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Communicate the correctional policy implications put forth in this class to another person. To do so, you will have Essay

Communicate the correctional policy implications put forth in this class to another person. To do so, you will have Essay. Communicate the correctional policy implications put forth in this class to another person. To do so, you will have to take some time to summarize your thoughts about the course material and think about ways to effectively communicate these concepts. Think carefully about who you will approach and how to begin the conversation. It is important to consider how the individual you choose may react. Also, consider how to effectively deal with their questions and thoughts about the complex reality of corrections and the proposed approach to effectiveness. Complete this conversation and then share the experience in this week’s post. Find someone who is not familiar with the focus on this course: this person can be a family member, colleague, or friend. Explain the correctional policy implications. Pay particular attention to their reaction and any clarifying questions they ask. Reflect on your experience, and think about what you learned from explaining these correctional policy implications to someone. Consider whether you would explain the concepts covered in this course differently next time. Could you emphasize different aspects of correctional policy instead of others? Do you think, based on the person’s reaction, that his or her community would implement the policies you have put forth to them? With these thoughts in mind…. Post a brief description of the explanation of correctional policy implications that you used with the individual you selected. Describe the person you selected and their reaction. Finally, describe any communication difficulties you had in preparing for this final discussion and any insights you gained.Communicate the correctional policy implications put forth in this class to another person. To do so, you will have Essay
The Coca Cola Companys Vision Mission and Value Statements Discussion.

Discussion 1:
Businesses are started with the intention to succeed. In order to do so, an organization must be competitive.  All while understanding the strategies needed to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage. As discussed in the chapter, steps are required in order to ensure this occurs successfully. This week, you are to provide at least two personally experienced examples of new or well-known organizations that showcase an understanding of what is needed to set themselves apart from the competition. Make sure to include at least one of the most frequently used strategies used by the organization. Below is one example I recently encountered.
* I recently ordered two pairs of running shoes by a well-known sporting goods store.  One pair arrived while the other pair was on back order. The 2nd pair never arrived due to unavailability and my money was refunded as expected.  However, what was not expected was the $10 credit I was given due to the lack of the company being able to fulfill the intended promotion. In a competitive industry, this is an excellent method of differentiation.
Assignment 1:
Now that you have a better understanding of strategies and competitive advantage, it is time to delve into the vision and mission of an organization.  First, these pertinent and influential aspects must be written. Then the importance must be clearly communicated to all employed by the organization. If an organization does not know and cannot display where they are, where they want to go, and why, then how can they expect their employees to successfully execute their assigned roles?
For this project, choose an organization and describe their vision, mission, and core values.  In addition to this, you are to discuss how each of these works cohesively to the advancement of the organization.  Include how the original owner(s) of the organization influenced each of these aspects and if you believe each component is still be adhered to.  
Assignment Directions

The minimum requirement is 500 words exclusive of the      title and reference pages.
APA formatting is expected with at least two      outside sources (in addition to your text) cited in your paper.
Your submission should start with a title page (not      part of the two content pages) that includes your name, the assignment,      and a brief title that also reflects the company and strategy or topic.

The Coca Cola Companys Vision Mission and Value Statements Discussion

Microsoft Corporation has been a monopoly in computer operating systems and software market for a long period of time. It has been accused of violating anti-trust laws and using noncompetitive practices to dominate the market. The current market share of Microsoft is large, thus, enabling it to remain a monopoly in the operating systems market for decades. Research has revealed that Microsoft has a 93% market share despite a stiff competition from other technological firms. Competitors, such as Macintosh and Linux have competed with Microsoft for a long period. However, Microsoft has managed to control the largest portion of the market. The declining innovativeness and creativity of Microsoft might have adverse effects on its market share. Microsoft behaves like a monopoly because there are a few innovative competitors in the market. It has used several strategies that other technology firms have failed to execute in order to control and maintain the large portion of its market share. First, it has developed strong relationships with other technological companies to maintain its dominance. For example, it has collaborated with several video and audio streaming companies to extend its monopoly in providing multimedia content to its consumers. Secondly, Microsoft has invested in emerging technology companies to eradicate competition that these companies introduce in the market. This has ensured that technological innovations are in line with Microsoft’s plan for dominance. Thirdly, Microsoft has collaborated with several learning institutions, which have helped retain its dominance in the desktop market. Monopolies usually result from perpetuation of uncompetitive practices by companies or firms that prevent other companies from penetrating the market. It is difficult for other companies to acquire a sizeable market share under prevailing conditions because of entry barriers created by Microsoft. From a legal and economic perspective, Microsoft’s market share is large enough for it to behave like a monopoly. Dead weight loss refers to loss of economic efficiency by a firm, company or organization that is caused by monopoly pricing, taxes or external factors. As such, Microsoft is a dead weight loss to its economy because of several reasons. First, monopolies usually incur great expenses because they spend a lot of money in order to maintain their monopoly in a specific market. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This increases the average total cost of producing a product or service. For example, Microsoft has spent a lot of money in legal battles to maintain their monopoly. Secondly, monopolies attract high taxes from the government. The more costly a product or service is, the higher the tax a firm or corporation pays for the product or service. If Microsoft was not a monopoly, taxes would be lower because competition from other firms would result in cheaper products that would attract lower taxes. The prices of Microsoft’s products could be compared to a private tax that has the same dead weight loss that most government-imposed taxes bear. With current advancements in technology, Microsoft is gradually losing its monopoly. Despite the fact that it earns high profits from its products, Microsoft has been stagnant over the last decade. It is unable to compete effectively in emerging markets, such as development of software for mobile devices due to lack of innovation. Judge Thomas Penfield’s statement that Microsoft enjoys a monopoly is true and valid. Microsoft has a large market share of operating systems that are compatible with most personal computers. In addition, it has established barriers that hinder entry of other companies and has forced consumers to depend on its operating systems due to lack of alternatives. The judge’s ruling validated the claim that Microsoft is a monopoly and controls a large market share. The judge was correct because Microsoft has used anticompetitive strategies in the past to maintain its monopoly. Microsoft integrated its web browser into its operating system in an effort to eliminate competition from other software companies, such as Netscape. Today, it collaborates with other software companies, thus, leading to anti-competitive agreements that eliminate competition from those companies. The ruling of the judge is consistent with the findings of recent studies on the dominance of Microsoft. Microsoft’s monopoly has elicited debates because it has eliminated competition from other companies by using anticompetitive strategies. In addition, its monopoly has harmed consumers because they have no option but to use Microsoft’s browser and other software integrated in their operating system. In addition, the monopoly has resulted in high prices that have also harmed consumers adversely. The conduct of Microsoft of using anticompetitive strategies was intended to suppress competition from companies that produced products that were a threat to its monopoly. We will write a custom Case Study on Microsoft Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Defenders of Microsoft have always reiterated that current technological advancements have reduced Microsoft’s monopoly. However, they ignore the fact that the judge put such considerations in his ruling. For example, Linux introduced an operating system that failed to quell Microsoft’s dominance in the market. However, with the current trend in the software market, Microsoft’s monopoly may soon be eradicated. Microsoft is no longer innovative as it was in the past decades. The emergence of modern computing necessitates innovation and creativity in order to meet its demands, which Microsoft has failed to do. New entrants into the software market, such as Google are gradually eliminating Microsoft’s dominance. In addition, Microsoft has failed to keep up with the demands of modern age computing, such as the need for software for mobile devices. The development of the Android operating system has presented a blow to Microsoft. Android is open-source software that gives software developers permission in order to adapt it to their needs. Operating systems that are developed by Linux and the Apple are gradually becoming more acceptable for users. Most companies have developed operating systems that perform better than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer does. For example, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox are some of the best web browsers. They have included features that have improved security and speed when surfing the internet. Microsoft has not improved its browser for a long time, and that is one of the causes of its waning popularity among users. Microsoft’s waning dominance of the software and operating systems market is evident from its current struggles to develop applications that guarantee its monopoly in the market. In addition, the ruling by Judge Jackson was a great blow to Microsoft’s dominance. Even though Microsoft currently controls a great portion of the market, its dominance is waning, and in a few years, it will not be a monopoly any longer. The creativity and innovation that are exhibited by emerging technology companies is enough proof that Microsoft will soon lose its dominance and consumers will have more options. Diversity is an important aspect of the operating systems market.
Role of neuroplasticity in individual difference of antidepressants efficacy. Abstract Background There is a great individual difference of antidepressant response. Whether neuroplasticity plays a role for this difference,. Aim To discuss the potential role of neuroplasticity for difference in antidepressant efficacy. Methods A search of literature with an emphasis on neuroplasticity and antidepressant efficacy variances. Results The development of central nervous system is affected by coactions of both genetics and environment. Enriched environment significantly improves the brain growth and brain damage repair. Hostile growth environment including chronic stresses, depression and mood disorder weakens neuroplasticity. Different individuals have different neuroplasticity. Even monozygotic twins may develop different neuroplasticity. Recent evidences suggest that antidepressants act by enhancing neuroplasticity, which allows environmental inputs to modify the neuronal networks to better fine tune the individual to the outside world. There is a great individual difference of antidepressant response. Conclusions Variance of neuroplasticity in the depressive patients may play a role for individual difference of antidepressant efficacy. Keywords Neuroplasticity · Antidepressant · Individual difference Impact of finding on practice Neuroplasticity may play a role for antidepressant efficacy. Physicans need to aware that assessment of neuroplasticity might be helpful for dosage adjustment of antidepressants. Introduction Neuroplasticity is the changing of neurons, their networks organization, and their function via new experiences. This idea was first proposed in 1890 by William James in The Principles of Psychology, though the idea was largely neglected for the next fifty years[1]. The brain consists of neurons and glial cells which are interconnected. All areas of the brain are plastic even after childhood. For example, although ocular dominance columns in the lowest neocortical visual area, V1, are largely immutable after the critical period in development, environmental changes could alter behavior and cognition by modifying connections between existing neurons and via neurogenesis in the hippocampus and other parts of the brain, including the cerebellum. Many researches have shown that substantial changes occur in the lowest neocortical processing areas, and that these changes can profoundly alter the pattern of neuronal activation in response to experience. According to the theory of neuroplasticity, thinking, learning, and acting actually change both the brain’s physical structure (anatomy) and functional organization (physiology). Neuroscientists are presently engaged in a reconciliation of critical period studies demonstrating the immutability of the brain after development with the new findings on neuroplasticity, which reveal the mutability of both structural and functional aspects[2]. Methods Literature with an emphasis on neuroplasticity and antidepressant efficacy variances was collected using PubMed. Papers published in languages other than English were excluded before screening. Completeness of literature was not a primary aim but general coverage was nevertheless controlled for to some extent by comparing the papers we identified and used with those identified in published review papers. Variance of neuroplasticity among people The development of central nervous system is affected by coactions of both genetics and environment. Enriched environment significantly improve the brain growth and brain damage repair[3]. Hostile growth environment including chronic stresses and depression mood disorder weakens neuroplasticity. A hypothesis was proposed that expression of neuroplasticity is a form of adaptation based on natural selection, where cells deprived of sensory input actively go and look for information in order to survive. Neural circuits are shaped by experience in early postnatal life. Distinct GABAergic connections within visual cortex determine the timing of the critical period for rewiring ocular dominance to establish visual acuity. Different individuals have different degrees of neuroplasticity. Even monozygotic twins may develop different neural structure and neuroplasticity, though they share the identical gene background. The estimated number of human protein-coding genes is around 35,000. Meanwhile each hemisphere of human brain occupies about 1011 neurons, let alone the hundreds of connections that each neuron makes. This suggested that human genes contain too little information to specify neural system and there must be an important random factor in neural development. Cortical laminar development exhibits a process that is mathematically consistent with a random walk with drift. Cerebral cortex has a range of interconnected functional architectures. Some appear random and without structure, while others are geometrical. Additionally, epigenetic factors play a role in neural development, which will lead to different expressions of a gene. These are evidenced by discordance in some diseases morbidity as following examples. An investigation showed significant hippocampal atrophy was detected in the demented twins compared with the controls. Meanwhile in the non-demented twins, only a minor, non-significant reduction was observed in the hippocampal volumes compared with the controls. This suggests gene-environment interactions that have protected the non-demented twins longer than their demented co-twins and contributed to the relative preservation of their hippocampal volumes. Some monozygotic twins are discordant in many diseases such as bulimia nervosa, schizophernia, bipolar disorders, and sexual orientation. Depression weakens neuroplasticity Depression is a common mood disorder defined by characteristic signs and symptoms, severity, and duration. The cause is believed to be multifactorial, with genetic, temperamental, behavioral, and environmental risk factors interacting with one another at critical developmental periods. Depressive patients usually display many neruo-biochemical and neuro-physiological changes. First, depression could be characterized by low serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ) levels, which suggests that neurotrophic factor is involved in affective disorders. Serum levels of BDNF in depressive patients are significantly decreased compared with normal controls. BDNF is a critical mediator of activity-dependent neuroplasticity in the cerebral cortex. The deficits in neurotrophic factors have been proposed to underlie mood disorders. Low levels of neurotrophins may not directly produce depression, but indirectly through abnormality in the adaptation of neural networks to environmental conditions. Second, depression, at least in its severe form, is associated with reduced volumes of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex[4]. Stress-induced neuronal damage might affect neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. People with a history of depression (post-depressed) had smaller hippocampal volumes bilaterally than controls. Repeated stress during recurrent depressive episodes may result in cumulative hippocampal injury as reflected in volume loss. One study compared hippocampal function and hippocampal volumes in depressed people experiencing a postpubertal onset of depression. Depressive people with multiple depressive episodes had hippocampal volume reductions. Curve-fitting analysis revealed a significant logarithmic association between illness duration and hippocampal volume. Reductions in hippocampal volume may not antedate illness onset, but volume may decrease at the greatest rate in the early years after illness onset[5]. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a critical form of cellular plasticity that is greatly influenced by neural activity. Serotonin and norepinephrine are two neurotransmitters that are widely implicated in regulating this process; their levels are modulated by stress, depression and clinical antidepressants. Norepinephrine but not serotonin directly activates self-renewing and multipotent neural precursors, including stem cells, from the hippocampus of adult mice. These findings suggest that the activation of neurogenic precursors and stem cells via β3-adrenergic receptors could be a potent mechanism to increase neuronal production, providing a putative target for the development of novel antidepressants[6]. Besides the hippocampus, the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) has been implicated in both basal and stress-induced changes in neuroplasticity in the dentate gyrus. One study suggests that amygdala play a role on hippocampal cell survival and on the neuroplasticity[7]. A new model of depression links the cytokine hypothesis with the neurocircuitry hypothesis. According to the neurocircuitry hypothesis, failure of homeostatic synaptic plasticity in cortical-striatal-limbic nodes is responsible for core symptoms of depression: loss of interest or pleasure (anhedonia) and depressed mood (sadness). According to the cytokine hypothesis, inflammatory cytokines act on neural circuits to evoke the behavioral and physiological changes observed in depression. Synthesis of these hypotheses implicates cytokines as a cause of dysregulated synaptic plasticity in cortical-striatal-limbic circuits[8]. Antidepressants target on neuroplasticity Clinical and basic researches demonstrate that chronic antidepressant treatment increases the rate of neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Antidepressants up-regulate cAMP and the neurotrophin signaling pathways involved in plasticity and survival. In vitro and in vivo data provide direct evidence that the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and the neurotrophin, BDNF are key mediators of the therapeutic response to antidepressants. Depression maybe associated with a disruption of mechanisms that govern cell survival and neuroplasticity in the brain[9]. New research in animals is beginning to change radically our understanding of the biology of stress and the effects of antidepressant agents. Recent findings from the basic neurosciences to the pathophysiology of depressive disorder suggest that stress and antidepressants have reciprocal actions on neuronal growth and vulnerability (mediated by the expression of neurotrophin) and synaptic plasticity (mediated by excitatory amino acid neurotransmission) in the hippocampus and other brain structures. Stressors have the capacity to progressively disrupt both the activities of individual cells and the operating characteristics of networks of neurons, while antidepressant treatments act to reverse such injurious effects[10]. Antidepressant drugs increase the expression of several molecules, which are associated with neuroplasticity; in particular the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB. Antidepressants also increase neurogenesis and synaptic numbers in several brain areas. SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine can reactivate developmental-like neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex, which, under appropriate environmental guidance, leads to the rewiring of a developmentally dysfunctional neural network[11, 12]. As mentioned earlier, one study found that the BLA modulates the effects of fluoxetine on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in relation to a behavioral index of depression-like behavior (forced swim test). They used a lesion approach targeting the BLA along with a chronic treatment with fluoxetine, and monitored basal anxiety levels given the important role of this behavioral trait in the progress of depression. Chronic fluoxetine treatment had a positive effect on hippocampal cell survival only when the BLA was lesioned. Both BLA lesions and low anxiety were critical factors to enable a negative relationship between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. This study stressed a role for the amygdala on fluoxetine-stimulated cell survival. It also revealed an important modulatory role for anxiety on cell proliferation involving both BLA-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The findings underscored the amygdala as a potential target to modulate antidepressants action in hippocampal neurogenesis and in their link to depression-like behaviors[7]. Antidepressants may act by enhancing neuroplasticity, which allows environmental inputs to modify the neuronal networks to better fine tune the individual to the outside world. Recent observations in the visual cortex directly support this idea. According to the network hypothesis of depression, neurotrophin may act as critical tools in the process whereby environmental conditions guide neuronal networks to better adapt to the environment. Antidepressants may indirectly produce an antidepressant effect by high levels of neurotrophin. Therefore antidepressant drugs should not be used alone but should always be combined with rehabilitation to guide the plastic networks within the brain[13]. Individual difference in antidepressant efficacy Are antidepressants truly effective in all patients? Meta-analysis of all available trials of each antidepressant in the treatment of major depressive disorders, including treatment resistant depression and long-term relapse prevention is conduced by many reserachers[14-16]. The efficacy and safety of antidepressants vary significantly. New evidences showed that the total effective rate of fluoxetine was about 77%[17]. Various classes of antidepressant medications generally induce remission of major depressive disorder in only about one-third of patients. One double-blind study suggested the superiority of different combinations of antidepressant drugs from treatment initiation. 105 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive, from treatment initiation, either fluoxetine monotherapy (20 mg/day) or mirtazapine (30 mg/day) in combination with fluoxetine (20 mg/day), venlafaxine (225 mg/day titrated in 14 days), or bupropion (150 mg/day) for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. The overall dropout rate was 15%, without notable differences among the four groups. Compared with fluoxetine monotherapy, all three combination groups had significantly greater improvements on the HAM-D. Remission rates (defined as a HAM-D score of 7 or less) were 25% for fluoxetine, 52% for mirtazapine plus fluoxetine, 58% for mirtazapine plus venlafaxine, and 46% for mirtazapine plus bupropion[18]. Although the use of antidepressants increased markedly during the 1990s, in recent years it has decreased as a result of concerns regarding the emergence of suicide during antidepressant treatment. There is evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can improve adolescent depression better than placebo, although the magnitude of the antidepressant effect is ‘small to moderate’, because of a high placebo response, depending the different individual. A cautious and well-monitored use of antidepressant medications is a first-line treatment option in adolescents with moderate to severe depression. Low rates of remission with current treatment strategies indicate that further research in both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is warranted[19]. Conclusions There is a great efficacy individual difference of antidepressants. Meanwhile there is a different degree of neuroplasticity in depressive patients. We propose that the variance of neuroplasticity may play a role in individual difference of antidepressant efficacy. Conflicts of interest statement: This work was supported by a foundation of Southern Medical University. Role of neuroplasticity in individual difference of antidepressants efficacy

Securing System Access and Sessions

Securing System Access and Sessions.

To begin, read the following: this information, research Kali Linux, including the tools it contains and how it can assist a penetration tester in identifying vulnerabilities in the network. Once you have done that, answer the following questions as though you were an internal or external penetration test firm assisting a Saudi company in strengthening their systems, framework, and network.1. How does the penetration test differ from other types of security testing – such as a vulnerability assessment? 2. What is your process for performing the penetration test? Explain in detail and discuss the process and tools that would be used. 3. How will you protect the company’s data during and after testing? 4. How will you ensure the availability of systems and services while the test is taking place?These last two will be key. Unless you are performing the penetration test when their users are not active, it will be necessary to catalog how you will do this without disrupting business or destroying data. Book:Chapter 12 in Hacker Techniques, Tools, and Incident Handling. Online Book Reading:…Required:500 word (One page)2 credible scholar source15% similarity allowed.
Securing System Access and Sessions

Fauvism: New Forms in the New Century Essay

professional essay writers The art of the twentieth century is characterized by the exploration of self and experimentation with form. It is quite natural that people who witnessed rapid progress in many spheres of life were eager to try new approaches to art. Fauvism was the manifestation of this focus on experimentation in art as artists were bold and seemed to be willing to break all rules. However, one of the characteristic features of that period was the dialogue with traditions (Arnason and Mansfield 92). Matisse and other Fauves did not reject rules and traditions but used the conventions as their starting points. They used traditional motifs and themes but introduced a new use of color and texture. Another peculiarity of the art of the beginning of the twentieth century was its connection with African traditions that were seen as pure and enigmatic. It is noteworthy that artists stressed that they did not recreate the material world but revealed their perceptions and views of this world (Arnason and Mansfield 98). Matisse and Brancusi questioned the relevance of old forms and attempted to create new ones. They stressed that it was time to focus on the form and explore the ways it can reflect artists’ perceptions and self-expression. Photography and cinematography were widely used by artists as they offered new paths and opportunities to articulate their ideas. Matisse and Brancusi, with their bold experiments and exploitation of diverse means, can be seen as the embodiment of the art of the beginning of the 20th century. Work Cited Arnason, H. H., and Elizabeth C. Mansfield. History of Modern Art. 7th ed., Pearson, 2012.

Essentials of Social Work Biopsychosocial Assessment in Integrated Health

Essentials of Social Work Biopsychosocial Assessment in Integrated Health.

Clinical Assessment and Intervention Assignment Assessment: Conducting a biopsychosocial assessment in integrated health Peter is a 47-year-old Latino male who is married and currently living with his wife (age 45) and 2 children (Samuel, age 12, and Anne, age 14). He has been a computer engineer at a large company for 15 years and is a respected colleague at the company. Recently, he has suffered from frequent stomach and headaches that have finally led him to visit his doctor. He also shared that he has not been sleeping well for the past three months. Peter has a conflictual relationship with his wife, and they argue over parenting issues and priorities with their two teenage children. Peter has a history of intergenerational trauma (physical abuse at the hands of his father) and mental health issues. Recently, Peter’s mother, who is 75 years old, was diagnosed with liver cancer. He has a fairly close relationship with his mother who lives two hours away from him. Peter does not have an active social life, and he spends most of his time either at work or with his family. In planning to conduct a bio-psycho-sociocultural assessment with Peter, please discuss the following: 1) What components should be included in the assessment? 2) What questions would you ask to assess these different components? 3) Who you would include in the assessment process and for what purposes? 4) Based on the assessment, how would you and Peter define his problem in a solvable manner? Intervention: Creating a plan based on your assessment Based on your assessment, please formulate an intervention plan. Include the following in your intervention plan: 1) How would you assist Peter in developing helpful and attainable goals? 2) Who would you include in the treatment process and for what purposes? 3) Clearly and thoroughly describe the proposed intervention procedures. This description should be an actual treatment plan, such as one you would place in the patient’s medical record or treatment file. You can base your intervention plan on any of the following as appropriate: •Models of integrated health Appropriate evidence-supported treatmentsAssumptions and research about risk and resilience factors that affect human development and behaviorTheories about how people change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in different situationsSkillsTechniquesStrategies Used in the practitioner-client interactions •Person-Centered Care (see Stanhope and Straussner, Chapter 10) •Trauma-informed Care •Motivational Interviewing Please draw from the readings, assessment instruments, and models of integrated care discussed in this course. Please be sure that this assignment is written as a paper (not a list) and that you fully answer the questions. Subheadings and bullets are appropriate. The paper should be 8-10pages (double-spaced,12-point Times New Roman font), include a cover page (not included in the page count) and have APA style 7thedition formatting. Please refer to course Text as reference: Stanhope and Straussner (2018) Social Work and integrated health care: From policy to practice and back.Curtis and Christian (2012) Integrated care: Applying theory to practice.No need for additional references. Additional information to clarify the above assignment. 1)Context for the case of Peter: If you are currently in an integrated care setting for your internship or job, please imagine Peter in that setting and that your role is to be his social worker in that setting. You will have to explain your setting a little bit in the paper so that I understand how that is influencing your assessment and treatment plan. If you are currently NOT in an integrated care setting, imagine him at his primary care doctor’s office and that you are the social worker in that setting. 2)Format for the assignment: All questions should be answered in APA essay format. In addition, you must ALSO include what the actual treatment plan would look like in his chart. This can be done with headings and bullet points. The essay portion should give me a good understanding of why your treatment plan looks the way it does. 3) Biopsychosocial cultural questions- In this portion you are walking me through your PLANNING process for conducting a biopsychosocial cultural assessment with Peter in an Integrated Care setting. The Power Point for Session 3 as well as the readings for session 3 provide you with models of integrated care. Make sure you are referencing which model you will be using with Peter and how that influences what questions you’re asking him. If you feel you need extra information to decide on a direction you can add to his case example in your paper e.g.-I will assess Peter for substance use by asking x questions. In my scenario Peter answers that he is struggling with substance use. His frequency of use is x times a week and has x consequences. 4) Treatment planning questions- In essay format explain which model you will be using for treatment planning and how that influences your approach, how you conceptualize the problem and the interventions. Remember to ground yourself in the integrated care setting as well. This will influence who you include in the treatment plan (family members, medical team members, care coordinators, specialists) etc. 5) The Treatment Plan- Ensure your actual treatment plan that would go in the client’s chart includes the following: The mental health issue you will be addressing (There is no right or wrong here as long as you give me rationale in your assessment. You don’t have to give me a DSM-5 diagnosis, you can give me the category. Here are some examples: Trauma, Depression, Anxiety, Substance Use etc.).The problem/s you will be tackling. For each problem you need the following: At least one long term goalEach goal broken down into measurable steps (SMART)A timeline for treatment progressInterventions for each goal with frequency (e.g.-1x a week individual therapy 45 minutes for 8 weeks, bi-weekly family sessions with x family members, 1x a month care coordination, Psychiatric evaluation, 1x a month psychiatric medication management, social work coordination with PCP bi-weekly etc.). You choose the type of intervention and frequency; these are just some examples, but you don’t have to limit yourself to those options. Integrated Healthcare Models and Frameworks The Medical Model The provider engages in a scientific process that draws on observations and procedures to determine the cause of illness and design a treatmentSelf-report of symptoms plus tests and proceduresThe goal is objectivityClient often excluded from decision making Prevention and Wellness Model In 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) created new emphasis on prevention and wellnessCommunity ApproachAttention placed on social determinants of healthBoosting community resiliencyhealth status and risks of population are monitored The Recovery Model Connects the other health care modelsSimilar to CCM, focuses on self-management of long-term health disorders, but strives to instill hopeShifted definition of recovery to the “development of new meaning and purposes in one’s life as one grows beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness”Recovery NOT one-step task, it is a journey with many dimensions Practice Theory Models Human Behavior Change Process Interventions The Stress Vulnerability Model Amount of vulnerability differs from person to person For some conditions, related to factors like early exposure to viral infection in utero Reduce person’s biological vulnerability and stressFactors include medication, coping skills, communication, and problem-solving skills and structureImpacts vulnerability by either triggering the onset of the disorder or worsening the courseStress can include life events, relationships, etc.Combinations of stress and vulnerabilities may lead to different types of a disorderIndividuals and families can build protective factors to minimize or manage stress May help reduce severity of symptoms and impact the illness course positively The Transtheoretical Model:Stages of Change Six Stages of Change:PrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenanceTermination
Essentials of Social Work Biopsychosocial Assessment in Integrated Health

History and background of medical tourism

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The practice of travelling abroad to obtain medical and health care services is called as medical tourism. The benefits of medical tourism are getting widely popular among people because people are getting aware about the benefits of medical tourism like the lower cost of the medical procedures and can enjoy their holiday in a exotic location during the recovery period. This outsourcing for health care is grown as a new trend and many American and European tourists prefer medical tourism for cosmetic and medical procedures. The countries which are lack of advanced medical procedures leads the people living there to fly abroad to get appropriate medical services. The practice of travelling abroad is a trend which developed from the ancient period and there is a long history of people travelling to other countries for health purposes. In Italy and throughout the Roman provinces, the Ancient Romans constructed resorts with thermal health spas, and the Ancient Greeks would travel ‘to [on the Saronic Gulf] to visit the sanctuary of the healing god, Asklepios, who revealed remedies to them in their dreams’ (Bookman and Bookman 2007: 4-5). From the 15th to 17th centuries, the poor sanitary conditions in Europe prompted an interest by the rich in medicinal spas, mineral springs and the seaside for health purposes. These wealthy individuals would also travel to renowned medical schools for medical assistance (Swarbrooke and Horner 2007: 16, 33). This continued into the 18th and 19th centuries where spa towns, particularly in the south of France, became popular for health cures, the sun, and escaping the cold climatic conditions in the north of Europe (Holden 2006: 21-23). The rapid urbanisation and social change experienced during Industrialisation aggravated the unsanitary and poor living environments in Britain and some sections of Europe, with anti-urban values and a growing concern for health developing as a result (Holden 2006: 30). The formation of the railways allowed increasing and diverse flows of people to more distant seaside and coastal resorts, which provided a distinctive and escapist environment from urbanisation, and the opportunity to practice what was viewed as a healthy pastime of sun-seeking (Holden 2006: 30; Swarbrooke and Horner 2007: 16,33) Spa tourism and sun-seeking persisted into the 20th century. Medicinal springs, spas, Beaches and resorts, particularly in warm and dry climates, continued to be considered therapeutic through long exposures to the sun, fresh air and water (Swarbrooke and Horner 2007: 33).Thus it is easy to understand that the health tourism has developed from the ancient age with myths and beliefs and as cure from natural resources to the current stage of various medical and surgical procedures and cosmetic therapies and for alternative therapies like yoga, naturopathy and ayurvedic medicine. Michael Moody (2007) indicates that the medical tourism trend began when residents of one country would go to another country to have cosmetic or dental procedures completed while on vacation or to recover from such procedures in a vacation like destination. Today, countries like India, the East Indies, South America and South East Asia offer treatment facilities at par with international standards at just a fraction of cost. The factors such as high cost of healthcare in developed countries, long waiting list in government medical facilities and the reduction of air fare are the majority of reasons which contributed for the growth of the medical tourism. The hospitals in India, the East Indies, South American countries and South East Asia offer a high quality medical care which is par with international standards in very cheap money compared to developed nations. India is one of world’s favorite tourist destinations and has many hospitals of international standard and English speaking staffs and therefore there are less chances of language barrier for the western patients. India has alternative therapies like Yoga naturopathy siddha and ayurvedic medical practices. One of the recent survey conducted in India on the healthcare indicates that the medical tourism in India will grow to US $ 125 to 250 million in the year 2012.(CII McKinsey study).The low cost and high standard treatment and care are the reasons which accelerates the medical tourism in India. The following example will illustrate about the economical as well as tourist benefits of medical tourism in India. Howard Staab, a self-employed carpenter from North Carolina, flew to India for his medically necessary heart surgery, scheduled a side trip to the TajMahal, and returned home to work in North Carolina. He spent a total of less than $10,000, instead of the $200,000 required from the local hospital ( Milstein and Smith 2006).This indicates that India has patients for procedures like heart surgery which requires state of art facilities and highly skilled medical team. Other than that it also shows the money difference when compared with developed nations. Kerala like any other states in India also has lot of potential to be a market leader in medical tourism. Kerala often described as “God’s own country”is one of the favorite tourist destinations in India. The geography of Kerala is embellished with lush green coconut groves, scenic beaches, tranquil backwaters and enriched culture. There is a pride of place in the field of medicine for this Indian state and medical tourism is the new facet of Kerala. Medical tourism is very popular in some states of India and this study focuses on a city of Kerala state. Kerala is considered one of the most favorite tourist destinations in India because of its beaches, hills, lagoons, backwaters and enriched culture. This state has tremendous potential to boom its medical tourism and the tourism industry is promoting itself with several ayurvedic and health packages. This study focuses on the trends of medical tourism in the city of Trivandrum which is located on the southernmost state of India called Kerala. This city is the current capital of the state of Kerala and it is known for its scenic beauties and beaches.This city also has several international standard hospitals and traditional ayurvedic resorts and clinics. Objective of the Research Study The principle aim of this study was to investigate and critically analyse the recent trends in the medical tourism in the Trivandrum, the southernmost city of India. This study also analyses the behavior of the medical tourist and their expectations in the services provided by the hospital or the clinic and the tourist operators or agencies. This study also focuses to address the a gap that exists in similar study conducted before. The aim was to address the gap between available literature and demand for further research on the subject by adopting a clearly defined and structured research design, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Find the factors that drive Medical Tourism in Trivandrum Analyse the issues which determine success of medical tourism in Trivandrum Identify the problems faced by Medical Tourism in Trivandrum Make suitable suggestions for improvement of Medical Tourism in Trivandrum Rationales The first and foremost reason for choosing the topic of the study is to lay out before the readers the state of the Indian medical tourism sector at a moment in time when it is in great flux. Moreover the author was working in one such hospital which was market leader in medical tourism in the city of Trivandrum. The medical tourism sector is believed to be a great boon of economical growth in Kerala and therefore by doing a study at this particular time may give readers awareness about the situation challenges and scopes. Other than that medical tourism it is an area of interest of the author as he wants to analyse the trends and issues involved in the medical tourism industry in Trivandrum city. The purpose of this research note is to outline some of the challenges and opportunities ahead, as health tourism finds its prominence in the practical and conceptual domains of tourism. Further there are predictions for Trivandrum city to flourish with medical tourism in next five to ten years and it is right time to analyse the challenges and scopes ahead. Structure of the study This study explores the trends of medical tourism in Trivandrum city and the issues around it. The need for further research on the topic has been established with carrying out a secondary research followed by primary research and by comparing evaluating the primary and secondary research. According to McDaniels carrying out exploratory research will gave the researcher clarification to understand the magnitude of topic area and thereby permitted a clearer and stronger perception of the environment and the situation which arise within it. (McDaniels, 2001). CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The medical tourism has an advantage of providing cost effective medical care collaborating with the health care industry and with the travelling industry to the patients who need medical treatment in a location different to their home town. Thus medical tourism occurs with the combination of healthcare services and tourism and travel domain. The facts that led the growth of the medical tourism are the availability cheap and high quality medical care in one geographical location and existence of long queue of patients for medical procedure and high prices of medical care in one geographical region. The outcome of these factors is the growth of medical tourism resulting in people moving to another geographical location for health care. DEFINITION The term medical tourism is a term coined in recent period but the practise seems to exist from ancient period and the trends in medical tourism have changed with the time. The health tourist travel to their favourite destination for different medical and surgical procedures, cosmetic surgeries, alternative medicine, and spas and health resorts. The considerations and risk for different procedures vary accordingly. The medical tourism has gained social, economical and political interest but it has gained scant attention in tourism literature generally. Bookman and Bookman (2007) define medical tourism as travel with the aim of improving one’s health, and also an economic activity that entails trade in services and represents the splicing of at least two sectors: medicine and tourism. The health tourism is seen as means of leisure oriented and stress relief as many people opt for sun and spas. Although there is no single definition for health tourism, it could be broadly defined as people traveling from their place of residence for health reasons (Ross 2001). Several demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors are driving such tourism (Handszuh and Waters 1997; Ross, 2001). Bennett et al. (2004: 123) acknowledge a liberal definition of health tourism would be ‘any pleasure-orientated tourism which involves an element of stress relief’, meaning it is an enjoyable and relaxing activity Pollock and Williams (2000: 165), Laws (1996 in Henderson 2004: 112) and tries to see the health tourism with the view that it is a separation between the ordinary and the extraordinary; the everyday world of work and home versus the combination of health and tourism in ‘leisure, recreational and educational activities’. Then Schofield has a view that health tourism is a means to achieve improvement in physical, mental and social well being. (Schofield 2004: 137). The above all definitions try to define health tourism as a means to escape from every day routine and improve stress free healthful life. Henderson (2004: 113) insists that health tourism as ‘travel where the primary purpose is treatment in pursuit of better health’ that may involve ‘hedonistic indulgences of spas and alternative therapies’, while medical tourism ‘incorporates health screening, hospitalization, and surgical operations. Ross (2001) after analysing various factors and literature tries to define health tourism as any kind of tourism that involves a person or his family member for the purpose of wellbeing and he considers that health tourism mainly focuses on two main domains as pampering and wellness. Pampering are services like massage, herbal wraps and exfoliating scrubs whereas wellness involves with improving physical and mental state and sometime it may involve with the treatment. MEDICAL TOURISM AND ITS TRENDS The concept of medical tourism have undergone many changes in recent times and there is a change in the trends like people from developed countries moving to developing countries for medical procedures for the difference in the cost. The global medical standards and regulations have been implemented in different countries and this in turn raises the number of people seeking cost advantage and best treatment in their preferred destination. The market of medical tourism depends on awareness and application of significant issues such as social diversities, consumer benefits, branding of products, legal frame work infrastructure, target markets, the actual product and communication channels (Dannell

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