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Communicating on Social Media Platforms

Communicating on Social Media Platforms. Paper details Summative Discussion Board Review and reflect on the knowledge you have gained from this course. Based on your review and reflection, write at least 400 words on the following: What was your most significant learning in this course? How did participating in discussions help your understanding of the subject matter? Is anything still unclear that could be clarified?Communicating on Social Media Platforms
Table of Contents Introduction Prussian and Austrian monarchies: factors of growing A post-revolution atmosphere Conclusion References Introduction In 1700 de Witt already expected the influences of regna youth and socio-political, even economic potential to prompt Austria and Prussia to wage wars of conquest as a result of Spanish incapacity to assure equilibrium between the two great powers. His observation is commonplace; the same understandings could be found in the observations of astute observers all across Europe, not only about Austria but about Prussia as well. The nominal as a philosophical mode of argument began to undermine the belief in the intrinsic qualities and powers of kings in the late fifteenth century; humanists such as Buda, Rubella’s, and Le Roy sought to shore them up. Kings were believed to possess a nature that obliged them to conduct military actions. This gift was believed to be in their blood. Therefore a monarchy was taken as strong when it had a king who could organize and lead his militant for conquest. This constituted one of the major features of the monarchy. (E. Lavisse1911) Prussian and Austrian monarchies: factors of growing In political terms, Early-Modern kings were more respected, than the current leaders. Their subjects more willingly turned over their resources to them if they confirmed this idea of monarchial nature by riding at the head of their armies in battle. While the war was thought to be a scourge, and its devastating effects were lamented, protest by constituted bodies, the royal council, the assemblies of the clergy, the assemblies of notables, and the estates-generals, rarely ventured to criticize wars for either conquest or defense in the long history of the Ancients Régime. Our century has accustomed us to puppet kings ruling in puppet kingdoms to monarchs who spend their time in ceremonial. Such was not the case in Prussian and Austrian monarchies. The inflation of the kings’ titles was watered down in the 19th century, which then lowed the king’s dignity in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Before then kingship was acquired through inheritance and no diplomat or group of diplomats was elected as a king or a Queen. (E. Lavisse1911) The dignity of king or queen was held by only a select few who were endowed with the dynastic heritage, territory, and marriages with other royal houses to sustaining the dignity. Some Prussian and Austrian families had more illustrious and ancient pedigrees than some of those born to the dignity of a king, but these lacked the territorial possessions to sustain the title. For example, in Europe Wittelsbachs were certainly of more ancient nobility than the Bourbons, but Bavaria and the Palatinate combined still did not make a Monarchies Françoise in territorial dimensions, nor confer the power to conduct war, because of the size of the European realm. In this type of leadership, the dignity held by a young prince made him devise a method of how to conquest other kingdoms and expand his territory, to earn more respect from his subject. In the end, a precedent would be set when an electoral family finally gained the title king as it was in Prussia, but for a time they were still denied the quality. Only military and diplomatic success (and momentarily Imperial need for allies against Louis XIV) permitted this monstrous creation, a conquering elector who became king. As Reinhold Hatton so learnedly observed, kings had their eyes on each other, not only across time but also by the recognition that they were an exclusive club of players. The phenomena of increased state power certainly affected how kings observed each other, but it was not until the later eighteenth century that the regal rhythms that called for conquest in youth would be tempered. The scale became such that dignities became quite empty. (E. Lavisse1911) Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rise of the modern monarchies resulted in a change in how the institutions were running. In the former regimes, kings who inherited their regimes to their blood relatives mostly their sons were administering institutions. The rising of regimes such as Persia and Austria weakened these monarchies. The factors that influenced the rise of Prussia and Austria were. These factors included war for conquest, which was a major characteristic of monarchy in the Early-Modern period. Where young princes strategize on how to expand their kingdoms by conquering other neighboring kingdoms. This is why the Early-Modern monarchies were almost always at war. This to them was very necessary so that to conquer other kingdoms and expand their territories. This process made the kings encourage most young men to join the military where they received training on various fighting tactics to equip them with wars for conquests. This process was very common in Prussia and Austria kingdoms Therefore this was one of the characteristics that comprised the Prussia and Austria monarchies in the 17th and 18th centuries. These wars used a lot of the monarchy’s resources. Therefore a lot of resources of Prussia and Austria were consumed to finance these wars. These wars could end after a short period and in other cases, they lasted for years. During that period idea of J.R.Hale of establishing peace could not succeed as it was understood that state-building was not so much a matter of peace but of war, and the size of the war and war-making potential was very vital to the monarchies. (Dupaquier1980) The other factor that greatly boosted the growth of Prussia and Austria monarchies into great kingdoms was their rich resources. The availability of resources was very vital for the success of monarchies of those times and especially Prussia and Austria. Most of the monarchy’s resources during the 17th and 18th centuries went primarily for the payment of troops and secondarily for arms, fortresses, and aggressive fleets, in monarchies throughout the Early-Modern period. The allocation of resources during these periods was very high not like today when governments are criticized when defense spending reaches about 30% but in the 1700s Louis XIV appears to have devoted 75 percent to war, while Peter the Great 85 percent. To be sure, the late seventeenth-century wars, both in Eastern and Western Europe, were exceptionally costly. In Prussia and Austria, the percentage that was allocated to war was very minimal but fluctuated to a very high value in times of war. But at these years of peace, when the percentages allocated to war would fall, the total annual revenue fell even faster in peace years, because no revenue was collected as rooting by the troops in times of war to increase the domestic revenue thus the percentages allocated for the military remained very high. Therefore warfare was the only effective and powerful means of mobilizing resources in Prussia and Austria. Most rich families and people gave a lot of their resources to the monarchy’s rulers to help them receive the high resources that were needed to finance these wars. In the eighteenth century, public works projects began to count for some royal spending, and the resources allocated for wars started to diminish gradually. Therefore the availability of resources greatly boosted the growth of Persian and Austrian monarchies in the 17th and 18th centuries. This is because these resources helped to finance the high costs of the Wars of Austria and Prussia. In Prussia, the allocation in the 17th century was as high as 90 percent during the Seven Years’ War. The huge expenses were important to sustain the needs of the large scale of troops that the kings employed in the field, sometimes over a long period. We will write a custom Research Paper on Modern European History: Prussia

Central Texas College Social Anxiety Disorder Discussion

Central Texas College Social Anxiety Disorder Discussion.

Minimal 400 words each. Two Topics. Topic 1. Why so many people have social anxiety disorder nowadays? Topic 2. Why Asian Americans don’t believe in therapy? Within the first two sentences of your paper, you will identify for the reader the singular sub-topic that your entire paper will encompass. Do not provide a definition or explanation of the subtopic. You can think of your reaction paper as having a discussion with the instructor about the topic. A reaction/reflection paper is not a summary of what you have read. As a reminder, you will want to identify the topic of your paper without providing a definition or summary of what the topic encompasses. Instead, your writing should reflect a concise, organized, and well-written expression of your independent thoughts following the reading of one sub-topic. cite all of these references in APA style, reaction/reflection paper is based on the expression of your critical thinking skills (not the thoughts of another individual). Points will be deducted if more than one line of quoted or paraphrased text is included in your paper
Central Texas College Social Anxiety Disorder Discussion

Barrack Obama and Race in Politics and Culture Research Paper

essay helper free Introduction The United States is considered the most developed and sophisticated nation in the world due to its democratic institutions, culture and processes. However, very few people will recall the black days and events that engulfed this nation before and after the First World War. Today, Barrack Obama is the president of this most powerful nation in the world and continues to face racial criticism despite efforts to integrate all races and adopt a non partisan approach in managing national issues (Remnick 7). This research paper explores the issue of president barrack Obama and race in politics and culture. Background America has evolved from a racist nation and is slowly embracing other cultures in its national issues. The most evident illustration of racism was when it used to allocate national positions to whites while discriminating against other racial groups. It is clearly illustrated in how blacks and red Indians used to be treated unfairly not only in national issues but also those that involved intercultural relations (Harris 71). Very few Americans allowed their family members to interact with black and this was the epitome of racism. However, American presidents like Kennedy and Lincoln tried their best to integrate all communities to participate in national issues but this was not possible. This country had architects of racism who ensured non whites were never given opportunities to use facilities meant for the elites. Slavery was also another illustration of how Africans were treated by the whites who during that time thought that the African population was inferior and used them as cheap labor. This trade led to the migration of blacks from Africa to America and later they found their ways into suburbs. It was impossible to travel back to Africa since they did not have enough money for air ticket. Secondly, it was impossible for them to board a train. This group became so agitated by the discrimination practiced by the whites. This was evident in schools, churches, public transport, churches, recreation facilities and employment (Feagin 109). The industrial revolution witnessed in America before the beginning of the First World War was an indicator that things were going to turn from bad to worse as the demand for equality and justice continued to gain momentum. Workers unions became very powerful instruments for demanding these rights and they led their members to demo0snbtrate to demand their rights and freedoms. It is important top explain that these demonstrations turned ugly when they took a racial turn. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Africans and Asians were on the streets demanding the immediate inclusion of their demands in national issues while the whites were also protesting and demanding that their country should be respected. It is important to understand d that this war turned from being a demonstration of workers to racial conformations where many blacks and whites were killed on the streets. In addition, the existing government used police brutality to silence hundreds of youths who were spearheading these demonstrations. Leaders of political p0arties affiliated to the black population and workers unions were detained for months following the chaos witnessed during these demonstrations. Capitalism was a principle adopted by the whites to oppress the poor in the society. This enabled the perpetrator5s to control the instruments of power that enabled them to amass huge wealth in terms of land, labor and money (Harris 41). The ideology continued to spread to other nations but was stopped by communism that was gaining ground in the Soviet Union. The first and second world wars were culminations of the pent up pressure among the whites and non whites. Even though, this war left many nations with serious injuries and losses they were necessary to create conditions for different nations and races to negotiate and discuss various issues that affected their members. Critics have claimed that these wars gave America opportunity to exercise justice and equality to its citizens and immigrants. Therefore, it was a necessary evil that could not have been avoided (Barrack 54). The end of these wars signified a new dawn for American democracy and paved way for peaceful demonstrations and negotiations between whites and non whites. However, politics became good ways of advancing racial interests as is evident in the legislations that barred non whites from engaging in active politics or holding public offices. The Obama presidency has been praised for respecting the rule of justice and equality by ensuring all Americans irrespective of their races are able to access these rights without restrictions. However, this has not been the case due to a number of factors. First, the American population that constitutes a large population of the whites is very conservative. Even though, Obama continues to urge them to adopt racial integration his efforts are more of public shows that commitments to fight racism. There is no doubt that there are many issues usually swept under the carpet when it comes to American politics. Race is a significant factor that guides voting among the American population. The main issue of concern here is that even though many non whites are vying for elective seats very few of them manage to win these positions and this is an indication that the American population is still clinging to the old tradition of preferring whites to blacks when it comes to nation al and leadership issues. We will write a custom Research Paper on Barrack Obama and Race in Politics and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research Objectives The objective of this paper is to identify and illustrate the following issues that play key roles in determining the future of politics in America. First, the American population is perceived to have adopted a non racist culture basing on the fact that it voted for president Obama in the last two general elections. Seco0ndly, this paper examines the impacts of a black American president on the institutions and culture of the United States. Lastly, this paper will outline the recommendations for ensuring that the American government, politics and culture adopts a non racist approach in its social, economic and political affairs. Research Questions This paper will answer the following questions that will help the audience to examine the role of racism in politics and cultural practices. The following questions will guide this paper in examining these issues. What is the role of racism in American politics? What aspects promote racism in American politics and culture? What role has president Obama played in promoting and eliminating racism? What are the effects of racism in politics and culture? What steps should the American government take to avert racism? Literature Review The Substance of Hope, Barrack Obama and the Paradox of Progress by William Jellani Cobb William Jellani Cobb criticizes the Obama presidency for openly advocating for racial progress that would allow all races to play active roles in American politics. He focuses his discussion on Obama’s punch line “hope” that marked all his pre-election speeches. The writer argues that Obama used this word to create false optimism and cheated the American population and the world that he was the messiah for them. This word became a song to all non whites and motivated them to show up in large numbers during voting. Private organizations and well wishers from the non white populations became very loyal and philanthropic to Obama’s campaign to ensure they transform the politics of this country. However, their efforts are yet to bear fruits since Obama’s presidency has almost every thing in common with the Bush regime. This author is convinced that the Obama presidency has a good opportunity to transform the politics of the United States but has failed to do so. He argues that most non whites that are elected into office are those located in areas that have a huge black population. This means that racism continues to thrive in American culture and is evident i9n political activities. The Health Care Reform and American Politics, What Everyone Needs to Know By Lawrence Jacobs Jacobs Lawrence argues that Obama has helped the American government in dealing with racial challenges. However, the challenges he is experiences are to blame for his slow response to racial; issues. This author argues that most non whites face serious health challenges that expose them to diseases and poor services from private healthcare institutions. However, president Obama is trying very hard to make sure that all poor Americans access quality healthcare services through reforming all bills related to healthcare. In addition, this author claims that most non whites are mistreated at their places of work by being underpaid and subjected to poor working conditions. Therefore, president Obama is ensuring that the senate adopts the recommendations to amend all bills regarding minimum wages to allow workers in informal and formal employments to get salaries that will sustain them. Not sure if you can write a paper on Barrack Obama and Race in Politics and Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the president is encouraging many youths and no whites to play active roles of ensuring that they participate in civic processes. These are some of the issues that show how Obama is committed to transforming the racist culture that existed in America for many years. A Day Late and a Dollar Short, High Hopes and Deferred Dreams in Obama’s “Post-Racial” America by Jon Jeter and Robert E. Pierre These authors hold the same view with many critics of the Obama presidency by arguing that what president Obama is doing is too little to help his country manage the problem of racism. Even though, they recognize the efforts being done to com bat terrorism they argue that these steps are too slow and cannot be managed by the current financial position of this country. Their claim is based on the poor financial performance of the united tastes government that have exposed it to damaging allegations of racism. They present that president Obama continued to finance American troop-s to fight the Arab nation by investing in drones and other military equipment, training and staffing to ensure America wins the war. These authors identify the war on Iraq and Afghanistan as serious racial challenges facing Obama’s presidency. They proposed that he should have distanced himself from perpetuating the evils advanced by the former president Bush. In addition, they argue that Obama has not helped African or Arab nations to develop their economies but instead he has used a lot of American funds to travel to countries that will help his government to develop its economies. This is capitalism that depicts racial practices that were witnessed before and after the First World War. The American government perpetuated racism by dominating other countries and fighting cold wars with those that opposed it or seemed to give it competition in terms of dominating in world affairs. These authors argues that the war going on in Iraq and Afghanistan have nothing to do with terrorism but are aimed at silencing these nations against developing strong ties with the rest of the world since this will be as serious challenge to America. Effects of Race on Barrack Obama’s Presidency Politics Politics play central roles in determining various activities of a nation since it establishes guidelines that regulate the allocation of national resources and the provision of services to the population. The United States has a sophisticated political system that ensures the government is representative of all communities and regions in the United States. It has two houses that work together to ensure the country adopts policies that will develop its institutions, infrastructure and promote the well being of its citizens (Kennedy 43). However, racism had become a serious threat to the exustabce4 of cordial relations between America and its trading partners and this forced the American government to adopt ways of managing this issue. It is important to state that political analysts had predicted a win for president Obama based on the following issues. The Bush regime had exposed the American government to criticism on its role to eliminate international terrorism. Even though, it had suffered numerous terrorist attacks it had no obligation to commit heinous crimes against innocent civilians in Afghanistan and Iraq. The constitution did not give Bush any power to invade another country no matter the seriousness of the crimes committed by some of the people from that nation. Therefore, this exposed this government to international criticism and there were fears that if this trend would have continued many nations would have broken their ties with America. As a result, Obama used this criticism as a campaign platform to give people hope that he will stop the war on Afghanistan to ensure the world gains confidence on the American administration. People were frustrated the way Bush used a lot of money to finance and develop equipment, train soldiers and finance these wars at the expense of the high inflation rates in America (Tesler and Sears 69). Therefore, they admired the manifesto presented by Obama that would ensure the culture of racism will be eliminated and funds will be directed to development projects and provision of goof healthcare services to the population. However, this was not achieved within the first term of president Obama in office and even though he was granted a second term there is a lot to be done to ensure that American government desists from engaging in racial practices. Therefore, this was a chance for Americans to prove that they are not racist and would not advocate for it in their election process (Kinder and Riddle 33). However, the election and subsequent re-election of president Obama is just a public show to prove to the world that this nation has adopted non racial approaches to politics. Even though, president Obama claims to be a black American his cultural beliefs are strongly based on the American culture exhibited by the whites. There is no difference between him and the whites since they all have perpetuated class differences based on racial practices. Therefore, it is necessary to explain that Obama is black in appearance but white in al his political and cultural activities. This is evident in his recent proposal regarding the minimum wage that workers should earn. This policy is meant to increase the salaries of many non whites working in various places but the irony of this provision is that this will also raise taxes levied on their salaries. Most nations are struggling to reduce their expenses on recurrent bills like salaries and wages of public servants though different financial plans. Obama knows that the United States is experiencing the worst financial performance since the end of the Second World War and should not engage in activities or plans that will force the country to incur unnecessary budgets. Therefore, his proposal to increase minimum wages is just a populist approach to persuade the government that he is taking care of all racial groups in America. It should be understood that most people earning low salaries are black Americans, Indian and Asians who went to America through slave trade are have migrated there in the recent years. In addition, most of them cannot afford health insurance schemes that will safeguard their health; therefore, he has come up with a proposal for cheap medical services. These are populist approaches used to hoodwink the non white population that Obama will solve their problems (Alim 77). Therefore, they are perceived to be gullible and cannot reason that America cannot afford to increase salaries and provide cheap medical suffices during this time. Critics have argued that this nation is suffering serious challenges associated with unemployment which stands at about 30% among the educated and 40% among those that have not attained university or college degrees. Therefore, it is going to be extremely difficult to raise salaries yet there are no jobs for the poor in the society. This means that the cost of living will increase and force the poor and jobless to seek other alternatives of survival. Therefore, they argue that Obama’s presidency will not achieve any good results in its fight against racism but instead it has established other precincts for perpetuating racial practices through populist declarations and policies that will have serious consequences on those that earn low salaries. Barrack Obama is the only president who gave Americans (whites and blacks) hope that they will live a better life free from economic, social and political challenges. However, this has proved to be a hard nut to crack especially with the many challenges facing his government, the congress has become partisan in moist affairs and this has affected the realization of the dreams of the American population. Many people had hoped that Obama was going to revolutionize politics of racism and ensure that everybody was involved in his government. In addition, people had hoped that there would be many employment opportunities and many people will invest in various sectors of the economy however, these were just mere dreams that could not be realized no matter how hard they struggled to make it to be reality. Financial institutions and other money lending organizations still have the culture of evaluating g the ability of clients to repay their loans based on their race. Therefore, they make it easy for whites to access loan facilities and deny the blacks these chances. Even though, the media has played significant roles in promoting ethical practices in various professions it has failed to highlight the problems non whites experience while applying for bank loan (Pierre and Jeter 108). In addition, housing continues to be a major problem in the American government as tenants are allowed to occupy houses depending on their racial backgrounds. This has promoted social stratifications and even though racial schools were banned teachers continue to express racial sentiments through punishments given to students. Racism is associated with discriminations and exploitation of the race perceived to be inferi0or and schools are slowly embracing cultural integration. However, this is not associated with prescient Obama but withy the modern trends that require people to interact irrespective of their racial backgrounds. Moreover, it is necessary to note that Americans have been forced to embrace racial integration as a necessity and not a deliberate step towards abolishing racial practices. This means that Obama has played a minor role in promoting good relations among different races. The media played a significant role of tracing the origin of Obama and his family lineage that associates him with the Luo community in Kenya. However, since his election to presidency he has never toured Kenya even though this country continues to face serious challenges in terms of poverty, corruption and political wrangles (Cobb 23). The best he does is issues public statements (video records) that en courage Kenyans to be patriotic and embrace nationhood. However, critics have clai9med that these are reflections that he may be feeling guilty and ashamed of his color; something that has not gone down well with his ancestral kinsmen. The fact that he has never visited Kenya and there is no likelihood that he will do so makes critics to predict that he does not have any good intentions for Africans. In addition, he has focused a lot of his attention o the war in Iraq since his inauguration into office. This means that he is not different from his predecessors who wanted to show the world that America is a super power and cannot be challenged by any nation. The Indian tigers and Chinese are getting many contracts in African countries and this is giving Obama sleepless nights. This means that soon they will take over most contracts that were awarded to America and leave America with weak ties. This will reduce its influence on African countries and the rest of the world. As a result china will gain more political and economic power which is serious threats to Obama’s administration. Therefore, he is working very hard to ensure that America remains the most influential nation in the world by cutting tiers with nations that support china. In addition, Obama, though the congress is establish plans to contain china’s influence on other countries by supporting the enemies of china and putting sanctions on nations perceived to be supporting this country (Fiona 32). However, critics have argued that if Obama continues to steer his government to oppose china’s invasion in international market this will interfere with the economy of America and expose it to many challenges. However, Obama, just like his predecessors cannot sit and watch other nations magnify their influence. He is using all his powers to ensure that China does not spread its influence to its key partners through establishing strict policies that will limit China’s abilities to invest in some countries. The congress has become very partisan and advanced Obama’s ideologies that am4erica will continue to be the world super power. The legislations passed in parliament ensure that America continues to interfere in the affairs of other nations while it resists any interference by other nations in its affairs. It is necessary to explain that the Bush and Obama adnministrat6ion have very much in common regarding international affairs. There are many sanctions and restrictions placed on third world countries compared to how America relates with developed nations. Obama perceives America as the only nation that can manipulate international bodies like the IMF and World Bank to ensure those that accept its policies are able to participate in international affair. Recently, Obama commented that Kenya will face international restrictions if Kenyans elect International Criminal Court suspects into office in their 2013 general elections. The irony of his statement is that America is not a signatory to the Rome statute yet it continues to urge other countries to respect the institution. Political analysts have claimed that Obama has used this institution to undermine the sovereignty o f third world countries. The terrorist attacks on various organs of the American government exposed Americans to serious threats. This forced it to issue travel advisory to many nations as an attempt to fight terrorism and keep its citizens safe from terrorist attacks. However, the biggest challenge to Obama is that if he is seriously committed to eradicate terrorism he should not warn his citizens against travelling to nations that are prone to terrorist attacks; instead, he should help these nations to stop these activities. However, his leadership is associated with racial undertones since he seems to care very much about Americans more than any other people min the world. Bush had subjected this country to animosity with Arab nations and this was a serious threat to American tourist, investors and students that visited other nations. Therefore, Obama was elected as president of America to deceive the worlds that America has now embraced racial integration and that all nations should perceive America as a friendly nation. Therefore, Obama has not been very active in fighting racial differences in the American culture. His political ideologies are based on the activities of his predecessor and even though most people associate him with an African ancestral origin this has no impact on his presidency (Jacobs and Skocpol 51). It is important to understand that he has lived in America all his life and has interacted with Americans on various political and social events. For that reason, he knows all aspects of racial and political discrimination affecting Americans. However, his failure to address these issues makes him a racist president and exposes him to criticism from political analysis and other nations. Therefore, he has failed to promote racial integration among different races in America. Recommendations President Obama has a good opportunity of transforming the political; and cultural practices of America by showing the world that he abhors racism. He can do the following issues to ensure America is a non resist country. First, he should encourage the senate to be non partisan in its affairs to show the public that this house is committed to ensuring the lives of Americans are improved. The senate has always taken sides with the incumbent president or with a political view that seems to favor the opposing side. This has made members of parliament to advance their interests and ignore their commitment to improve the economy and life of Americans. Secondly, he should adopt a divergent approach to national issues and avoid issuing public statements for the sake of it. His recent declaration that America will ensure the minimum wage for low income earners will be increased has been mate with mixed reactions. Some critics argue that this statement is meant to hoodwink the majority who are poor to believe that their welfare will be improved while others perceive this as a way of raising revenue to finance the huge budget that is straining its economy. However, they claim that he should not make statements that will not help his political life since his performance will be evaluated in these issues. In addition, Obama has a good opportunity to develop the economy of America if he focuses on issues that affect Americans and stops wasting national resources on unnecessary activities like investing in drones. America has pother serious challenges like poor healthcare services, unemployment, drugs and inflation and this should be given first priority by his government. Therefore, he has options to choose from but he should know that Americans and the rest of the world will evaluate his performance depending on how he manages issues related to politics and racism. Conclusion Racism is a long term problem that has continued to face America since the beginning of slave trade. Even though, this trade was abolished in the beginning of the 21st century it continues to thrive underground. American politics is largely influenced by international relations and developments and this makes it to lack polit5icalk plans to develop its infrastructure and institutions. President Obama has a good opportunity to prove his critics wrong by embracing racial integration and practicing politics that will benefit Americans and immigrants. Works Cited Alim, Sammy. Articulate While Black, Barrack Obama Language, and Race in the United States. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009. Print. Barrack, Obama. Dreams from My Father, a Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print. Cobb, William. The Substance of Hope, Barrack Obama and Paradox of Progress. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print. Feagin, Joe and Harvey Winfield. Yes We Can? White Racial Farming and the 2008 Presidential Campaign. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print. Fiona, Morris. Culture War: The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print. Harris, Frederick. The Price of the Ticket, Barrack Obama and the Rise and Decline of Black Politics. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print. Jacobs, Lawrence and Theda Skocpol. The Health Care Reform and American Politics, What everyone needs To Know. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009. Print. Kennedy, Randall. The Persistence of the Color Line, Racial Politics and the Obama Presidency. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print. Kinder, Donald and Allison Riddle. The End of Race. New York: Wiley, 2011. Print. Pierre, Robert and Jon Jeter. A Day Late and a Dollar Short, High Hopes and Deferred Dreams in Obama’s Post Racial America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print. Remnick, David. The Bridge, the Life and Rise of Barrack Obama. New York: McGraw – Hill, 2010. Print. Tesler, Michael and David Sears. Obama’s Race: The 2008 Election and the Dream of A Post-Racial America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Nursing Sampling Methods

Create an original posting with a minimum of 300 words. Back up your arguments with reliable evidence. Sampling Methods  Instructions: Please find an experimental or quasi-experimental or descriptive article you wild like to use for the article critique assignment.  Make sure it is from a nursing journal and is not older than five years. on a topic of your interest.  Review the article and provide a summary of the article, and answer the following questions:  Discuss whether you think the article is true-experimental, quasi-experimental, or no experimental. You must also state what type of quantitative design (descriptive, correlational, etc.) Where was the setting of the study? What are the sampling methods?  Does the sample reflect the population (representativeness)?  What about sample size?  What was the risk of sampling error in the study?  Did the author acknowledge the sample criteria?  Inclusion or exclusion? What are the variables being measured? What data collections methods were used? What is the intervention?

Effectiveness Of Antibacterial Antimicrobial Soaps

Effectiveness Of Antibacterial Antimicrobial Soaps. Antibacterial soaps and detergents and their effectiveness has been the focus of attention in recent studies. Various individuals have questioned their added advantage over washing with plain soap and water. This research was therefore carried out to determine the effectiveness of these antibacterial / antimicrobial soaps. From the past studies, washing with antibacterial soaps has been found not to be clinically different from washing with plain soap and water. Most studies showed that the reduction in bacterial infection when antibacterial soaps are used was not statistically different to the reduction when plain soap and water were used. Furthermore, the chemical components of antibacterial soaps were found to increase bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This will lead to clinically important antibiotics being rendered useless and antibacterial infection will be more difficult to treat. This has already been experienced with MRSA infection. Introduction To prevent possible body infection and contamination of food and drinks with pathogenic microflora, scientists and industries came up with cleaning products that can destroy the bacteria. These products destroy both the bacteria and other microbes with an exception of viruses. The antimicrobial action is due to the presence of antimicrobial chemicals added to the products. They are several in number including chemicals like triclosan, triclocarban and tetrasodium EDTA. Recently, various individuals and bodies have argued that antibacterial detergents offer no added advantage over plain soap in preventing bacterial contamination and infection. Furthermore, it has been argued that the adverse effects of the antibacterial detergents and soaps out weigh their benefits. Some of the negative effects of antibacterial soaps and detergents have been stated as possible increased bacterial resistance to the chemicals leading to “super bugs” and pollution of agricultural soils and water bodies. Review of the studies in this field is therefore important to indicate the current findings on the effectiveness of these soaps. This research was therefore carried out to answer this question. Literature review Various studies have been carried out with the aim of determining the effectiveness of antibacterial soaps. Most of them have found the use of antibacterial soaps to have no added benefit in effectively minimizing contamination and infection as compared to ordinary detergents. However, some doctors still claim that these soaps have added benefits. At a scientific level, there is little proof that there is any benefit derived from using antibacterial soaps instead of plain soaps (“Scrubbing troubles.” 2007). Actually, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) proposes that to prevent microbial contamination and infections, persons should wash their hands as frequently as possible for at least fifteen seconds. They do not give any benefits of using antibacterial soaps (“The Truth”, 1999). FDA (food and drug administration) reviewed past clinical studies on effectiveness of antibacterial soaps, the results were that addition of antibacterial chemicals to soaps and detergents did not provide any added benefit (Gorgos, 2006). Their effect was similar to that of plain soap and water. The studies were based on the argument that, for the antibacterial soaps to be hygienically superior to plain soaps, they must have a higher clinically significant decrease on the bacterial load. Most of the studies did not find this to be the case. In five of the studies, washing with water and plain soap was found not to be any statistically different from washing with antibacterial soap. Plain soap and water reduced cases of diarrhea by 30 to 80% with 53 percent being the most common reduction value while antibacterial soap reduction rate was from 29 to 50 percent (Gorgos, 2006). Antiseptic soaps may have negative effects on antiseptic resistance of bacteria leading to evolution of “super bugs” (high drug resistant microbes) (Zamora, 2000). Over time, these antiseptic resistant microbes multiply resulting in a large number of such “superbugs”. Some studies have shown evolution of drug resistant bacteria. In 1958, Joshua Lederberg who was a molecular genecist became a noble price laureate after he showed how bacteria could exchange genetic material thereby producing antiseptic resistant bacteria (Clemmint, 2007). Afterwards, antibiotic resistant bacteria such as MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus), streptococcus pneumonia that was resistant to penicillin and tuberculosis bacteria that is resistant to multiple drugs were discovered in hospital patients. MRSA has been the cause of many deaths since the present antibiotics cannot cure the infected (Clemmitt, 2007). Another problem with the antimicrobial soaps that has been presented is the possibility of environmental pollution by the antimicrobial chemicals included in the soaps. The most common antimicrobial constituents of these soaps are triclosan and triclocarban (Brodie, 2007). After use of these soaps, triclosan and triclocarban do not biodegrade but find their way into water bodies and agricultural soils. Rolf Halden carried out a study and found out that triclosan has contaminated 60% of the streams in the United States (Alterman, 2006). Furthermore, it has been know to cause cancer and blue baby condition in newborn babies. The United States Geological survey (USGS) also carried out a survey of the level of drug contamination in the water system of the United States and found out that there is a high concentration of over the counter antibiotics in the streams (Knopper, 2003). Discussion The findings stated in the literature review all indicate that antibiotics currently have no added benefit. Most people are obsessed with the idea of antibiotics. Consumers all over are demanding more antibiotics and antibacterial soaps have attracted a large consumer base. However, from the findings indicated in this research, it may be high time people were made aware of the negative effects of antiseptic soaps. FDA does not even recommend them since they do not show any added advantage. If people continue to use them at the current rate, clinically important antibiotics will become less efficient due to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Treatment of bacteria related disease conditions have become difficult as more and more microbes that are drug resistant evolve. The use of contaminate sludge to fertilize agricultural soils is further spreading the antibiotics into crops and animals. A research by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School found out that over 75% of antibiotics in soaps were washed down in the sewage water (Pearson, 2006). As these chemicals spread, they will continually destroy both the pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria leaving the resistant bacteria to thrive. There is also the possibility of spreading these resistant bacteria through the food chain. The studies examined clearly show the fact that when antibiotics are used at a domestic level, the benefit of reducing the bacterial count is of no clinical importance and the resulting negative effects are much greater. Conclusion Antibacterial or antimicrobial soaps and detergents are cleaning compounds that destroy bacteria and other microorganisms. They do this through the action of antimicrobial chemical compounds incorporated in the soaps. They assumed to be more beneficial at preventing bacterial contaminations and infections but there is no scientific proof that they are superior to plain soaps and water. Clinical comparisons between their effect and that of plain soap and water showed that there is no statistically significant difference between them. For this purpose, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not recommended them. Some studies have found the antimicrobial components of these soaps to have negative environmental impact and contribution in evolution of antibiotics resistant bacteria like the MRSA. Their disadvantages therefore out weigh their benefits. Effectiveness Of Antibacterial Antimicrobial Soaps

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