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COM340 Module 5: Critical Thinking

COM340 Module 5: Critical Thinking. Can you help me understand this Social Media Marketing question?

Important! Read First
Choose one of the following two assignments to complete this week. Do not do both assignments. Identify your assignment choice in the title of your submission. (Note: This assignment is not a Milestone for the Portfolio Project, so you can choose either option.)

Option #1:
Video in Social Media
From any social media platform, select a video posted by an organization to achieve marketing and/or public relations goals. In a two-page paper (plus cover page and references page), analyze the use of the video by answering the following questions:

What is the organization trying to achieve with this video? Were they successful? Why or why not?
Does the video appear on additional social media platforms? Are those platforms linked and integrated? How might this be a benefit or a detriment to the organization?
How might the video be improved? Are there legal or ethical issues that should be taken into consideration regarding its use?

Your paper must include the link to the video and be written and formatted according to the requirements in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA (Links to an external site.). Support your paper with a minimum of two scholarly sources in addition to the course resources. The CSU-Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these sources.
Review the rubric for this Critical Thinking assignment in the Module 5 Materials folder for specific grading criteria.
Option #2: Infographics in Social Media
From any social media platform, select an infographic posted by an organization to achieve marketing and/or public relations goals. In a two-page paper (plus cover page and references page), analyze the use of the infographic by answering the following questions:

What is the organization trying to achieve with this infographic? Was it successful? Why or why not?
Does the infographic appear on additional social media platforms? Are those platforms linked and integrated? How might this be a benefit or a detriment to the organization?
How might the infographic be improved? Are there legal or ethical issues that should be taken into consideration regarding its use?

Your paper must include the link to the infographic and be written and formatted according to the requirements in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA (Links to an external site.). Support your paper with a minimum of two scholarly sources in addition to the course resources. The CSU-Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these sources.
Rubric
COM340 Mod 5 CT

COM340 Mod 5 CT

Criteria
Ratings
Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRequirements

10.0 to >8.0 ptsMeets ExpectationIncludes all of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationIncludes most of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
6.0 to >4.0 ptsBelow ExpectationIncludes some of the required components, as specified in the assignment.
4.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceIncludes few of the required components, as specified in the assignment.

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent

20.0 to >16.0 ptsMeets ExpectationDemonstrates strong or adequate knowledge of the materials; correctly represents knowledge from the readings and sources.
16.0 to >12.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationSome significant but not major errors or omissions in demonstration of knowledge.
12.0 to >8.0 ptsBelow ExpectationMajor errors or omissions in demonstration of knowledge.
8.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceFails to demonstrate knowledge of the materials.

20.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCritical Analysis

30.0 to >24.0 ptsMeets ExpectationProvides a strong critical analysis and interpretation of the use of video or infographics in social media, potential issues in using the tool, and legal or ethical considerations.
24.0 to >18.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationSome significant but not major errors or omissions in analysis and interpretation.
18.0 to >12.0 ptsBelow ExpectationMajor errors or omissions in analysis and interpretation.
12.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceFails to provide critical analysis and interpretation of the information given.

30.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSources / Examples

10.0 to >8.0 ptsMeets ExpectationSources or examples meet required criteria and are well chosen to provide substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationSources or examples meet required criteria but are less‐than adequately chosen to provide substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
6.0 to >4.0 ptsBelow ExpectationSources or examples meet required criteria and are poorly chosen to provide substance and perspectives on the issue under examination.
4.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceSource or example selection and integration of knowledge from the course is clearly deficient.

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDemonstrates college-level proficiency in organization, grammar, and style.

10.0 to >8.0 ptsMeets ExpectationProject is clearly organized, well written, and in proper format as outlined in the assignment. Strong sentence and paragraph structure; few errors in grammar and spelling.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationProject is fairly well organized and written, and is in proper format as outlined in the assignment. Reasonably good sentence and paragraph structure; significant number of errors in grammar and spelling.
6.0 to >4.0 ptsBelow ExpectationProject is poorly organized; does not follow proper paper format. Inconsistent to inadequate sentence and paragraph development; numerous errors in grammar and spelling.
4.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceProject is not organized or well written, and is not in proper paper format. Poor quality work; unacceptable in terms of grammar and spelling.

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDemonstrates proper use of APA style

10.0 to >8.0 ptsMeets ExpectationProject contains proper APA formatting, according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA, with no more than one significant error.
8.0 to >6.0 ptsApproaches ExpectationFew errors in APA formatting, according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA, with no more than two to three significant errors.
6.0 to >4.0 ptsBelow ExpectationSignificant errors in APA formatting, according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA, with four to five significant errors.
4.0 to >0 ptsLimited EvidenceNumerous errors in APA formatting, according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA, with more than five significant errors.

10.0 pts

Total Points: 90.0

COM340 Module 5: Critical Thinking

GEN 499 Ashford Reflecting on General Education Probation Officer Capstone.

I’m working on a writing question and need guidance to help me study.

Review a job description through a job website (e.g., Career Builder (Links to an external site.), Monster (Links to an external site.), etc.) in your desired career field. Please provide the job title and the link to the job description.Identify at least five skills you have obtained through your general education courses that will make you successful at this job.Demonstrate with at least two examples how your newly acquired knowledge and skills have shaped both your personal and professional development.Describe your plans for putting your education to use within your community.Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length, which should include a thorough response to each prompt. You are required to provide in-text citations of applicable required reading materials and/or any other outside sources you use to support your claims. Provide full reference entries of all sources cited at the end of your response. Please use correct APA format when writing in-text citations (see In-Text Citation Helper (Links to an external site.)) and references (see Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)).
GEN 499 Ashford Reflecting on General Education Probation Officer Capstone

The KoreanWar was a military action between north and South Korea for the unifying of the Korean peninsula; both countries have had different ideological agenda under western and eastern ideological power. The republic of Korea (South Korea) was supported by the united nation, NATO, and the USA on the other hand, the democratic people republic of Korea (North Korea) was supported by china and the Soviet Union. The Korean War was a war of west versus the east different philosophy and consideration, but fought far from the major superpower mainland. A war considered as an embarrassment for the international community, many lives were harvested and it did started and ended with accomplishing nothing from the unifying. The Korean peninsula was occupied by the Japanese’s for almost 35 years under an iron fest till the defeat of the Japanese in the World War II in 1945. Korean conflict, With Japan on the tremble to surrender, it was necessary for the superpowers to agree upon a future Asian policy that can both assure security for superpower nations and spread principles and influence over strategic zones in the pacific. After the Hiroshima atomic bomb Japan was completely under the US influence which made the soviet deliberate the advantage of occupying Korea, which in adjacent to the communist alley china.”At the Potsdam conference, the USA, made plans to invade the Japanese mainland and they have been more than happy to leave Manchuria and Korea to the Soviet Union. But now with war actually coming to sudden end , US urgently reassessed its future interest in Asia and came rapidly to a decision that America must share with the USSR the occupation of Korea” (Jeremy Isaacs
Chapter 7 essay.

Chapter 7 Reflective Essay QuestionsA. List and describe the techniques for supporting early learning (Page 132). B. Provide a real-life example where you interacted with a toddler and followed each of these steps. Do not use the child’s last name in your narrative. (If you do not have access to a toddler, borrow one…with permission of course). : ) 2. Read the article, Infant/Toddler Environments from the Virtual Lab School Website. In addition, view the embedded videos, “Messages Our Environments Send” and “Supportive Learning Environments for Infants & Toddlers.” Reread “Learning is Enhanced by Planning a Child-Focused Curriculum. A.Write one paragraph discussing how curriculum and environment are intertwined in an infant and toddler environment. (Pages 138 – 139) B. Write two-paragraphs focused on environments for children (Articles and videos from the Virtual Lab School Website). 4. Open the Web site, Zero to Three – Brain Development. List five facts that you learned about brain development from this site in relation to cognition and adult engagement with children.5. How are you doing? This is a very important question. Your thoughts matter to me!
Chapter 7 essay

Causes and triggers of domestic violence

Causes and triggers of domestic violence. Domestic abuse also referred to as asspousal abuse happens where in a marriage or an intimate relationship one partner tries to take control and dominate over the other. Where physical violence is involved, such domestic abuse is called domestic violence. An abuser uses intimidation, shame, fear and guilt to wear the other down so that the abused can be kept under the thumb. Abusers may threaten, hurt you and even those around you. There is no discrimination in domestic violence and thus it may happen among same-sex partners and heterosexual couples. Moreover, domestic violence may happen irrespective of our ethnic backgrounds, age and economic backgrounds. Women appear to be the common victims but in modern day society, men are also falling victims especially emotionally and verbally. Different approaches have been used by theorists to show that there are specific characteristics associated with individuals who abuse their partners. These approaches have shown that such abusive characters have inability to cope with stress, possess low self-esteem, they have desire to have control and power over others, once had social support isolation, are dependent on their victims, feelings of jealousy and they may also have some psychological and mental disorders. This indicates that there are different risk factors of domestic violence from economic to biological ones. Thesis: irrespective of what causes a particular domestic violence incident be it economical or biological, domestic violence is a social problem that affects our quality of life. This is an abusive behavior which is never acceptable and it doesn’t matter whether it comes from a woman or a man, an adult or a teenager. Every one of us deserves to be safe, respected and above all valued. Ideas (risk factors) Idea #1: There appears to be a statistical correlation between domestic violence and substance abuse. Several studies on domestic violence indicate that there are high rates of substance abuse by perpetrators. Regular use of alcohol is documented as one of the leading risk factors in intimate partner abuse. There is evidence that drug and alcohol addiction and domestic violence are things that usually occur together. This indicates that most families where there is a parent who abuses alcohol or any other drugs have high rates of domestic violence. There are several statistical evidences that show substance abuse increases the risk of domestic violence in homes. For example, around 87% of program directors in the field of domestic violence assert that intimate partner violence increases in a family where both partners are drugs or alcohol addicts. The U.S. Departments of Justice in its records show that around 61% of domestic violence offenders are addicts of alcohol or any other types of drugs. Moreover, a study conducted by the same Department in 2002 on murders in U.S. families indicated that more than half of those accused of murder of their intimate partners had abused alcohol and other drugs at the time of the murder. This is enough statistical evidence linking alcohol abuse and other drugs to domestic violence (Schechter, 2000). People who abuse alcohol and especially men argue that they normally engage in domestic violence because at that time they were under the influence of alcohol. In some other instances, those batterers living with women who abuse alcohol or drugs justify their domestic violence as one of the best ways in which they can control their spouses the moment they come home drunk. In such instances, risks associated are high because the woman who is being battered may not have control to seek help since she is not sober. Studies on domestic violence in U.S. population shows that in cases where the man is the batterer and frequently abuses drugs and alcohol, such men have the tendency to rid themselves of the violence responsibility by stating that they did so since they were under the influence of alcohol (Kenneth and Elizabeth, 2000). Substance abuse not only affects the intimate partner in the household but also the children. Children brought up in such a family experience more sexual, emotional and physical abuse than those in non-substance abusing families. Surveys conducted by National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse shows that around 80% of cases of child abuse are associated with parents who abuse drugs and alcohol. This problem may be translated into the later life stages of such children and thus reports indicate that there is high probability that they also abuse alcohol and other drugs and also result in the same domestic violence (Jeffrey and Abigail, 2007). Idea #2: a major piece to battering of wives is rooted in most cultures especially in the African traditional society. Most men who batter their wives have rigid rules and views on their gender roles. Most batterers have sexist attitudes towards their intimate partners and this has been a consistent cultural issue causing domestic violence. Majority of our societies have trained men in a way that they see women in objectified and disrespectful ways. This makes most men to see their intimate partners as their possession. It was not long ago when in most cultures, women were always considered as properties of men. This is an attitude that actually still lives in the culture of United States. Today, only several years have passed since most states in the U.S. changed their laws regarding rape that occurs among married couples. There before, the laws in most states stated that a man could not be convicted in jail because of raping his wife. This is an implication that this woman was the property of her husband. Thus men in such cultures could do anything with the wife and the only thing that was required of her was just to cooperate. Even if such laws have been changed today, there are still churches where ceremonies are performed for the wife to rake oath that she is going to honor, love and obey her husband. In most cultures, when a woman gets married, she has to take the name of her husband. The main idea here is that it becomes simpler than to add middle names or even to hyphenate names. This follows from the fact that in marriage and in all societies, a woman has to leave her father’s house and join the husband in his house. There is no time women belonged to themselves but they only belonged to their husband or father. This is what represented the woman’s last name. We can liken this to African slaves who would always take the name of their master or the slave holder. Even in matters of political choices, women started voting the other day and they were taken as individuals who could not take any stand on political matters. The underlying theme is that the general attitudes men have towards women affect people’s willingness to hurt them physically. Emerging African literature on different causal theories shows there is power of norms and tradition in African cultures that explain the widespread domestic violence incidence. There are so many African societies which see that as a direct connection and as a result they argue that wife battering is normal in African traditions. According to Randall (2003), this is a proposition that is supported by several authors who have conducted several interviews. One such good example is the interview from the Social Welfare Office of Ibadan, Nigeria. This is a region where even police officers remind women who come to report that they have been battered by their husband that Yoruba culture allows its men to beat their women. There are however other indirect cultural explanations of some concepts such as polygamy impact, male promiscuity acceptance, uneven power distribution in traditional African marriages, power of extended families on a married couple and the bride price institution as underlying causes for wives abuse. Payment of bride price to the wife’s parents after marriage makes it even more difficult to leave their battering husbands unless the amount paid is willingly returned by the families of origin. According to Randall (2003), domestic violence studies conducted in Zimbabwe involving interviews on twenty-five male abusers and seventy-five female victims of domestic violence in Shona-speaking community showed that cultural factors are a major cause for domestic violence. In this study, it was reported that most domestic quarrels emerged out of jealousy and money. A good example is in the Shona community where quarrels between a husband and his wife emerge because the wife has asked for money. This is taken as a challenge on the traditional absolute male control of the household on family finances. There is also a similar dynamic in domestic violence which is initiated by jealousy. Even if male promiscuity in Africa is traditionally accepted, the sexuality of the females is zealously controlled by the family or the husband. Not only in African traditional societies but also in other earlier civilized ones in Americas, Asia and Europe where a wife may be seen as challenging the husband’s prerogatives and authority the moment she demands explanations on his extramarital involvements. In most cases violence erupts if the wife asks her husband where he has been and with whom or in other cases showing threat for addition of other wives. Addition of multiple wives is today seen as a big threat to economic survival for the first wife, the children and a source for HIV/AIDs scourge and thus wives may be tempted to question their husbands. But this questioning is seen as a challenge to the traditional man’s rights and a threat to the culturally prescribed position and this automatically provokes violence. Idea #3: absolute poverty is considered one of the fundamental basis of domestic violence against women in most households (Inter-American Development Bank, Biehl and Morrison, 1999). Relative violence may also play a role though complementary in generating domestic violence since such families have difficulties in attaining “standards of consumption” apart from food and this may be a potential source of violence. Studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between domestic violence and poverty. One of the common opinions is based on the fact that poverty comes with frustrations which normally may tend to unleash violent behavior. There are numerous aggravating problems for this and they include high consumption of alcohol, low schooling levels, poor living conditions, few entertainment opportunities, poor jobs and failure to improve conditions of living, large family burden and lack of adequate basic services in life (Rachel, 2000). These are potential circumstances that might predispose marginalized and poor family members to result to domestic violence. The major domestic violence in such cases occurs between the husband (provider) and his wife who takes over the management of the household. On the man’s side, source of conflict is the deficit to materially provide for the household while on the side of the woman; the source may be her inability to manage the little they have which is always “never enough.” In such a standpoint, domestic violence has come as a result of poverty in the household. According to Schechter (2000), there were so many studies on domestic violence among low-income that were conducted in the 1990s when most families lost guarantee on income supports. The results were pervasive. After low-income people in Chicago were examined, the studies found that 25% of low-income non-recipients and 33% of welfare recipients experienced “severe aggression” in their adulthood via their partners. There were also results that 8% of non-recipients and 19% of recipients experienced serious aggression within the previous twelve months. The same studies found that in Worcester, Massachusetts low-income and homeless mothers reported 32% positive cases of physical violence within the previous two years. Moreover, a study by the National Family Violence Survey showed that domestic violence on women who have annual income less than $10,000 were 3.5 times likely if compared to those who had more than $40,000 annual salary. Counterargument There must be a misconception that domestic violence is caused by substance abuse, cultural factors or even poverty. The fact is that equal numbers of drunken and sober men are equally violent. Where studies have been conducted on this they have not been able to explain in detail why almost 80% of heavy and binge drinkers never abuse their partners be it the wife or the husband. Alcohol or any other stimulant substances are used by men so that they can use them as the excuses or the permissions for them to act violently. Many stop taking alcohol and they still continue being violent. Also not every child who grows up in a violent home will grow up to become a violent adult in his/her home. Domestic violence is a choice. Sometimes people react violently because they have been provoked by others and this may act just as the normal self-defense. Refutation By the time one gets provoked, its because he/she has in one way or the other tried to exert control over his/her partner. It is a fact that irrespective of whether the domestic violence resulted after one was provoked either due to poverty frustrations and pressures, cultural beliefs or substance abuse it has adverse effects on our victims. Children brought up in such backgrounds may develop low self-esteem and long term effects that may haunt them later in their lives. It is possible to find such children having dismal academic performances. Others have been sexually, emotionally and physically assaulted and all of us need respect, love and to be valued. Conclusion Domestic violence is live in our modern society. Women appear to be the most affected since gender inequality ahs always been there. Until the 70s women who were battered had no places to report or to seek support ands especially those who were sexually assaulted. There were few shelters for victims of domestic violence like hospitals, civil and criminal courts, law enforcement and other social service agencies. But today, there seems to be numerous community-based violence programs that provide array of quality services. These include safety planning, transportation, crisis counseling and intervention, legal advocacy, children’s services and housing and relocation services among others. In order to minimize domestic violence cases there are many programs engaging in continuous advocacy efforts and this may include collaboration with community service workers, development of public awareness campaigns and being active for political lobbying efforts that improve safety for children and victims. With such efforts, we may help to minimize adverse effects on victims. Causes and triggers of domestic violence

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CREATE A PERSONAL STUDY GUIDE TO HELP TO PASS THE SCHOOL LEADER’S LICENSURE EXAM (SLLA )Attached you can find the official study guide, and a sample of the test. You can also use them as references. * instruction: You have to create a study guid that covering all the 6 ISLLC standers.There is no page limits but you should cover those six standards. The Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC)ISLLC’s Standards for School Leaders:1. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community.2. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and instructional program conducive to student learning and professional growth.3. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment.4. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by collaborating with families and community members, and mobilizing community resources.5. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner.6. A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.
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Solar Radio Emissions Literature Review

Abstract Astronomical objects that have a changing magnetic field can produce radio waves, which are the longest waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. By studying the radio waves emitted by the Sun, astronomers can acquire information about its composition, structure and motion. This aim of the present project is to use solar radio emissions produced during the re-activation of prominences in order to investigate possible energy sources for the activation. The purpose of this literature review is to analyse relevant papers on the subject matter that will be covered in this project, and give a summary of the literature in the field, whilst covering the history and importance of the topic, along with what types of instruments can be used to measure radio waves, and how radio waves are useful in studying prominences and their reactivation. Introduction Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation, which is a form of energy produced whenever charged particles are accelerated. They have frequencies from 3kHz to 300GHz, with corresponding wavelengths ranging from just 1mm to 100km. The understanding of solar radio emissions began in 1942, when an English physicist and radio astronomer, James Hey, was tasked to work on radar anti-jamming methods for the military. He had several reports of severe noise jamming of radars signals in the 4-8 meter wavelength range, and after examination, he realised that the direction of maximum interference was coming from the Sun, and concluded that the Sun radiates radio waves (M. Pick, 2008). The observation of solar radio emissions has proved to be a useful tool in our efforts to understand solar physics., In particular solar radio emissions can be used to study local plasma density and magnetic reconnection, which relates to the release, over periods of a few minutes, of magnetic energy stored in the corona and which accompany solar eruption events like prominences which this project will be focusing on. In addition, radio wave emissions from solar flares offer several unique diagnostic tools which can be used to investigate energy release (A. O. Benz; 2005), plasma heating, particle acceleration, and particle transport in magnetized plasmas. A Solar flare is an observed sudden flash of brightness over the Sun’s surface or the solar limb, powered by magnetic reconnection. Scientists study the Sun through radio emissions and other electromagnetic emissions and this has an additional advantage in that it provides a better understanding other stars, and the important processes they have to offer, such as nuclear fusion, which is a potential alternative energy source scientists have been trying to recreate on Earth for decades. The study of prominences and other eruptive events is important for providing an insight into the mechanics of the interior of the Sun, and also to assist us in the prediction of ‘space weather,’ which can effect satellites, and the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field. A solar prominence is a large, bright, gaseous feature that is anchored to the surface of the Sun in the photosphere, and extends outwards into the Sun’s corona in a loop shape. Solar prominences are made from plasma that is roughly 100 times cooler and denser than the plasma in the corona and so, when viewed with the sun as a backdrop, they appear dark, and are referred to as ‘filaments.’ They can last for several months, and are held in place above the Sun’s surface by strong magnetic fields. The exact composition of prominences is currently unknown, but it has been proposed that they are made up of roughly 10% helium and 90% hydrogen. Solar prominences, like other erupting projectiles, are useful to observe as they are good indicators of the magnetic field pattern of the sun, since they lie above the magnetic neutral lines. There are two basic types of prominences: quiescent and active-region prominences. Quiescent prominences are typically larger than active-region prominences, and also extend further into the corona, often reaching up to and over 30 000 kilometres above the Sun’s corona (T. E. Berger, 2012). In addition, quiescent prominences have a magnetic field of roughly 0.5-1mT, allowing them to extend further from the surface of the Sun than active-region prominences, which are much smaller, have much larger magnetic fields of around 2 – 20mT, and mostly do not travel over 30 000km. This project will largely be focusing on Quiescent prominences, as, extending further away from the Sun, they are easier to study using radio waves. Prominences are always projected from filament channels, which are along polarity inversion lines; where the magnetic field is highly non-potential (J. Chaf, 2005). These channels are the source of all major solar eruptions, such as coronal mass ejections and flares. The temperature of a prominence that hasn’t erupted, is typically , and these often appear as a long horizontal sheet of plasma. Several different models have been proposed in order to explain how cool, dense objects like prominences can be supported and thermally isolated from the surrounding hot coronal plasma. It is generally accepted that these models can generally be placed into one of two main categories: dip models, and flux rope models (for example: D. H. Mackay, 2010, D. J. Schmit, 2013, P. F. Chen; 2008). The main similarity between dip models and flux rope models is the suggested existence of concave-upward directed magnetic fields to support the prominence plasma against the downward gravitational force. Following this mechanism, it can be assumed that the plasma in a prominence is frozen to the magnetic field lines. Prominence plasma, however, is actually only partially ionised, and so it is not entirely clear how the non-ionized portion of plasma is supported, and how rapidly the neutral material might drain across the magnetic field lines. Scientists are still researching how and why prominences are formed, and the cause for their reactivation. The models proposing how prominences are supported are vital in understanding their formation and reactivation. Radio Emissions with Prominences Measurable coherent radio emissions occur during flares, and are intermittent and in bursts, driven by the magnetic reconnection process, giving them the term ‘radio burst.’ Previous experiments (J. P. Raulin; 2005, J. P. wild; 1956, R. F. Wilson; 1989, G. Swarup; 1959) in measuring radio emissions produced from prominences have found that Type I bursts are predominantly emitted, Type I being characterised by their long lifespan lasting from hours to days, having a frequency of 80-200mHz with corresponding wavelengths of roughly 2m, and being produced by electrons with a charge of several keV within coronal loops. Moving Type IV radio bursts are also associated with prominence eruptions, these last from half an hour to 2 hours, with a frequency of 20-400MHz, and a corresponding wavelength range of 1 to several meters. As mentioned in the introduction, scientists can use radio waves to gain an insight into how plasmas behave during the prominence eruption process. This can be done through magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which is the study of the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. Scientists have previously used MHD equations in investigations to understand the formation and reactivation of prominences (J. A. Linker; 2001, D.J. Schmit;2013, G. P. Zhou;2006, A. K. Srivastava; 2013). An investigation using SDO/AIA (T. E. Berger; 2012) on the formation of prominences produced a series of images that showed the reactivation of a prominence. The sequence showed that after a prominence has completed its eruptive cycle, it slowly disappears due to drainage and the lateral transport of plasma, and a bright emission cloud forms in the upper regions of the coronal cavity. The cloud descends towards the lower region of the cavity while successively becoming brighter, and a new prominence then forms, rapidly growing in both the vertical and horizontal dimensions. The new prominence is the reactivated old prominence. The coronal cavity core in the image then grows darker as the reactivated prominence continues to grow. The reactivated prominence reaches its maximum size after a number of hours, and the emission cloud in the cavity reduces correspondingly. Using the time sequence of images from this T. E. Bergers paper, an idea of what to search for in data to find reactivated prominences can be formed. Work has been performed (by C. Chifor; 2006; D. H. Mackay; 2010, D. J. Schmit, 2013) which also investigates how prominences are formed, concluding that reconnection events trigger different phases in prominence eruption. The flux rope model discussed earlier has been found to be a good model in several investigations (S. E. Gibson; 2006, P. F. Chen; 2008, G. P. Zhou, 2006). Helical field lines provide a support for the mass of the prominence, and are capable of storing the magnetic energy needed to propel the prominence. A coronal flux rope can be interpreted as a magnetic structure which consists of field lines that intricately twist around each other a number of times between the two ends that are anchored to the photosphere. Studies mentioned earlier involving MHD have been found to support the flux rope model, making the model a good investigation point for the project. Further research has been carried out into the cause of reactivated prominences (R. F. Wilson; 1989), producing evidence that suggests that as the initial prominence dissipates, a ‘feed-back’ mechanism occurs, during which interactions of the large scale loops trigger burst activity in lower lying loops. Instruments There are two main types of instruments that can be used to observe objects in the radio wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the type selected for use depending on the strength of the signal and the amount of detail needed. The first type of instrument comprises radio telescopes, which are a form of directional radio antenna. As the range of frequencies in the radio wave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is very large, there are a variety of different antennae that are used in radio telescopes, differing in their size, design and configuration. When measuring wavelengths of 30-3 meters, the radio telescopes use either directional antenna arrays, or large stationary reflectors with moveable focal points. At shorter wavelengths dish style radio telescopes are more largely used. The second type of instrument comprises radio interferometers, which are made up of arrays of telescopes or mirror segments. The main benefit of using a radio interferometer is that the angular resolution is similar to that of a radio telescope with a large aperture, however, radio interferometers do not collect as many photons as radio telescopes, and they cannot detect objects that are too weak. However, an array of telescopes will provide very good resolution as a result of aperture synthesis. Aperture synthesis is an imaging process that mixes signals from the array of telescopes to produce images with an angular resolution equivalent to that of a single instrument with a diameter equal to the overall size of the array of telescopes. This makes it easy to obtain high resolution images of the Sun. SDO/AIA EUV Several different types of data that can be used to review the radio emissions of the Sun in order to extract information on prominences have been researched. The first is SDO/AIA EUV data; SDO being the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which is a NASA mission that has been observing the Sun since 2010. The goal of the SDO is to understand the influence of the sun on the Earth and close space by studying the solar atmosphere over time and space in many wavelengths at the same time. Currently, investigations are focused on how the Suns magnetic field is generated and structured, and how the stored magnetic energy is converted and released into the heliosphere and geospace in the form of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in solar radiance, which is the measure of the power per unit area on the Earth’s surface. The SDO uses the Atmosphere Imaging Assembley (AIA), an instrument which provides continuous full-observations of the solar chromosphere and corona in seven extreme ultraviolet channels. The AIA is comprised of four telescopes providing individual light feeds to the instrument. The Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment (EUV) is the instrument that measures the Sun’s extreme ultraviolet irradiance, and incorporates physics based models in order to further understand the relationship between EUV variations and magnetic variation changes in the Sun (N. Labrosse, 2011). Fig 1. This image is an example of SDO/AIA data, taken from (T. E. Berger; 2012) from a time sequence which investigates the radio emissions from the Sun leading up to the reactivation of a prominence event. Using the data produced by the two, an image can be created of the Sun that combines physical processes such as prominences, with information on the magnetic field at the time. An example is shown in ‘Fig 1’ above, which shows a reactivated prominence eruption and its corresponding radio emission in the form of a cross-sectional image of the surface of the Sun. Data collected from the AIA has been made public through online databases, providing a ready set of images and films that can be analysed in order to observe prominences and their reactivation for this project. NoRH The second type of data that will be focused on in order to infer radio emissions from the Sun is Nobeyama Radioheliograph data. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph is an array of 84 antennas dedicated for solar observation at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, located in the Japanese Alps, and was constructed with the purpose of observing the Sun, using non-thermal emissions in particular. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph is a radio interferometer, and the original data comprises sets of correlation values of all the combination of antennas. The antennas correspond to the spatial Fourier components of the brightness distribution of the solar disk. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph is particularly useful in studying prominences (M. Shimojo, 2005), as due to its large daily observation window, combined with the low time resolution of 1 second, and a spatial resolution of roughly 13”, it can produce highly dynamic images. Even though the NoRH is ground based, the consequences of the surrounding weather conditions are minimal compared to that of other ground based observations, and observations can take place even in turbulent unclear weather. NoRH has also developed an automatic detection method, the most important factor in using the instrument to detect prominences, as data will be recorded automatically when there is an eruptive projectile. However, due to the limited time resolution and the field of view, NoRH cannot detect vary fast or very slow eruptive events, simultaneous events, and events where the structure has a weak brightness. Fig 2 This is an image taken by the NoRH (M. Shimojo) which is an example of a prominence eruption, recorded by the automatic limb detection method. The panels are negative images, so the dark region indicates the high temperature. NoRH uses the radio interferometer to create images of the Sun such as in ‘Fig 2,’ which is an example of use of the automatic limb detection method to record images of prominence eruption. Data recorded from the NoRH automatic limb detector has also been made public through online databases, giving a further set of images that can be analysed in order to extract information on prominences and their reactivation. Conclusion The topics covered in the papers that were researched lead to an adequate proposal of how to investigate the reactivation of prominences. Using NoRH and AIA data from SDO, the radio bursts emitted during the collapse and reformation of a prominence, an idea of what causes the reformation can be found. The investigation will centre on the different models, primarily the magnetic flux rope model, and the magnetohydrodynamics behind them that have been proposed for the formation of prominences, and how these models could support the ‘feed-back’ theory. References J. P. Wild, H. Zirin. On the Association of Solar Radio Emission and Solar Prominences (1956) 320, 322, 323 G. Swarup, P. H. Stone, A. Maxwell. The Association of Solar Radio Bursts With Flares and Prominences. Radio Astronomy Station of Harvard College Observatory (1959) 725,726 R. F. Wilson, K. R. Lang. Impulsive Microwave Burst amd Solar Noise Storm Emission Resolved with the VLA. Department of Physics and Astronomy (1989) 856, 864, 866 J. A. Linker, R. Lionello, Z. Mikic. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of Prominence Formation with a Helmet Streamer. Science Applications International, California (2001) A. O. Benz, H. Perret, P. Saint-Hilaire, P. Zlobec. Extended Decimeter Radio Emission After Large Solar Flares. Institute of Astronomy, Switzerland (2005) 954, 955 J. Chaf, Y. Moon, Y. Park. The Magnetic Structure of Filament Barbs. (2005) 574-578 J. P. Raulin, A. A. Pacini. Solar Radio Emissions. Universidade Presbiteria Mackenzie (2005) 741-745 M. Shimoji, T. Yokoyama, A.Asai, H. Nakajima, K. Shibasaki. One Solar-Cycle Observations of Prominence Activities Using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph 1992-2004. University of Tokyo, School of Science (2005) 85, 86 S. E. Gibson, Y. Fan. Coronal Prominence Structure and Dynamics: A Magnetic Flux Rope Interpretation (2006) 1-5 G. P. Zhou, J. X. Wang, J. Zhang. Two Successive Coronal Mass Ejections Drivin by the Kink and Drainage Instabilities of an Eruptive Prominence (2006) 1244 C. Chifor, H. E. Mason, D. Tripathi, H. Isobe, A. Asai. The Early Phases of a Solar Prominence Eruption and Associated Flare: a Multi-Wavelength Analysis. Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences (2006) 966-968 P. F. Chen, D. E. Innes, S. K. Solanki, SOHO/SUMER Observations of Prominence Oscillations Before Eruption. Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University (2008) 4,5 M. Pick, N. Vilmer. Sixty-five years of Solar Radioastronomy: Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections and Sun-Earth Connection. Astron Astrophys Rev (2008) 6,7 D.H. Mackay, J.T. Karpen, J.L. Ballester, B. Schmieder, G. Aulanier. Physics of Solar Prominences: II – Magnetic Structure and Dynamics. Springer Science and Business Media (2010) 335-338 N. Labrosse, K. McGlinchey. Plasma Diagnostics in Eruptive Prominences from SDO/AIA Observations at 304 A. University of Glasgow (2011) 2-4 T. E. Berger, W. Liu, B. C. Low, SDO/AIA Detection of Solar Prominence Formation Within a Coronal Cavity. National Solar Observatory (2012) 1-4 D. J. Schmit, S. Gibson, M. Luna, J. Karpen, D. Innes. Prominence Mass Supply and the Cavity. Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (2013) 1-5 A. K. Srivastava, B. N. Dwivedi, M. Kumar. Observations of Intensity Oscillaations in a Prominence-Like Cool Loop System as Observed by SDO/AIA: Evidence of Multiple Harmonics of Fast Magnetoacousic Waves (2013) 31

Why People should Vote Essay

People vote depending on their preferences. Since voting is optional, there are individuals who usually do not vote. They evade voting due to ignorance of the importance of the democratic process. Electors should acquaint themselves with constructive rationales for voting caring leaders. Firstly, one reason for voting is that every vote is vital. People vote to avoid letting others decide for them who will lead them. They understand that a single vote can determine the winner of an election. There are instances that winners have been settled on by a single vote. In some cases, leaders have been decided by a flip of a coin (Willett). People, therefore, vote to exercise their civil rights and influence the outcome of elections. Subsequently, people vote to protect their health. A number of electors understand that an elected leader has the power to determine the value of health care insurance they would get (Willett). They want quality healthy care services but do not want to be over taxed. They vote leaders who will provide affordable heath care services. Women also can abort after a few judges rule that it is legally acceptable. Electors who are not pleased with such life threatening decision made by a few individuals would prefer to vote in pro-life leaders(Willett). Another reason for voting is to protect historical interests. This means people vote to honor those who fought of their voting rights and human freedoms in the community. In the past, adults younger than twenty-one years, members of minority communities, and women did not have the right to vote. Patriotic citizens sacrificed to fight laws that were holding them captive. People vote in honor of these heroes. The idea behind this reason is if one sacrifices his/her life to fight for others, then people feel the rights are highly essential, and they do not ignore to exercise the rights. They vote to decide who among the historical heroes represented their interests (Willett). Moreover, people vote to decide the destiny of their children and dependants. They decide the destiny of the future generations. This is because leaders make choices that influence both current and future lifestyles (Hardcastle). The laws enacted in parliament regarding education, investment, and the right to life determines the lifestyle other generations will lead. Therefore, many people vote to secure a bright future for their children, grandchildren, and the preceding generations. In addition, they vote to lead by example. A parent, older sibling, or friend demonstrates responsibility by voting. When members of the younger generations learn that their older siblings or relatives are voting, they may become lifelong voters(Willett). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, people also vote to lose the right to complain. In spite of the outcome of an election, voting helps electors to gain psychological sense of satisfaction (Hardcastle). After voting, they feel that they have played their roles. They also feel to be part of the future. This motive makes people discover their political strengths and weakness. They also learn about democracy and its benefits. Without voting, it is not possible to know candidates’ political strengths and weaknesses. People vote to enjoy their patriotic rights and feel recognized. People also vote to save money. The government collects taxes to manage public projects. Every person pays a fraction of his/her salary or income from investments to the government. Therefore, people vote to elect politicians who they can trust with their money. They vote to get roads, police officers, and doctors, but not to over pay taxes. The manner of management of bond issues and proposition also determine how much property taxes people have to pay. As another key point, people vote to save the world. There are numerous emerging global problems. Voters understand that electing visionary candidates can save the entire globe. Global warming is one of the global challenges that need redress (Willett). In addition to voting to have leaders that take care of economic factors and energy requirements, people vote to protect the environment. Lobby groups do a marvelous work in the campaign for the protection of the environment. Nonetheless, they also vote. Lobby groups vote because they are determined to have governments that address environmental issues effectively. The other reason for voting is the need to defend personal social a gender (Willett). Politicians enact Acts of parliament to restrict and protect social freedoms. Some of the freedoms legislators may put restriction on include prayer in schools, homosexuality, and marriage. Those who have concerns regarding any of the social laws do not vote candidates who cannot defend their rights. They vote candidates who can positively influence the social direction of life in the country. Conclusively, there are several reasons for voting, but these are the key ones. Some people base their reasons on misconceptions. However, due to modernization, many people have access to information and easily make up their minds positively. People should investigate their true preferences to discover their rationales for voting. This will help them elect leaders with the people’s interests at heart. We will write a custom Essay on Why People should Vote specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Hardcastle, Mike . “Top 5 Reasons Youth Should Vote.” Teen Advice – Advice and Community For Teens. N.p., n.d. Web. Willett, Brian. “Reasons to Vote in Elections | eHow.com.” Demand Media, Inc., n.d. Web.

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