I’m working on a biology multi-part question and need support to help me understand better.
Exercise 8 – COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE STRUCTUREStudent Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise you should:(1) Know the functions of the digestive system and how the digestive system relates to biomolecules and cellular respiration(2) Know the functions of the major organs and structures in the abdominal and thoracic cavities(3) Be able to identify and locate the major organs and structures in the abdominal and thoracic cavities on a dissected rat (4) Know the structures/organs that make up the gastrointestinal and respiratory tractsHere are the videos that are used to supplement the lab exercise:Video #1: An Introduction to the Digestive SystemundefinedVideo #2: The Digestive System Part 1undefinedVideo #3: The Digestive System Part 2undefinedVideo #4: The Digestive System Part 3undefinedVideo #5: The Rat DissectionThis lab covers the basics of the mammalian digestive system and ties together Module 4 (on biomolecules) and Module 7 (Cellular Respiration). I recommend completing this lab prior to beginning Module 7. In this lab, you will learn about the various organs that are involved in digestion–an important event that must occur before individual cells can break down small molecules (like glucose), for the production of ATP. If you’ve forgotten about the major types of biomolecules, it’d be helpful to review Module 4.The Digestive SystemAll vertebrates have a complete, tubular digestive tract with a mouth for the entrance/consumption of food and an anus for the exit of waste. The details may slightly vary from species to species, but the basic needs and, therefore, the basic plan is largely universal to vertebrates. The digestive system is involved in the enzymatic and mechanical breakdown of large biomolecules (polymers and fats) into their smaller constituent monomers, and their subsequent absorption into the bloodstream. undefinedQuestion 1. Refer to the introductory presentation: What are the two primary functions of the digestive system?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 2. After watching video #1 and using the lab guide, answer the following: Describe the path that food takes from the mouth to the bloodstream. You only need to state the structures/organs that food passes through on this journey through the gastrointestinal tract.Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 3. After watching video #1 and using the lab guide, answer the following: Polymers and fats are enzymatically digested within the small intestine. With the help of enzymes (sent from the pancreas) and bile (sent from the liver), fats are broken down into two types of smaller molecules called: Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 4. After watching video #1 and using the lab guide: Polymers and fats are enzymatically digested within the small intestine. With the help of enzymes (sent from the pancreas) and bile (sent from the liver), proteins are broken down into smaller monomer molecules called: Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 5. After watching video #1 and using the lab guide: Polymers and fats are enzymatically digested within the small intestine. With the help of enzymes (sent from the pancreas) and bile (sent from the liver), large complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are broken down into smaller monomer molecules called: Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 6. After watching video #1: What is the advantage of the inner lining of the small intestine having millions of tiny, finger-like projections called villi?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 7. Refer to the introductory presentation: What are the two primary reasons that the cells of the body require the small biomolecules (monosaccharides like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc.) that result from digestion?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 8. After watching video #2: What are enzymes? Use the definition provided in the video. Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 9. After watching video #2: What is the role of enzymes in digestion?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 10. After watching video #3: The mechanical breakdown of food (using your teeth) begins in the mouth. The enzymatic breakdown of food also begins in the mouth. Various salivary glands secrete an enzyme called salivary amylase. Amylase breaks down _________________ (a polysaccharide) into ________________ (a monosaccharide).Replace this text with your two answers.undefinedQuestion 11. After watching video #3: Ingested food travels from the esophagus to which organ?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 12. After watching video #3: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) secreted by cells of the stomach helps to break down any pathogens (bacteria or viruses) that were ingested. What does the HCl do to the proteins in food?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 13. Use the lab guide to answer the following question: The enzyme pepsin and hydrochloric acid secreted by the stomach help to unravel (denature) and break down which type of biomolecule polymer?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 14. Use the lab guide to answer the following question: How does the stomach mechanically break down food?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 15. Use the lab guide to answer the following: Describe the major functions of the small intestine.Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 16. Use the lab guide to answer the following question: Within which organ does the majority of enzymatic digestion occur? Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 17. After watching video #4: The majority of enzymatic digestion occurs within a region of the small intestine called the ____________________.Replace this text with your answer.Question 18. After watching video #4: What role does bile play in the digestion that occurs within the small intestine?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 19. After watching video #4 and using the lab guide: Bile is transported into the small intestine via the gall bladder and the bile duct. Which organ produces bile? Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 20. After watching video #4 and using the lab guide: Which organ produces and secretes a huge variety of digestive enzymes into the small intestine? It secretes enzymes that break down polysaccharides into monosaccharides, enzymes that break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and enzymes that break down proteins into amino acids.Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 21. After watching video #4: Largely indigestible food (feces) leaves the small intestine and enters the ____________________________. Hint: This is an organ and part of the gastrointestinal tract.Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 22. After watching video #4 and using the lab guide: Describe the major functions of the large intestineReplace this text with your answer.Question 23. After watching video #4: Explain why a lactose-intolerant (they are intolerant due to the lack of a genetic mutation that would allow for lactase production as an adult) individual experiences bloating, gas, and diarrhea after eating large amounts of dairy products (like a plate of cheese-covered nachos).Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 24. After watching video #4 and using the lab guide: Which organ absorbs the small, digested biomolecules that result from digestion? Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 25. After watching video #4 and using the lab guide: Which organ contains symbiotic bacteria that help break down otherwise indigestible molecules and generates important vitamins?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 26. Use the lab guide to answer the following question: Describe the major functions of the kidneys.Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 27. Use the lab guide and the introductory presentation to answer the following question: Describe the major functions of the lungs. The lungs are the major organ of the respiratory system. Make sure to mention which gas is inhaled by the lungs and what this inhaled gas is a reactant for. Also be sure to mention the gas that is exhaled from the lungs?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 28. Use the lab guide to answer the following question: What is the muscular partition that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic (chest) cavity called?Replace this text with your answer.undefinedQuestion 29. Use the introductory presentation to complete the following: Starting with the mouth/nasal cavity, list the structures and organs that make up the respiratory tract (in order).Replace this text with your answer.undefinedRat DissectionThe remainder of the lab describes the organs and structures that are encountered during the rat dissection. Under normal circumstances, you would be completing a dissection of a rat with your lab group in person. Since we are online, you will instead use this information (below), along with the provided rat dissection video (Video #5 at the beginning of this document), the lab guide, and the introductory PowerPoint slides to learn the material. In this activity you will examine the structures that make up the major organs of mammals, using a model organism, the rat. The rat’s general internal anatomy is very similar to human anatomy (and all other mammals) with two exceptions: 1) they lack a gallbladder, and 2) they have an enlarged cecum compared to the vestigial appendix of humans. This anatomical similarity, as well as ease of care and their rapid reproductive rate, has made them the most common animal used in medical experiments.Head and Neck RegionThe regions of the nose and mouth function as parts of the respiratory and digestive systems, in some cases, both. *The roof of the mouth is called the palate. The palate separates the mouth cavity from the nasal cavity.* At the back of the mouth are openings of the esophagus, where food goes when it is swallowed, and the trachea, which takes air to the lungs. The opening of the trachea, called the glottis, is covered with a flap of tissue, the epiglottis, when food is swallowed to prevent it from passing into the lungs. Opening the Body Cavities (Completed for you in the Dissection Video)The following steps will be completed for you in the dissection video: Pinch the skin in the area of the belly button and make a small horizontal cut with the scissors. The skin is thick and tough and covered in fur. If you cut carefully, you can separate the skin from the abdominal body wall muscles and peel it back to observe these. Eventually you will need to cut all the way through these muscles and the peritoneum–the shiny membrane lining the inside of the body wall.Lift the skin and make a cut anteriorly to the throat starting at the anus. (If you have a male, cut to one side of the midline to avoid the penis.) Make lateral cuts to the inner thighs, across the bottom of the rib cage, to the fore arm pits and up toward the ears from this central cut. (Shown in diagram above.) Pour out any fluid from the body cavity and pin back the flaps of skin to your dissecting pan.The empty space around the internal organs is the coelom or body cavity. It is divided into two sections, the thoracic and abdominal cavities, by a large sheet of muscle in a dome shape, called the diaphragm. Contraction of the diaphragm muscle creates negative pressure in the thoracic cavity and causes inhalation of air into the lungs. *Organs are suspended in the body cavity and attached to each other and the internal body wall by thin bands of tissue called mesenteries. These also carry the blood vessels to the organs.*undefinedWatch the following video until 10:40: Video #5: The Rat Dissection undefinedThoracic (aka Chest) Cavity (Covered in Dissection Video)The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs, which are protected inside the rib cage. You will have to cut through the sternum and separate the rib cage to see the organs.Respiratory System (Covered in Dissection Video)Follow the trachea from the neck to where they branch into the two bronchi, leading into the lungs. Notice that the lungs have several lobes. Circulatory System (Covered in Dissection Video)The heart is in the center of the thoracic cavity. *It is encased in a thin membrane, the pericardium.* Tear the pericardium away and identify the 2 atria and 2 ventricles of the heart (this is not done in video–don’t worry about this). *The remainder of the circulatory system consists of the blood vessels and blood. The largest blood vessels are near the heart, and that they sequentially branch and split, getting smaller and smaller to supply blood to every part of the body. Large vessels also lead directly to the kidneys and liver and connect these organs to the intestine.* Abdominal Cavity (Covered in Dissection Video)The abdominal cavity contains the digestive organs and the *urogenital system, which consists of the excretory and reproductive organs.* Digestive system (Covered in Dissection Video)The most obvious organ in the abdominal cavity is the dark, multi-lobed liver just posterior to the diaphragm. The liver secretes bile into the small intestine for the emulsification of lipids (including fats) and also has many other functions, including converting toxic nitrogen-containing molecules in the blood into urea for excretion. Underneath the liver and to the rat’s left is the stomach, for food storage and the digestion of proteins. The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach but is obscured by the organs of the thoracic cavity. The spleen appears as a flat, oval flap connected to the left side of the stomach (from the rat’s perspective). The spleen functions in the production and destruction of blood cells, including white blood cells that are part of the immune system. As such, it is properly part of both the circulatory system and the immune system. The small intestine appears to be a bundle of tubes filling the middle of the abdominal cavity and is the primary site of the enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and absorption of the resulting small biomolecules. The pancreas is a region of whitish tissue at the junction of the stomach and small intestine, which secretes a huge variety of digestive enzymes into the small intestine. The cecum is a large pouch off of the lower right side of the small intestine, which contains bacteria that help the animal digest plant matter. The large intestine descends from the small intestine to the rectum, where feces are temporarily stored and compacted before defecation via the anus. The large intestine is where water is reabsorbed from the undigested food before it is defecated.Excretory System (Covered in Dissection Video)The main organ of the excretory system is the kidney. To find the kidneys, located in the lower abdominal cavity near the spine, move the intestines to one side and gently cut through the membrane lining the body cavity (or remove all of the organs like the guy did in the video). The kidneys are actually outside the abdominal body cavity. Trace their connection to the bladder, via the ureter.undefinedAcknowledgementsThis lab activity was based on material in:Hickman, C. P., Jr. & L. B. Kats (2003) Laboratory Studies in Animal Diversity, 3rd ed. McGraw Hill, NY.Krogh, Richardson & Richardson (2005) A Laboratory Guide to the Natural World, 3rd ed. Benjamin Cummings.Smith, D. G. (2002) Exercises for the Zoology Laboratory, 2nd ed. Morton Publishing Co., Englewood Colorado.
Grossmont College Comparative Vertebrate Structures Lab Report
How is Psychology a Science?
How is Psychology a Science?.
I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need guidance to help me understand better.
One of the things that makes psychology a science is peer review – which is the processes of having other academics evaluate research before it become published to the public. Use the links below and tell the class about an article you found interesting (and why you found it interesting). What were they studying, what did they find? What variables were they measuring?Then watch the video at the bottom of the assignment. Here is a link to the APA (American Psychological Association) articles. (Links to an external site.) Don’t buy anything – but you can read the summary of the article (called the abstract). You can also search (https://psycnet.apa.org/search/basic (Links to an external site.)) and see if anything that you are interested in pops up. Try it and post your responses to the discussion. AND then watch this video and answer the following question… Limits of Scientific Psychology | Nick Brown | TEDxRhodes (Links to an external site.) What does the video make you thing about your research article?
How is Psychology a Science?
History homework help
java assignment help History homework help. THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTIONNo unread replies.No replies.DISCUSSION BOARD IFirst,ÿreadÿthe policy pertaining to Discussion Boards in the MODULE ? Writing Assignments.This is a senior level course, to answer the Discussion Board questions you will need to incorporate the knowledge that you have acquired in your college education, in particular what you have learned in psychology, the material from the textbook, lecture material and other material provided.ÿThe questions will require you to incorporate your knowledge with advanced reasoning and critical thinking (see grading rubric below).ÿWhat I am looking for in your discussion is how you apply your empirical knowledge to the problem at hand.ÿWhat willÿnotÿbe accepted is personal opinions, assertions or personal experiences.ÿThis is to be a scholarly discussion, therefore present scholarly information.ÿ Post your discussion byÿ11:59PM Friday February the 3rd.ÿ Please do not reply to any posting until you have been instructed to do so.4.The Problem (questions)Apply the principles of Logical positivism and Sir Karl Popper’s falsification to Charles Darwin’s theory of Evolution.ÿ Now look at Thomas Kuhn’s structure of scientific revolution and apply it to Darwin’s theory of evolution.ÿ Does Darwin’s theory fit well with these two views of science?ÿ Is Darwin’s theory of evolution a scientific theory?This posting is to be approximately five (5) pages in length, including the references.ÿ The paper must be in APA format and typed usingÿMS Wordÿwith a font size of 12 pt (please use spell checker and grammar checker).ÿ The link below will direct you to a web site that can help you with APA format. ÿÿÿÿhttp://owl.english.purdue.edu/ÿ(Links to an external site.)You are to find four (4) articles relevant to the topic. Articles that are acceptable for citation must be from scientific journals or scholarly texts.ÿ Popular press articles and web sites are not acceptable for this posting.To enhance critical thinking, advance reasoning, and writing skills, your arguments must be based on empirical evidence and the scientific literature.ÿ Opinions and speculations should be kept to a minimum.ÿ Faith based arguments, such as the bible or god,ÿare not acceptable argumentsÿfor this discussion.GRADING RUBRICPossible PointsComplex Reasoning10Critical Thinking10Grammar & Spelling8Formatting8Replies to other Postings4Complex Reasoning:ÿ0 – 3 = No evidence of complex reasoning; 4 – 7 = went beyond what the literature says; 8 – 10 = drawing logical inferences from the literature.Critical Thinking:ÿ0 – 3 = No evidence of critical thinking; 4 – 7 = some ability to critic the literature; 8 – 10 = ability to question underlying assumptions.Grammar & Spelling:0 – 2 = Badly written and/or numerous spelling errors; 3 – 5 = a number of grammatical and/or spelling errors; 6 – 8 = none or minor grammatical and/or spelling errors.Formatting:ÿ0 – 2 = Numerous formatting errors; 3 – 5 = some formatting errors; 6 – 8 = no or very minor formatting errors.History homework help
5 pager on Lochner vs New York
5 pager on Lochner vs New York. Help me study for my Political Science class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.
In five double-spaced, type-written pages, please respond to the following topic. Draw upon the text of the case to support your argument. You are welcome to do some research to help you with this paper, but it is not necessary. Turn the paper into the dropbox in D2L by February 11, 11am. Please check the turnitin.com report to make sure you don’t have problems with originality. Remember the rule of plagiarism: if the words are not yours, please quote and cite.
Lochner v. New York (1905) is considered one of the most problematic cases in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court, largely for the way in which it argued for minimizing the role of government in commercial affairs, to the detriment of workers and consumers. Using the text of the case in your book, outline the theory of the role of government in commercial affairs advanced by the Court in Lochner. What are the main lines of argument? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments? Also, address the dissenting arguments in the case. How do they counter the arguments by the Court? Which do you think is the strongest argument? Why?
5 pager on Lochner vs New York
RNA interference (RNAi) for Crops
RNA interference (RNAi) for Crops. What is RNA interference (RNAi): A method of silencing or blocking the function of a gene by introducing the short sequenced RNA resulting in transcriptional inhibition or no protein production. Classes of RNAs involved in RNAi: There are different classes of RNA which are involved in method of silencing of genes. these different classes of RNA includes: dsRNA: double stranded RNA or dsRNA is actively involves in RNAi. Complementary base pairings of two strands of single stranded RNA results in formation of dsRNA. It is present naturally in cells, long dsRNAs are derived from the events such as virus induction or just after the formation of dsRNA, the process of RNAi is initiated. Micro RNA: micro RNA or mi-RNAs are single stranded RNAs of short nucleotides (19-25 nt) which are present in all eukaryotes. These RNAs are encoded in host genome and then processed by the Dicer which is an endonuclease enzyme. Micro RNAs can block the activity of gene by destructing its homologus mRNA in animals and plants. They are often referred as small temporal rnas due to their importance in regulating the developmental timing. Shart hairpin RNAs: short hairpin RNAs or shRNAs are 19-29 nucleotides longer RNAs which are synthetically manufactured. They contain an antisense strand. Sense strand and spacer (i.e. small sequence of loop present between antisense and sense strands). Complementary sequences of antisense and sense strand results in formation of hairpin shaped dsRNA. Proteins or enzymes involved in RNAi: Dicer: dicer plays an important role in processing of dsRNA during the mechanism of RNAi. It is an endoribonuclease belongs to family of RNase III that functions in cleaving the dsRNA and pre miRNA into short dsRNA of 20-25 bp long fragments of 2-nt overhang on 3’end which are known as small interfering RNA (siRNA). Activity of this enzyme is not dependent on ATP. Dicer contains four functional domains: a) helicase domain at N-terminal: its function is still unknown. b) c-terminal dsRBD (double stranded RNA binding domain): it binds the dsRNA but specific site of binding is not defined. c) Two RNase-III domain: involves in cleaving the strands of dsRNA, results in shortening of dsRNA. d) PAZ domain (piwi,argonaute,zwille): it involves in interacting with PAZ domain of RISC complex. RISC (RNA induced silencing complex): RISC is multiprotein-complex which involves in incorporation of single strand of siRNA. It has activity of ribonuclease with ability of cutting RNA. This mechanism is very important in regulation of gene by miRNAs and in defense system against the viral action as they used dsRNA as infectious vector. RISC consists of dicer, siRNA, argounate protein, PAZ domain and some other components. Only antisense strand is incorporated into RISC from double stranded siRNAs, this strand is selected by help of argounate protein which is RNase and is catalytically active. The sense strand is dedraded by RISC. The RISC degraded the mRNA which is complementary to its siRNA results in repression of protein translation and effectively silencing the gene. RDRPS (RNA dependent RNA polymerase): RDRPS play vital role in RNAi and in PTGS (post transcriptional gene silencing) mechanisms. Mechanism of RNAi: Initiator Step: just after the entry of dsRNA; through introduced transgene, an aberrant genetic material or viral infections, initiate the pathway of RNAi of the cells, resulting in activation of Dicer enzyme. dsRNA cleavage: dicer enzyme produced the fragments of small interfering RNA of about 20-25 nt long by cleaving the dsRNA. Effector step: RISC then differentiate between two siRNA fragmentseithe antisense or sense fragment. Sense fragments are then degraded by RISC. Integration of antisense fragment: antisense fragments are then integrated into RISC. They are used in targeting of complementary mRNA. mRNA silicing: After binding the complementary mRNA with siRNA, argounate protein of RISC performs the activity of “slicing” i.e. it cuts the mRNA, so the mRNA is blocked results in no production of protein. Establishment of genetic engineered plants using RNAi Step 1: Target gene identification: We identify target genes which are nutritionally beneficial or nutritionally adverse for the crops. We identify them through: Application of bioinformatics tool Through sequencing genome Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics analysis. Step 2: Development of vector: After identification of suitable genes, specific vectors are prepared for constructing transgenic plants using RNAi. It is done by: Specific promoter selection Specific vector selection Screening by using selected markers Step 3: Transformation of vectors in plants and their screening: RNAi delivery Tissue culturing of transgenic plants Screening of transformed plant and their selection Step 4: Transgenic lines evaluation for quality improvement: Evaluation through morphology Evaluation through transcriptome Evaluation through biochemical pathway Applications of RNAi in improving crops Altering the architecture of plant: Architecture of plant likes its height, elongation of stem, branching of roots, morphology of leaf and inflorescence are important for plant physiology, yield, biochemical process and its to resistance for environmental stresses. Bu now, plant architecture are modified by using technology of RNAi for improving the productivity of plants. e.g. RNAi decreased the expression of gene OsGA20ox2 in rice, this enzyme encodes GA 20-oxidase, involves in the synthesis of gibrellins (GAs) which are biologically active in the plants. so, transgenic plants with suppressed OsGA20ox2 produced low content of GA1, decreasing the height of plant, resulting the phenotype which is semi-dwarf. Semi-dwarf plants shows more productivity, shorter stems and resistant than wild plants. Tolerance against abiotic stresses: abiotic factors (temp, water, salinity etc) greatly affect the productivity of plants. now, it is discovered that RNAi is involved in plant responses against abiotic stresses. E.g. miR393 inhibit TIRI gene expression, which reduced the growth of seedling and signaling of auxin in abiotic stress and also play role in antibacterial resistance. Tolerance against biotic stresses: biotic factors (viruses, nematodes, fungi etc) contribute to the maximum loss of plant productivity especially viruses, and their control is also difficult. But antiviral activity of RNAi plays important there. E.g. papaya fruit plant which is a major source of enzyme papin is affected by the attack of viruses. Transgenic plants are produced which have gene of coat protein, resistance to attack of virus. Removal of allergens: hypersensitivity in response to normal harmless food due to role of IgE is known as food allergy. Some allergies due to food are very severe and even threatened for life. Food allergies must be avoided as there are no medicines for them. RNAi also plays an important role there. E.g. soybean is legume plant and is allergic due to Gly m Bd 30 K protein. Transgenic soybeans have been produced in which this gene is silenced, with no harms of allergy. Secondary metabolites enhancement: secondary metabolites of plants are major sources of pigments, drugs, food additives, fragrances and pesticides. RNAi technology is now used in order to silence the gene which decreases the production of secondary metabolites. E.g. through RNAi potato ptatins which reduces the production of potato tubers (efficient expression system of protein i.e. therapeutic glycoprotein) were eliminated. Flower scent and color modulation: horticultural trait such as scent and color of plants contribute to economic as well as aesthetic value. Garden plant flower color was modulated by using the technique of RNAi against CHs (chalcon synthase) gene. Male sterile plants development: to ensure purity male sterility is very important in breeding. It act as an alternative process for producing hybrids when naturally male sterility is absent. Shelf-life prolongation: vegetables and fruits shelf life is increased to reduce the deterioration and the senescence of the fruit to reduced spoilage and quality of food in order to store and transport safely. e.g. shelf life of tomato plants was increased by using RNAi Nutritionally improved plants: RNAu technology is being used to produced plants with optimized nutrients (such as flavonids, vitamins, antioxidants, amino acids, fatty acids etc) in order to produced biofortified crops. e.g. by using technology of RNAi transgenic plants of Brassica napus were produced in which sinapate esters level in seeds were minimized upto 75% by blocking sinapateglucosyltransferase: UDP-Glc gene. Development of seedless fruits: character of seedless fruits is greatly appreciated for their freshly consumption and also for processing the fruit products. It increase the quality of food as hard seeds gave bad taste. RNAi technology is now used for production of seedless fruits (especially watermelon, guava tomato and apples). e.g. by using RNAi seedless tomatoes are produced by suppressing the ARF7 gene. Toxic compounds removal: almost all plants contain different types of toxins which causes hindrance during process of pure product extraction. RNAi technology is very powerful for producing toxin free plants. e.g. For production of “tearless onion” production of a ‘lachrymatory factor synthase’ gene was reduced. Why RNAi? Efficient: 70-100% of transgenic plants exhibit silencing phenotype. Precise: no side effects were reported. User friendly: RNAi in plants is performed by using many “user friendly tools”. Flexible: with only a single constructs multiple genes could be silenced. High throughput: vectors for making hpRNAi constructs are design for high throughput. Stable: hpRNAi shows the stable inheritance among the number of generations. Better than anti-sense: duplex RNAi silencing is better than either anti-sense or sense silencing. RNA interference (RNAi) for Crops