). This reflects social norms as older people are not suppose to get intoxicated and party as is common amongst young people. Most societies use taxation of alcoholic beverages to bring in revenue in larger or smaller quantities to relevant budgets. Alcoholic beverages are, by any reckoning, important, economically. The benefits connected with the production, sale, and use of alcohol come at an enormous cost to society. Public health specialists and policy-makers who forget this fact do so only at their peril (Edwards and Holder 2000). Also social customs and economic interests should not blind us to the fact that alcohol is a toxic substance. It has the potential to adversely affect nearly every organ and system of the body. No other commodity sold for ingestion, not even tobacco, has such wide-ranging adverse physical effects. Taking account of alcohol’s potential for toxicity is therefore an important task for public health policy. Especially the past decade, it can be said that remarkable progress was made in the scientific understanding of alcohol’s harmful effects, as scientists discovered biological, chemical, and psychological explanations for humans’ propensity to consume what has been called ‘the ambiguous molecule’ (Edwards 2000). One of the biggest determinants to alcohol consumption is the advertising and marketing of alcohol products by the drinks industry. The extent and the nature of alcohol marketing have changed globally in the last decade, and the research has also expanded considerably to better understand its effects. Most of the new research is directed to the measurement of the impact of marketing on youth. More is now known about the effects of marketing on younger people’s beliefs and intentions to drink as well as on their drinking behaviour. Research has investigated the impact of marketing other than the broadcast and print media advertising, although some of the new media and marketing approaches being used by the alcohol industry remain unmeasured and under-researched. The first examination is the current state of alcohol marketing and what is known about the way in which marketing has its impact. Second, two different policy approaches codes of content and restrictions to reduce exposure are assessed for their likely impact on consumption and harm. Interventions that change exposure to advertising have often been limited and evaluations have mixed findings. More effort has gone into the establishment of codes aimed to affect the content of the advertising. Conclusions regarding the likely effects of these approaches can be made based on theoretical understanding and empirical evidence about the way in which marketing has its effects and its measured impacts. Conclusions may also be informed by research on tobacco advertising where the impacts are established and widely accepted (Lovato et al. 2004; Henriksen et al. 2008). The alcohol industry insists that they only advertise to promote their own particular brands, and that the advertising does not affect any rise in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Research and evidence shows that the commodity chain analysis highlights the importance of advertising, sponsorship and other forms of marketing to a globalized alcohol industry (Jernigan 2006). The marketing of the products and brand(s) produced is essential for the profit-making enterprise. Marketing now involves much more than advertising using traditional media outlets such as print, television, and radio. Marketing exploits the possibilities provided by the design of products. New products and packaging have been developed to meet the needs and wants of different sectors of the market (Brain 2000). Pre-mixed drinks in which spirits or beer are made more palatable by the addition of a soft drink base or fruit flavourings have expanded in sales very rapidly and have become associated in some contexts, but not all, with heavier consumption (Huckle et al. 2008b). Packaging has increased acceptability and palatability of alcoholic beverages among young people (Copeland et al. 2007; Gates et al. 2007). It utilizes a range of new media opportunities including electronic means, and a key element is the sponsorship of sporting and cultural events. The measured media (usually broadcast and print) is known to be an underestimation of the marketing effort by a factor of two to four (Anderson et al. 2009b). Marketing at the place of sale has become increasingly important with an expansion of alcohol sales into more retail outlets. This often goes hand in hand with pricing promotions. For example buy-some-get-some-free (Jones and Lynch 2007). Promotion of alcohol brands in electronic media is a major part of marketing. Advertising is also shown in cinemas and this is increasingly supplemented by product placement in movies and television. Newer forms of electronic communication such as internet networking sites e-mail and cell phones have also provided new opportunities for alcohol promotion which are popular with young people (Jernigan and O’Hara 2004). Sports and cultural events, particularly those with appeal to young people, are widely sponsored by alcohol brands. They also provide opportunities for direct marketing through free gifts and exclusive ‘pourage’ rights (Hill and Casswell 2004). Carlsberg’s sponsorship of the EURO 2004 football/soccer championship was reported to grow the brand by about 6% worldwide; Carlsberg told shareholders that its signage had appeared in the background of television sport coverage for an average of 16 minutes per game (Carlsberg 2006). Much of marketing, including that based on sponsorship, crosses national boundaries. (Breen 2008). The theology is that the first stage is liking alcohol advertisements, followed by a desire to emulate the featured characters (including those that depict the lifestyle of young adults), and then the belief expressed that acting this way will result in positive benefits (Austin et al. 2006). Much of the marketing that targets young people is driven by an understanding of the importance of alcohol consumption for identity formation. The advertising is designed to provide humour, attractive ideas, images, phrases, and other resources that are used in the process of peer-to-peer interaction as identity is formed and communicated (McCreanor et al. 2005). The longitudinal studies have been subjected to systematic reviews. The strength of the association, the consistency of the findings, the temporal relationship, the dose-response relationship and the theoretical plausibility of the effect have led to the conclusion that alcohol advertising increases the likelihood that young people will start to use alcohol and will drink more if they are already using alcohol (Jernigan 2006; Smith and Foxcroft 2009; Anderson et al 2009b). Experience with policies to restrict the negative impacts of marketing is less well developed than with other areas of alcohol policy. In part this reflects the rapid developments and financial investment in marketing and media over the last four decades and a failure of policy developments to keep abreast of marketing practices. Research has suggested that voluntary codes are subject to under-interpretation and under-enforcement (Rearck Research 1991; Saunders and Yap 1991; Sheldon 2000; Dring and Hope 2001; Jones et al. 2008); including a bias in favour of the corporations represented on the decision-making board (Marin Institute 2008a). There are also documented cases of the instability of such voluntary codes in response to changing market conditions (Martin et al. 2002; Hill and Casswell 2004). Following the introduction of a ‘co-regulatory’ approach in the UK, in which a government agency was delegated the handling of broadcast complaints to the Advertising Standards Authority (funded by the Alcohol industry), a code change was introduced. Research demonstrated that advertisements continued to contain attributes that appealed to young people and the data showed a link between exposure to advertisements and consumption of specific beverages (Gunter et al. 2008). This substantial body of research has shown that, even if alcohol marketing remains in line with codes on alcohol advertising content, it nevertheless encourages drinking and has an impact on younger people’s beliefs and alcohol consumption levels. A recent analysis of self-regulation by the alcohol industry in the UK concluded it was not an effective driver of change towards good practice (KPMG 2008b). Overall there is no evidence to support the effectiveness of industry self-regulatory codes, either as a means of limiting advertisements deemed unacceptable or as a way of limiting alcohol consumption (Booth et al 2008). Research has also suggested that the effects of marketing on beliefs about alcohol counteract any possible effect from health promotion activities (Wallack 1983; Centre on Alcohol Marketing and Youth 2003). Recipients, who bring their own cultural and social experiences to their interpretation of the marketing, may perceive heavy drinking or intoxication as represented within the advertising even when it is not shown directly (Duff 2003; McCreanor et al 2008). This is particularly likely to have an impact on efforts to reduce heavier drinking as a cultural norm. Direct effect on exposed individuals is not the only concern which underpins restrictions on marketing, however. It is possible that widespread marketing, which promotes alcohol as a positive and commonplace element of everyday life, has an impact on social norms around alcohol which may, in turn, affect the acceptability of more restrictive policies and practice. In effect, marketing is a force for ensuring that alcohol is dealt with as if it were an ordinary commodity (Casswell 1997). There is clearly a need for an independent review of the evidence, with a view to impose restrictions that can meet public health goals. In some jurisdictions there are restrictions, typically by regulation, on exposure to alcohol marketing by media type, beverage type, time of broadcast or composition of media audiences (particularly of younger people). Most research has focused on exposure of young people to the measured media. This varies by country. In the USA, young people aged 15-26 years on average reported seeing the equivalent of almost 360 advertisements per year, the majority on television. Restrictions imposed by agreement among industry actors are inherently unstable. In the context of the EU and other trade agreements, they may be subject to legal attack as an illegal restraint of trade. They may also be easily breached or dropped. The effect of partial bans was also reported not to have affected consumption in seventeen countries over 26 years (Nelson 2008a), in a study with material that included at least fifteen consequential changes in bans. A comprehensive regulation of alcohol marketing, and one which has maintained political support for more than a decade, one of the key elements of the Loi Evin (relevant to the need to control the current ongoing proliferation of marketing approaches) is that advertising of alcohol is prohibited in all media unless the law provides for an exemption; there is a complete ban on sponsorship and on advertising in many media, including television and cinema. Such advertising regulation has been challenged. However, restrictions on alcohol advertising to meet public health goals have been upheld by the courts, although sometimes with some modification. However, the findings of an effect of exposure to marketing put the question of controls on advertising high on the policy agenda. The extent to which effective restrictions would reduce consumption and related harm in younger age groups must remain somewhat of an open question. The most probable scenario, based on the theoretical and empirical evidence available, is that extensive restriction of marketing would have an impact. The evidence suggests there can be other effective restrictions other than advertising, strategies such as availability can have an effect studies of restriction on alcohol availability support the conclusion that such strategies can contribute to the reduction of alcohol problems. The best available evidence comes from studies of changes in retail availability, including reduction in hours and days of sale, limits on the number of outlets and restriction on retail access to alcohol. For young people, laws that raise the minimum legal drinking age reduce alcohol sales and problems. This strategy has the strongest empirical support (Shults et al 2001; Wagenaar and Toomey 2002), with dozens of studies finding substantial impact on traffic and other casualties from change of the drinking age. The cost of raising the drinking age is low, and as the evidence shows that in the USA they estimated that thousands of lives have been saved over the last decade (Wagenaar et al. 1998). A WHO analysis of the relative cost of a “restricted access” option estimated that Saturday closing would have considerable societal benefits in most parts of the world, though that would still be less than the result from a substantial price rise in alcohol via taxation.(Chisholm et al. 2006; Anderson et al. 2009a) This provides evidence that regulations backed up with enforcement can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and problems; this is also used to force all sellers to hold a specific license to sell alcohol beverages, if there is any sales infringements the license can be suspended or revoked. As well as restrictions and regulation strategies, measures to reduce the harm in drinking situations are thus a useful option in the mix of strategies for preventing, alcohol-related problems. The less the political process is willing to support general alcohol control and tax measures the more important local harm reduction measures become. Alcohol policies are primarily the concern of local, regional, and national governments, which often view the provision of treatment as part of a comprehensive approach to alcohol-related problems. In addition to its value in the reduction of human suffering, treatment can be considered as a form of prevention. When it occurs soon after the onset of alcohol problems, it is called secondary prevention; when it is initiated to control the damage associated with chronic drinking, it is called tertiary prevention. As one of the first societal responses to alcohol problems, treatment interventions have not been critically examined as policy options, despite the resources they consume and the scientific evidence that is available concerning their effectiveness and costs. To what extent are alcohol treatment and early intervention services effective in reducing population rates of alcohol-related harm? Other questions relevant to treatment policy include the following: Should people with these conditions be managed within the general health care system, specialized addiction services, social welfare agencies, psychiatric facilities, the criminal justice system, or a combination of these entities? What is the optimal amount and best combination of services needed to serve the needs of a country or a geographic area? What kinds of ‘ treatment systems are best suited to prevent the marginalization of people with chronic alcohol problems? How can treatment services best be organized to provide the most effective treatment at the lowest cost? Treatment for alcohol problems typically involves a set of services, ranging from diagnostic assessment to therapeutic interventions and continuing care. Researchers have identified more than 40 therapeutic approaches, called treatment modalities, which have been evaluated by means of randomized clinical trials (Miller et al. 1995). Examples include motivational counselling, relapse prevention training, marital and family therapy, aversion therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, pharmacotherapy, and interventions based on the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. These modalities are delivered in a variety of settings, including residential facilities, psychiatric and general hospital settings, outpatient programmes, and primary care. More recently, treatment services in some countries have been organized into systems that are defined by linkages between different facilities and levels of care, and by the extent of integration with other types of services, such as mental health, drug dependence treatment, and mutual help organizations (Klingemann et al. 1993; Klingemann and Klingemann 1999). Most treatment research and the scientific evidence derived from it are component-based, focusing on a single intervention or episode of care. In general, the research, evidence can be organized according to three types of intervention within the emerging treatment systems of countries where information on efficacy and effectiveness is available, interventions for non-dependent high-risk drinkers, formal treatment) for problem drinking and alcohol dependence, and mutual help interventions. Harmful drinking typically precedes the development of alcohol dependence, and by definition it can cause serious medical and psychological: problems in the absence of dependence. With the increased interest in clinical preventive services in both developed and developing countries, early intervention programmes have been developed by WHO and national agencies to facilitate the management of harmful drinking in primary health care and other settings Interven Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
In 1909, LOreal is established by a French chemist named Eugene Schueller and nowadays become the worlds biggest cosmetics and beauty Products Company in the whole world.(L’ Oreal) With more than 100 years of proficiency in cosmetics, This Company operates over 130 countries like Asia, America, East and West Europe through 25 international brands around the world and 649 patents .The company’s production concentrating on hair colours, skin care, perfumes and fragrances, make up and styling products etc. L’Oreal mostly emphasized the establishment of a strong consumer relationships, lifestyle and philosophy of the company products in order to provide consumers with more satisfaction. L’Oreal product not only to women, but the company also offer beauty product to men is become trends of fashion on worldwide. The brands of the company are grouped by the particular markets like mass, professional brands, luxury products and active cosmetics which more easy to determine their major product by a lot of brands. Culture has many different meaning. According to Tylor, E. (1871 ) refer culture as “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.” (Tylor, 1920) Culture is the collective programming of the human being which distinguishes by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving. (Hofstede, G. 1984) In additional, other social scientists view culture include of the symbolic, concept, knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, meanings, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and intangible aspects of human societies. Culture is an important sector of social and human behave , which help human being to establish identity and self-esteem, promote economic growth and encourage people participate politic and ownership. the mainstreaming sense of culture is defined by the particular values, traditions and patterns of behaviour that need to be considered when working with other environment . In Fact, culture is a set of components that shared by groups of people around the world. From one country to another, human beings have developed different types of symbolic, aesthetic expression, beliefs and codes of conduct can be difficult for foreigners to understand. From a commercial point of view, companies must adapt to the culture of each country when they want to have business in. Due to the cultural differences between countries it may affect company decision making when foreigner weren’t accepted. So companies need to adjust their products and services before they enter to the particular market. this will enable to help company to created and developed new strategic to adapt the culture different between the environment. Firstly, product packaging can influences on the aspect of culture. To investigate how L’Oreal adapts different countries culture on product packing to understanding how culture can influence a company decision making (L’Oreal Annual Report 2010). By compare nations’ culture associate different meaning with colours and preferences that show packaging of a product would affect consumer’s decision making (Madden et al, 2000). Between that, L’Oreal is a cosmetic beauty industry that consumer are favour on colour of their product in the market. However, the culture in different country that human being is will affect consumer to making choice. L’Oreal adopts different product mix for different countries. L’Oreal also uses CRM (Consumer Reply Management), in order to get more knowledge about customers. Such as products packaging in North Europe and Asia are lighter in colour. Example like compare the colour of lipstick between USA and Japan that found out Japan consumer prefer lighter colour than USA consumer. In the result of observers compare between Japan and American that Japan had greater relative preference for light colours rating, which mean Japanese like less than the American warm colour but not cold colour. Some gender effects were similar in the two cultures which males in both cultures tended to prefer saturated colours more than females, whereas females in both cultures tended to prefer desaturated colors more than males. ( Fushikida, W., Schloss, K., Yokosawa, K., Palmer, S.2009) In additional, Japan consumers are willing to concern about packing along with the aesthetic of a product. Even small defects may result in the rejection of the product which equally important is the size and design standards. However, the languages of product packaging as one of the role of culture that effect of L’Oreal participate in different country. According to Edward S. (1884-1939) refer language as “The power of language to reflect culture and influence thinking”. In order word the differentiate languages willing bring issue to company provide information to consumers. As research from L’Oreal product in different country that can seen languages is very important for product packaging. That mean L’Oreal printed domestic language in product packaging at particular country. Example in Korea’s L’Oreal product is printed their language that Korea consumer more suitable and realizable on their own languages. This is because if product information only provides on English that particular consumer from Korea which did not understanding the meaning of language that makes them may not confident to purchase, even the Brand is famous in the market. Even thought, L’Oreal had provided different languages on their own website to service consumer. Moreover, product packaging is very important for L’Oreal to avoid provide misunderstand information when consumer seen the product. Therefore product packaging is one of the elements of culture that can be effect company to overview their strategy decision making. Secondly, consumer behaviour can be one of the elements influence on the aspect of culture. Consumer behaviour is basically about the attitudes, decisions making, and actions of individuals as overall consumers in the marketplace. The study of consumer behaviour is rooted in the host domain social and behavioural sciences, such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, economics, history, social psychology, marketing and management. Explain and predict consumer behaviour which can be very challenging, it becomes more global business compared with the national or regional market. This is because the planning and implementation of marketing must be a profound understanding of consumer motivations and expectations along the many cognitive, emotional and behavioural dimensions, so this can be significantly different across national boundaries, taking into account consumer behaviour is influenced by cultural, economic and social impacts. Understanding the extent of consumer deliberation in decision processes is to determine the degree of consumer consideration in the decision-making process.( Consumer Behaviour’ 2009) The different countries consumers have specific purchasing behaviour that influences differentiate culture that L’Oreal has to analysis it out. To evaluate the consumer behaviour in Japanese behaviour that found out they are more reluctant to product from outside. In other word Japanese do not accept product which are from outside Japan that are not made in Japan. Hence, L’ Oreal Paris established a new laboratory in Japan that helps them to analysis and cope up with this aspect of culture Japanese culture. Nevertheless Japanese market is difficult to predict which L’Oreal had failure of the Moisture Whip lipstick past experience. Trend of cosmetic are unpredictable in Japan sweeping the country in a matter of weeks. So L’Oreal creates a science designed for Asian hair and skin, as they have done for African products brand. Therefore, L’Oreal used past experience as example to avoid failure to meet consumers’ culture and development product to meet Japanese needs and wants. In fact, Japanese culture is straight forward on discipline and rules that they like to buy a quality goods compare to China. In China culture consumer more confident to international product than domestic product. Because of their local cosmetic product technology is not secure and given confident to consumer. Indeed, L’Oreal Paris represented as professional and advanced research and development technology on cosmetic. Moreover, L’Oreal Paris positions itself as an accessible luxury brand. However China consumers’ culture is willing to buy luxury product that with strong brand image company product. In year 2004 L’ Oreal acquired Yue-Sai cosmetic brand which use herds as material in its product to adapt china domestic culture that Chinese beliefs herb better than chemical materials(Liza Lin, 2011). Therefore, consumer behaviour as one of the element of culture that L’Oreal should research and understanding since they decided offer product in particular country.( Carroll A, M 2005) As a result L’Oreal discover that they should offer different various type of product to domestic consumers stratify their needs and wants as expectation by knowing particular culture. Because of Japanese unique taste on product they have to create something different compare to China. Third, product offer is one of the elements culture influences on the aspect. Product offering refer to products and service determined its features, advantages and benefits to achieve consumers’ needs and wants. By identity business in the marketplace current situation that L’Oreal enables to meet global consumer’s values of high quality product with developed and innovated technology and knowledge. It is because L’Oreal cannot achieve consumer needs and wants that particular company may face failure in their business which consumer would not purchased on particular product. L’Oreal had put Sun Protection Factor for women in Asian countries to be safe guarded from the sun in those Asian woman want pure white beauty skin protect damage from the sun. In western culture, European they willing like sunbathing and realise the brown colour skin as healthy image. Because of the weather in Europe L’Oreal distribute various type of lotion which different ingredient to protect their skin care when weather become dry and cool. L’Oreal is global distribution their product base on the particular country’s culture and values that innovation most suitable product in domestic area. So, product of L’Oreal will have different product offer in particular country that to adapt the consumer culture (L’Oreal, India). In India, L’Oreal offer a special product which is Maybelline’s Colossal Kajal, an eyeliner that combine the best of traditional and modern makeup that to meet up Indian women desirable in the marketplace. Kajal had been used for generations by Indian women to darken the edge of their eyes which normal eyeliner from Paris could not match particular consumer desire on their expected. Maybelline’s Colossal Kajal is pen-like. So Indian women is no required to dip fingers in a pot of kohl and its strongest claim is its promise to stay smudge-free for up to six hours. L’Oreal analyse the issue of modem Indian women which identified gaps in the eyeliner’s ability to meet the needs and created a new product that replace to Kajal’s traditional use in their daily routine. Therefore, L’Oreal India innovated new strategy is success and analyse culture adaption. The company’s more concentrate approach could provide L’Oreal with the knowledge and local understanding that could allow the company to better serve the consumers. Conclusion, culture is really important for organisation to determine before they business globalise with learning as much as possible. Company is avoiding the international strategy failure that they would evaluate and solve the problem as soon as possible in the competitive environment in the marketplace. In fact, above of three elements aspect of culture as product packaging, consumer behaviour and product offering could affect company strategic fail in the future. By particular fault to determine international strategy without analyse culture behave in the specific country will make loss and damage people beliefs and value of the product that would spend a lot of expenses to gain back consumer purchase back. Beside, product offer to specific country is determine on particular country consumer behave needs and wants which more stratify their desirable. So, organisation should attention and sensitivity about the culture will bring affect when they making decision of strategy to develop business internationally.

De Anza College Racial Categorization During Apartheid Questions

De Anza College Racial Categorization During Apartheid Questions.

Please choose 2 out of the 3 color coded questions below to respond to. All of the questions below relate to Part 2 (chapters 9-14) in Born A Crime The legal infrastructure of apartheid rested on racial classification. A person’s classification would determine what areas they could live in, what jobs are made available to them, who they can marry, how police would treat them, and many other aspects of life.a) What are the four main racial categories within the system?b) Describe the process of determining a person’s race. Was the process scientific or was it an arbitrary one? Please explain.c) Can one be moved (“promoted” or “demoted”) to another category in this system? Explain the dilemma of white families/parents who produce a child that the public perceives as colored2. Noah writes, “The curse that colored people carry is having no clearly defined heritage to go back to. If they trace their lineage back far enough, at a certain point it splits into white and native and a tangled web of ‘other.’ Since their native mothers are gone, their strongest affinity has always been with their white fathers, the Afrikaners. Most colored people don’t speak African languages. They speak Afrikaans. Their religion, their institutions, all the things that shaped their culture came from Afrikaners. The history of colored people in South Africa is, in this respect, worse than the history of black people in South Africa” (115-116).This quote is extremely dense (layered). Let’s break it down into parts (A-D), ultimately to answer the question, How does the limbo in which colored people live affect their sense of self and their place in society?Part A: Under what circumstances would a person be categorized as colored in South Africa?Part B: Why does Noah say that for coloreds, their native mothers are long gone? What does this mean in terms of their retaining any native culture (i.e., language, religion, stories passed down, affiliations, moral values, social norms, etc.)?Part C: Coloreds live within the culture of Afrikaners. What does this mean exactly? (i.e., what’s their language, “religion, their institutions, all the things that shaped their culture”) From the Afrikaners’ perspective, is the racial hierarchy and ruling ideology of apartheid right and just?Part D: Why might a colored person’s self-esteem be worse off since they lived within Afrikaner culture, as opposed to those who live with their native culture? Why might native black culture confer a more positive identity (or, self-perception) for its members and a sense of belonging?3.In chapter 13, Noah writes about how he escaped punishment for theft. How does the story of the Balfour Park Shopping Mall theft illustrate the problems of viewing situations through the lens of black and white, or racial categories?reading sources:…
De Anza College Racial Categorization During Apartheid Questions

Diagram and Paper, Tech Support homework help

essay writer free Diagram and Paper, Tech Support homework help.

Create a 1-page table or a diagram using Microsoft® Visio® or Word showing the frequencies/channels that will be used for your network design (from Week 2) and the locations where specific frequencies and channels will be used. The frequencies shall be precise indicating center frequencies and the frequency range.Create a 200- to 350-word narrative using Microsoft® Word describing the type of IEEE wireless network selected and the reasons for this selection over other choices. Use APA formattingInclude the following:Which type of IEEE wireless network you selected and explain the reason for selection.Specific Channels and specific Frequencies (include center frequency) used in each one of the access points.Describe the areas of potential interference.Describe your solutions to interferencesI will attach the assignment from week 2. Thanks!
Diagram and Paper, Tech Support homework help

Vegetarian Lifestyle Essay

Every year a great number of people make a conscious decision to transit from omnivore to vegetarian lifestyle. Their motivation for making the transition ranges from extreme dissatisfaction with killing and eating animals to beliefs that meat is an unhealthy product that is detrimental to their health. The relationship between the vegetarian diet and person’s health- conscious lifestyle has been established. For this reason, a transition to a vegetarian lifestyle may be considered an indicator of the individual’s awareness of the general principles of the main behavioral nutrition principles. Appropriate measures need to be imposed for raising the public awareness concerning the benefits of vegetarianism and providing people with an opportunity to make a conscious decision between omnivore and vegetarian lifestyles. Though the direct relationship between the vegetarian dietary and the vegetarians’ lower prevalence of chronic diseases and lower BMI is questionable, the link between the transition to vegetarianism and other healthy lifestyle behaviors is obvious. Bedford

Sociology homework help

Sociology homework help. Wes Moore, the author of the book The Other Wes Moore: One Name, Two Fates, was surprised when one day, the police approached him for a crime he did not commit. During the investigation, he came to know of another man who had the same name?Wes Moore. The shared name was not the only coincidence: they had both grown up in the same neighborhood at about the same time. Yet, one Wes Moore went on to become a Rhodes scholar, earn honors in the military, work at the White House, and become a leader in the business community; while the other Wes Moore was sentenced to life in prison. The descriptions of the lives of both Wes Moores are illustrative of the power of heredity and environment in the shaping of a person. As boys, both Wes Moores grew up in poor, single-parent homes and did not apply themselves in primary and secondary school. The author?s father, a newscaster, died when the author was three years old. He and his two sisters were raised by his widowed mother. Before he was a teen, he became disillusioned with school and began getting into trouble in his neighborhood, even having brushes with the law for petty crimes. His mother decided to send him to military school, but he ran away five times before finally giving the school a chance. Once he decided to stay, he gained a strong sense of purpose and developed a strong work ethic. Meanwhile, the other Wes Moore, who lived in the same area of Baltimore, was about the same age, and was also being raised by a single mother. He was arrested and convicted for first-degree murder of a police officer during a jewelry store robbery. He is serving a life prison sentence. Important differences between the childhoods of the two boys are notable. The author had two college-educated parents. His father chose to stay with the family, but died at a relatively young age. He was relatively closely supervised. He, his siblings, and his mother lived with his grandparents after his father died. The author?s mother took extreme steps to try to turn him around. She moved several times to try to find safer neighborhoods. She sent him to military school when he exhibited troublesome behavior. The other Wes Moore?s father was never a part of his life, choosing to abandon the family before his birth. His mother had been accepted to college, but federal budget cuts resulted in the loss of her Pell Grant. She had to abandon her goal of a college education and instead, had to work three jobs to care for her family. Eventually, she became overwhelmed and was unable to provide the kind of structure the author received. As a result, the other Wes Moore was unsupervised much of the time. He began using and selling drugs, later resorting to more serious crimes, like robbery, for money. It was during a robbery that he shot and killed a police officer?a crime that put him in prison for life. =============================================================================================Gather information about the potential causes of Mr. Moore?s outcome.Write a report of your findings to be filed in Mr. Moore?s chart and used by professionals who will be helping Mr. Moore. Address the following in your report:Analyze how each of the following played a role in causing or affecting Mr. Moore?s troubled childhood and eventual imprisonment:Biological factors (genetic and physiological)Developmental factorsPsychological factors (emotional and related to thoughts)Familial and social factorsCultural factors (environmental and multicultural)Evaluate how Mr. Moore?s troubled childhood and eventual imprisonment could have been prevented by early intervention. In addition, explain how that intervention could have been designed to address each of the following:Psychological factorsFamilial and social factorsCultural factorsRecommend at least two ideas for treatment that Mr. Moore should have received in childhood, based on all of the following:Biological factorsPsychological factorsFamilial and social factorsSociology homework help