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Colorado Technical University Multinational Corporations Paper

Colorado Technical University Multinational Corporations Paper.

Deliverable Length: 3,000-5,000 wordsSince the 1950s, companies have seen the advantage of operating in various countries as multinational corporations (MNCs), and today, almost all large companies are considered to be an MNC. Once again, the MNC is under scrutiny by authorities for trying to avoid income taxes and for keeping money offshore.This information technology company is an MNC that claims to do business in over 100 countries, and management has concerns that the company might run afoul of the treasury regulations in computing income between subsidiaries that require your input. For this assignment, you will prepare a report to management:Utilizing the five steps for conducting tax research, complete the following:Give an overview of the history of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) regulations concerning the allocation of income and deductions. Be sure to pay particular attention to the MNC. Prepare a report on at least 2 companies that have been accused of illegal price transfer or allocation of income. Provide guidance to management on how to avoid issues with the IRS in conducting business with overseas subsidiaries
Colorado Technical University Multinational Corporations Paper

Literature Essay Four.

Essay Four Purpose and InstructionsThis essay will give you the chance to explore in-depth a writer or topic of interest to you. Your essay should be a minimum of 5 double-spaced pages and must present an argument—some interesting, relevant, debatable, and original claim about the work of the writer or topic you choose. Take care that you don’t produce a report or mere regurgitation of facts found in research. You want to analyze and interpret your material, then present the results of your analysis as a developed and supported argument.No matter what your focus may be, you’ll need to do a little research. What have other writers said about the same subject and issues? Do you agree or disagree with those sources? Through what critical lenses has your topic been explored? Are there any issues or approaches which you believe have been neglected? What are some recent debates concerning your topic? How does early criticism on the topic differ from very recent criticism?Author ApproachYour critical essay may be about work by any writer or topic listed below. It’s a good idea to pick your writer and focus early. Also, be aware that a good many classic works are online these days, so you can save yourself time and money if you don’t mind reading on a screen!Any novel, play, essays or poems by authors in our anthology (here are a few popular ones past students have chosen):Anne BradstreetJonathan EdwardsWashington IrvingJames Fenimore CooperRalph Waldo EmersonNathaniel HawthorneEdgar Allen PoeHarriet Beecher StoweHenry David Thoreau Walt WhitmanEmily DickinsonFrederick DouglassNote: Yes, you may certainly propose your own author, though you’ll need to discuss your choice with me and present an argument as to why the writer is worth examining.Topic Approach (Keep in mind these areas are not covered in the class)Rather than focusing on a particular writer, you may wish to tackle a particular topic in British literary studies. SEE BELOW LIST OF IDEAS.Critical reception of a particular writer over time.The influence of a particular writer on other writers, old and new. Ways in which a writer has influenced contemporary culture.Two poems or prose works: comparison and contrast.American understandings of either personal identity, gender, race, or nation—and representations of that understanding in literature.AudienceImagine that your essay will appear in a casebook on a particular writer, genre, and/or topic inAmerican literature. Your reader is any undergraduate college student and instructor interested in learning more about your chosen subject. This reader wants new ways of interpreting the subject, but is critical of any argument. That is, this reader is a tough sell and will question your claims, expecting ample supporting evidence of several kinds.Suggested Format:Introduction: One paragraph. Peak your reader’s interest and focus your argument. You do not need to include a plot summary; assume your reader is familiar with the text. Introduce the aspect of the historical, literary, or cultural context that your analysis will illuminate. Thesis: Place your thesis as the last sentence in the first paragraph. The thesis should be purely analytical rather than descriptive. For example, this is a strong thesis: “Jane Doe’s short story ‘Family’ responds to what many conservatives in the 1990’s described as the ‘Crisis of the Family’.”Interest! Make sure your reader understands what makes this argument worthwhile. What will the reader gain from reading your argument?Body: Multiple paragraphs. The paper’s support. Start each paragraph with a clear topic sentence that connects the evidence with a portion of the thesis. Conclusion: Can be brief- one paragraph. Wrap up your argument. Evaluation Criteria•Your essay must be a minimum of 5 typed and double-spaced pages with a 6th page as the Works Cited page.•At least 4 outside sources (other then the primary source or reading selection) are to be incorporated at least once into the essay and formatted on a Works Cited page. You may choose the source types as long as they are credible. •If a website is used as a source, it must be from a .edu, .gov or .org website. WIKIPEDIA may not be used. •It should include a helpful and engaging title.•It must have a clear, debatable central point (thesis), supported and developed with plenty of detail, analysis, and research, as needed.•Your essay should show awareness of its audience’s expectations and needs.•Your essay should be focused, unified, and well-organized, with appropriate paragraphing and transitions. It must be written in 3rd person. •Your essay should show virtually no spelling or grammatical errors, vagueness, or awkward sentence constructions.•All sources should be documented and the manuscript formatted according to MLA guidelines.ATTATCHED : Annotated bibliography, Not mandatory, but I would like to incorporate one or two of these sources into the essay.Chosen Topic : Edgar Allen Poe
Literature Essay Four

1) What are the sources of Google’s competitive advantage? (In your answer identify and explain Google’s distinctive competencies) Competitive advantage can be achieved either through lower costs strategy or differentiation strategy targeting a particular segment of the market. a) Cost Leadership Strategy-Any organization achieves competitive advantages by able to produce goods or services at a low cost. It lowers the operating costs in order to achieve this strategy. Cost advantage is the main objective of this strategy. Costs are tried to be marginalised in every step of the production of goods or services. But low cost of production of goods or services does not mean that pricing would be low as there can be a high promotional cost for the goods or services. Products can be priced competitively so as to achieve bigger margin than the competitors. b) Differentiation Strategy-Organization adopting this strategy attains competitive advantage through satisfying customer needs. This results in competitive pricing of the differentiated product or services and higher margins for the organization. The organization adapting to the differentiated strategy will incur more cost than before for creating the competitive advantage of the product or service. This cost can be compensated by increase in sales of that particular product or services. c) Focus Differentiation/ Cost Leadership Strategy- Focus strategy is focusing differential or cost leadership strategy on a particular segment of the market. The source of Google’s competitive advantage comes from the infrastructure of database Google has created over the years, relevance of search results, cost of executing the search speed of the search, product offering from AD words to social networking site to mobile application platform. Distinctive competency of an organization can be defined as how the company differentiate its product and services from the competitors, how to segment the market, price their products and what is the range of the products available with the company. Google scores over its competitors over relevance of search results, cost of executing the search and the speed of the search. This is the differentiation advantage Google is having over their competitors. Google’s competitive advantage comes from the infrastructure they have built over the years. Continuous innovations, ease of use, relevancy in results are some Google’s distinctive competencies. Google’s ability to connect with the internet users, advertisers, website owners differentiates it from the competitors. Google has technological advantage over its competitors as they use high performance system which can take workload more than the general systems. Because of this capability they have a cost advantage over their competitors. 2) What value does Google create for customers and advertisers? Google’s customers are advertisers ranging from a SME to large scale enterprises to the end users like the common man. The sites are ranked according to the key words and the key words have got some price tags. The advertisers put their advertisements of products and services in Google and they pay to the company when someone clicks the advertisements. Google’s Ad word is the latest addition to this foray. Google also pay the other companies to display Google’s advertisements. Google is continuously reinventing itself to be miles ahead of other companies. So with the addition of millions of internet users every year worldwide internet has became the latest buzzword. Whichever organization wants to be ahead of the competition they have to be present in the cyber space and who else than the search engine giant “Google” to show the way. The relevance of search results cost of executing the search and the speed of the search and continuous innovations makes Google the ultimate destination for advertisers as well as the end users. Let us take an example of Google Ad words. The benefits advertisers can get are The customer can easily set up the Google Ad word within 30 minutes. Advertisements will be displayed at the right hand side of the website. Customer does not need a website. They can be an affiliate marketer to promote their products. Customer can market any type of product using Ad words. Customer can sell their own products like eBooks, music etc. Customer can test market their product before the original launch. They can specify the budget they want to spend on each day. Advertisements can be country specific, city or town specific. Customer can split test their Advertisements to see which is working and then can put their best Advertisements. Google cannot afford to lose the customer’s attention and trust. Some years ago average search time was 3 seconds and they have bought it down to .2 seconds and now they are working towards reducing the time further. Also the relevancy of search result has to be maintained to retain the customers if it means losing in revenue for the company. So we can have an idea about the value Google wants to create for the advertisers and the customers. These are the intangible values Google is creating towards their customers. 3) Apply the four building blocks of competitive advantage to Google. Analyse each factor by providing detailed examples from the case. Ans- For any organization efficiency, quality, innovation and customer responsiveness are the four building blocks of competitive advantages for their products and services. a) Efficiency- In order to achieve efficiency a company needs to have economics of scale, learning, experience, good marketing, Research and development, optimum use of Human resources and infrastructure. (Jones, 2007) From a mere 10000 search in a day to 75% of search made using it has came a long way. The revolution in hardware technology coupled with innovation it has considerably reduced its unit cost. Google’s optimal use of Human resources can be seen as only 650 employees are there in Google worldwide. They claim that their employees are 50 to 100 percent more productive than their competitors. b) Quality-Quality of goods or services can differentiate one organization from the other. Maintaining quality will lower the defects and operating cost increasing the profitability of any organization. (Jones, 2007) Google has maintained the relevancy of search result to retain the customers if it means losing revenue for the company. c) Innovation-Google believes in continuously reinventing itself by innovative products. At the start Google found a way to generate revenue from the corporate by keywords bidding and advertisements. Some years ago average search time was 3 seconds and they have bought it down to .2 seconds and now they are working towards reducing the time further. So Google is continuously trying to innovate and upgrade its technology as well as strategy to be ahead of the competition. d) Customer Responsiveness-Customer responsiveness can be defined as giving products or services to customer at their price what, when, where they want. Google has worked in the same way. It has given its advertisers and end users the ease of search, speed, reliability and deliverability at a cheaper price. As their business is customer centric they do not hesitate to test market a product or services before the actual launch and seeks feedback from the user to improve it. The R
The contraction of the equity market in 2008 triggered by the fall of the banking giants Lehman Brothers led to a global financial crisis. The reason for the stock market failure in 2008 was the failure of the banking mechanism all over the world. The rise in the subprime mortgage rates led to the crash of the stock prices in the US. In other words, banks were lending money to people who were already enlisted as defaulters and therefore, creating bad debt. Thus the banks exposed to such loans eventually collapsed as they were lending more money than the banks had (Wiedemer par. 8). When the banks were flooded with bad debt and were unable to pull themselves through such bad dealings, the governments tried to bail out these financial institutions in order to ensure their continuance. Monetary policies were changed in order to restrict lending capacity of banks interest rates were reduced in order to encourage increased consumer spending in the market. However, consumer demand was dampened due to low trust level and fear of a financial crash in future. This dropped the prices of houses and the economy slipped into a recession. In order to safeguard the failing business institutions, the US authorities enlisted the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The program aimed at limiting executive compensation, tax benefits to corporates, and increase liquidity in the secondary mortgage market. The program has aimed at stabilizing banks and has been successful in saving taxpayers’ money. Further, it has also helped to revive the American auto industry. The revolving door is a workforce movement phenomenon in the US wherein the financial investigators were hired to work for the federal bank when the private banks were not working properly because of the recession. However, now that the economy ahs started to function properly and the private banks are growing, these employees are moving back to the private institutions. Thus, with expansion of the banks their compliance departments expanded so the employees returned to their private employers (Boesler and Kearns par. 3). Such movement indicates that the private sector will become a stronger employer than the public sector. This migration of finance professionals from public to private sector posses a regulatory problem. For instance the problem of Rohit Bansal who was hired by Goldman Sachs from New York Fed had illegally gained information from a friend working at New York Fed (Boesler and Kearns par. 8). This raises questions regarding the security hazards that this revolving door policy holds for the federal authorities. Thus, the authorities have started to enforce harsh bans and regulations that would prevent such exodus and create regulatory issues. Many believe that the hiring of employees from the private financial institutions during recession is a good thing as this ensures continuation of employment. However, from the point of view of information security this can cause immense hazard to the functioning of the central banks. The revival of the financial market from the stock market crash of 2008 signaled to the investors an era of economic recovery. Long-term investors will probably be more optimistic and would review their portfolio to limit their risk-aversion and embrace a more dynamic portfolio. Aggressive portfolio management and stock trading in short term is definitely a risky measure but ensures high earnings. A trader who can buy socks when the market is low and sell when the prices are high will definitely profit a lot more than the long-term risk-averse investor. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, such trading can be highly risky as stock market predictions are not always successful and especially when the market shows tendency towards acute volatility, it is best not to undertake risky trading. Dynamic portfolio management can help in dissipating the risk associated with the short-term trading of stocks in a volatile market. This will safeguard the investor from loosing all his money at one trading. Dynamic portfolio is an effective and lucrative trading technique. Therefore, in a volatile market, the aim is to reduce portfolio risk and not maximize trading profits (Jourovski par. 4). Another method to dissipate risk would be invested in inflation friendly sectors (Dash par. 6). Further seeking dividends will help investors to minimize capital losses (Dash par. 8). Thus, in order to embrace an active or aggressive portfolio management, an investor must seek dividends, which becomes a natural hedge against the possibility of inflation and therefore minimizes capital loss. Hence, while undertaking an active portfolio strategy, investors should aim at buying stocks of companies that have historically paid dividends. Bonds should be avoided as an investment in a volatile market as they tend to be less stable in such situations. Commodity trading in a volatile market can be a good option as this helps in dissipating the risk of associating with the ups and downs of the financial market. I would advice an investor to trade in a volatile market but with caution and a dynamic portfolio that has the right mix of risk and stability. Works Cited Boesler, Matthew and Jeff Kearns. ‘Revolving Door’ Between Fed and Banks Spins Faster. 2015. Web. Dash, Shailesh. Map varilables values for portrait image Dynamic portfolio management in volatile markets. 2015. Web. Jourovski, Alexei. The benefits of active risk management in volatile markets. 2013. Web. Wiedemer, Robert. Five Reasons for the Stock Market Crash and Zero Interest Rate Read more: Five Reasons for the Stock Market Crash and Zero Interest Rate Important: Can you afford to Retire? . 2011. Web. We will write a custom Essay on 2008 Macroeconomic Collapse and Prevention Efforts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

The International Committee Of The Red Cross

The International Committee Of The Red Cross. International Committee of the Red Cross, February Founded in 1863 Geneva, the ICRC is an independent, neutral organization whose mission is to wars and armed Victims of violence provide humanitarian protection and assistance. Cross-cultural management plays important roles in the future development for ICRC. The cross-cultural management is involved in different cultural backgrounds, objects, events management in the process of transnational organizations business, for different races, different cultural patterns, a subsidiary of the different stages of cultural development in the country, the organization need to take an inclusive culture management method in order to create a unique culture management process (Peter et al, 2008). It requires managers to change the traditional culture and management concepts, the management focus should turn to multi-cultural enterprises grasp and understanding of cultural differences, the use of cultural synergy, cultural diversity and cultural differences to overcome the difficulties caused by full multi-cultural and cultural differences, it also has the potential and advantages to international companies with vigor and vitality. It should be stressed that cross-cultural management, is not the same culture, but to maintain the local culture in the basis of eclectic, innovative to establish both the characteristics of their own, but also fully absorb the cultural achievements of the management (Edgar et al, 2010). 2.0 The current challenges facing the Red Cross International Committee of the Red Cross is facing some challenges. For example, as in the Darfur region of Sudan, the conflict clearly showed that many non-international armed conflict, the nature and complexity. Whether in Darfur or other areas, the ICRC has always been to maintain contact with the parties to the conflict to the other party to accept the existence of the International Committee of the Red Cross and its expanded operations. Currently, the International Committee of the Red Cross is present in these non-international armed conflicts, which is a special challenge to the International Committee (Sowon et al, 2008). The conflict often in the face of a large number of forces involved, so the biggest challenge the International Committee of the Red Cross is how to keep in touch with all parties to the conflict in the field or areas of conflict. However, those non-governmental armed groups are always difficult to find and contact. How to find them in the field of conflict, understand their structure and organization is usually very difficult. Another challenge is how to ensure that the most dangerous areas of the personal safety of the staff of ICRC (Sowon et al, 2008). To this end, the International Committee of the Red Cross needs to protect themselves in the protection of others and make the best balance between the two aspects. 3.0 Existing culture of the ICRC International Committee of the Red Cross has given the international community a legal duty. The duty has two sources: The “Geneva Convention” in 1949, which enables the ICRC to undertake the following tasks: visits to detainees; organize rescue operations; help reunite separated families and similar during armed conflict humanitarian activities (Sowon et al, 2008). “International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement,” which encouraged the organization to take a similar job in the situation of domestic violence does not apply the “Geneva Convention” (Sowon et al, 2008). “Geneva Convention” is a binding treaty in international law, and it is in the world having applied force. “International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement” was adopted in International Conference of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The General Assembly meets held every four years, in the Geneva Conventions, the parties have participated in the meeting, so it gives the “International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement” a quasi-legal or “soft law” status. 4.0 Implications of the existing ICRC culture on new strategic initiatives In recent years, the ICRC action will become more and more important. The coverage of International Committee of the geographic scope of operations becomes more extensive. There are two main reasons for the expansion of the International Committee of the Red Cross operations: one is the global emergence of many important special events, such as the October 2005 earthquake in Kashmir (Sowon et al, 2008). As known to all, this was a politically sensitive area, and the 2006 war in Lebanon was also in the same situation (Marcus et al, 2003). On the other hand, the International Committee of the Red Cross itself has a more active part in relief operations in the global strong desire, especially in certain situations, natural disasters, it took the occurrence of natural disasters, usually mainly in the national Red Cross or Red Crescent disaster relief operations started, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies coordinate the rescue operations. However, if a natural disaster occurs in areas of armed conflict or a politically very sensitive area, the ICRC will be involved in the rescue operation. Talked about areas of armed conflict in the global humanitarian relief operations carried out, there is no doubt that the International Committee of the Red Cross relief operation was launched one of the largest organizations. 5.0 Human Resource Management for ICRC Cross-cultural management includes two aspects. On the one hand is the management from outside the enterprise, cross-cultural management issues come from different cultural backgrounds companies, such as dealing with suppliers, customers, competitors, and relevant interest groups and other management; the other hand is cross-cultural management within the enterprise, the management for different cultural backgrounds employees (Christine et al, 2008). The International Committee of the Red Cross also has the same issues in the progress of international developing. The manager should not only handle the cross culture issue from the entire complex international environment, but also handle the relationship with the organization members inside the International Committee of the Red Cross. For international organizations, such as ICRC, the need to resolve cultural integration to avoid cultural conflict may arise during the operation and management, looking beyond the organization goals of cultural conflict, in order to maintain the context of different cultural norms of behavior, and thus create a unique Culture. Cross-cultural management of human resources for ICRC can take the following strategy. 5.1 Awareness and coordination of cultural differences Cross-cultural Awareness and coordination has two basic meanings: first, to recognize the culture, ICRC must first understand their own culture and its development and change, strengths and weaknesses. It is better to know, understand foreign culture, and identify the differences between the two cultural for director J. Stroun is very important (Sowon et al, 2008). Second, searching for culture “cut point”, This requires managers to some extent out of the constraints of ICRC culture, and stand on different positions from their own culture, and seek the ICRC culture and the integration point between cultures and require managers to make a “cultural differences minimized” the processing. 5.2 Careful selection of expatriate managers Cross-cultural management not only requires managers cooperated with employees from different cultures, backgrounds and values, but also against all kinds of factors (Christine et al, 2008). These factors are external environmental factors, on the ICRC way affect the performance of management functions. Therefore, managers need to have a basic quality of cultural awareness. Cultural awareness is the management staff of multinational companies operating the country’s cultural heritage and its impact on the business knowledge and understanding. Specific to human resource management, it requests the managers to understand the cultural background, habits, ways of thinking and behavior of their staff, a better understanding of other cultures can stand on the position to deal with the increasing complex relations (Bryan et al, 2003). Because many complex rescues both the environment is not a simple imbalance in the general interest, but a large part, because of the specific environment are not familiar with due to the differences in cultural collision. And this cultural mismatch will give a great deal of obstacles to the rescue for ICRC. 5.3 Cross-cultural training Cross-cultural training should be the focus of human resources (Bryan et al, 2003). It is addressing cultural differences, to prevent the most effective means of cultural conflict. The main cross-cultural training are as following, understanding of cultural content, cultural sensitivity training, language learning, intercultural communication, conflict management and environmental simulation. The main purpose of such training are: 1 reduce cultural conflicts may be encountered by overseas managers, so that they can quickly adapt to local environment, to play a normal role; 2 maintain the smooth flow of information within ICRC and the efficiency of decision-making process; 3 enhance teamwork Spirit of solidarity with ICRC; 4 promote local employees of the ICRC rescue philosophy and practices of understanding; 5 maintain good and stable relationships within the organization (Michele et al, 2006). In addition, ICRC should provide its employees with training, also shows the company’s long-term development of the sincerity of the staff in ICRC. 6.0 Conclusion In conclusion, after hundred year’s development, the symbol of the Red Cross excellence has contributed greatly to the appeal and authority. With the development of Member States, the Red Cross, the Red Cross began the task of rescue by single battle damage to the natural disasters, development aid. Cross-cultural management of the ICRC is very important future development is directly related to the process of internationalization of the organization. The International Committee Of The Red Cross

Mobile Computing Technology Impact on Mobile Telephony

essay help online free Mobile Computing Technology Impact on Mobile Telephony. 1. Introduction Traditional mobile telephony is associated predominantly with first and second generation (1G and 2G) communication networks. These technologies enabled voice to be transmitted through radio and digital channels. It is widely known that the only function of the earliest mobile phones were to provide a two-way communication through the voice channel (Zheng and Ni, 2006:82), where the parties could simultaneously speak and hear each other. Nevertheless, the traditional understanding of mobile telephony has undergone considerable changes recently. Contemporary mobile operators already use third and fourth generation (3G and 4G) communication networks (Talukdar, 2010:38) and these new generations of mobile phones support such functions as video calling, mobile TV, MMS, high-speed internet access and complex mobile applications and this breakthrough was possible due to the fast development of mobile computing technologies (Talukdar, 2010:38; Heckmann, 2005:20). The literature review is aimed at a critical discussion of the impacts produced by mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony. 2. Theories on Mobile Computing and Its Influence In accordance with Mastorakis (2009:479), mobile computing may be defined as a form of interaction between a human and a computer implying that a computer device may be easily transported by the user. The researcher states that the key mobile computing devices are laptops, palmtops, smartphones and ordinary mobile phones (Mastorakis, 2009:479). This section of literature review critically discusses the main theories on the development of mobile computing and its influence on the mobile telephony. 2.1. Aspect Models of Mobile Computing It is argued by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11) that mobile computing can be viewed through the prism of the three-aspect model. The researchers have built a theoretical framework, which identifies three main aspects of mobile computing, namely mobile communication, mobile software and mobile hardware. The first aspect, mobile communication, means that mobile computing is impossible without particular data protocols, properties of communication, data format and the data transfer technologies (Boronowsky et al., 2006:11). The second aspect, mobile software, implies that special mobile applications are necessary for mobile computing. Finally, the mobile hardware aspect emphasises that the mobile computing development requires innovation in mobile devices and components (Boronowsky et al., 2006:11). It may be critically remarked that the three-aspect model provides a theoretical grounding to the impact of mobile computing technologies on traditional mobile telephony: correspondingly, the influence is also three-aspect. Firstly, technological progress in mobile computing has led to the development of mobile communication and more specifically data protocols, methods of data transfer and types of communication networks have changed (Grant and Meadows, 2006:173). Secondly, the development of mobile hardware has led to technological innovations of mobile phones and smartphones as they acquired new functions such as internet access, Bluetooth, mobile cameras, accelerometer, etc. Thirdly, technological progress in mobile software stimulated the development of mobile phone applications (Business Link, 2010:1). An alternative aspect model of mobile computing was formulated by Heckmann (2005:20). The researcher argues that “since the interaction with intelligent environments supposes that the user can move around, results from the research area of mobile computing can be integrated into the situated interaction within ubiquitous computing” (Heckmann (2005:20). The model is two-aspect and Heckmann (2005:20) identifies device-related and human-related aspects of mobile computing. This model is different from the framework provided by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11) where the latter singled out software and hardware aspects. Heckmann (2005:20) includes the hardware and software aspects into the device category and it can be assumed that the model offered by Heckmann (2005:20) is less detailed. Nevertheless, it emphasises the importance of human-related aspects. In accordance with Heckmann (2005:20), the impact of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony has two dimensions. Both devices and users have undergone changes during the process of technological development (Dawson, 2005:63), however, the human-related aspect is less relevant for this research project since it is focused on the changes in mobile hardware and software. 2.2. Level Models of Mobile Computing Level models of mobile computing reveal hierarchical structure (Goggin and Hjorth, 2008:47). Kumkum (2010:3) formulated the three-level model of mobile computing. The researcher differentiated between such levels as macro mobility, micro mobility and ad hoc mobility. Macro mobility is associated with the growth of the global communication network and positive environmental influences. For instance, it is impossible to forecast substantial technological advances in mobile hardware and software if communication networks are local and small (Kumkum, 2010:3). Micro mobility is associated with the mobility characteristics of a particular device and it is argued that this level is subjected to the macro mobility level. In other words, there is no need to stimulate micro mobility if macro mobility is limited. Furthermore, mobile devices should not be small in size if there are only local communication networks. Kumkum (2010:3) argues that ad-hoc mobility is situational mobility which refers to every particular act of information sharing. The three-level model can be critically evaluated only with the reference to the discussed question. The mobile telephony network is global, which means that the macro mobility level is not limited to only local communication frameworks (Mastorakis, 2009:479). In turn, micro mobility is not limited either as typical mobile phones and smartphones can be used with mobile operator networks all over the world. According to the model, this stimulates further growth of mobile computing technologies in mobile telephony. Furthermore, unlimited macro mobility has led to greater micro mobility. Mobile phones would be useless if they were very large and heavy and vice versa, if mobiles phones were large and heavy, macro mobility would be limited (Kotulic and Clark, 2004:597). The strength of the model is that it explains the relationship between mobile computing and mobile telephony. However, one of the weaknesses is that the ad-hoc mobility level is not given enough attention by Kumkum (2010:3). It can be argued that ad-hoc mobility implies conditions in which data transfer occurs (Mastorakis, 2009:479). Alternatively, Umar (2006:29) argues that mobile computing has always been implemented in commercial projects. Hence, the development of mobile computing and its influence are determined by the relationships between consumers and businesses. For this reason, the scholar differentiates between three levels of mobile computing, namely customer level, B2C [business to customer] and B2B [business to business] (Umar, 2006:29). Nevertheless, it may be critically remarked that the three-level model has excessive focus on commercial relations between the users and sellers of mobile computing technologies (Srivastava and Teo, 2009:267). 2.3. Result Models of Mobile Computing Kaschek (2008:135) gave theoretical grounding to the process migration model of mobile computing. It is suggested that this theory can be presented as a result model since it emphasises particular benefits and effects of the technology. Kaschek (2008:135) argues that process migration is one of the key benefits of mobile computing, where process migration means that mobile devices can ‘share’ processes within a communication network. It does not matter if this network is wireless or wired, indeed, mobile computing is useless without the migration of processes. Kumkum (2010:3) agrees that “it enables movement of the programming environment and application to desired location” (Kumkum, 2010:3). Furthermore, it is summarised that “the resulting flexibility and reliability are important and necessary” (Kumkum, 2010:3). The influence of advanced mobile technologies may be seen in the fact that mobile devices are now able to share a greater number of processes. For instance, the earliest mobile phones were able to send and receive data only in the voice format. Technological progress in mobile computing has enabled the sharing of data in different formats such as pictures, video signals, multi-media files, audio files, etc. (Goggin and Hjorth, 2008:115). It is also reported that new technologies of voice sharing have appeared. For example, there is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology, which allows mobile devices to send voice via the internet instead of the traditional telephone channel. This technology is widely implemented in contemporary mobile phones and smartphones and can be viewed as another influence of mobile computing on traditional telephony (Talukdar, 2010:38). Nevertheless, not all theorists are ready to admit the positive influence and results of mobile computing. Upadhyaya (2005:173) argues that the development of mobile computing has led to considerable security problems. Free access public networks do not guarantee that the personal information of a user will be protected. Furthermore, mobile phones and smartphones have weaker software and hardware resistance to viruses and other malware (Business Link, 2010:1). Bernardo and Bogliolo (2005:241) are convinced that the development of mobile computing technologies has led to the increased power consumption of mobile devices. The point is that contemporary mobile applications and large-size screens of smartphones require more power. As a result, consumers are not able to use their devices for a long period of time. In addition, the size of the battery has also increased, which can be considered a serious limitation to the micro mobility of devices (Kotulic and Clark, 2004:597). Another negative result of mobile computing are the potential health hazards. It is argued by Cerin and Li (2007:247) that the development of mobile computing has led to serious health risks. For instance, the number of car accidents with the drivers using mobile devices has increased recently (Cerin and Li, 2007:247). It may be argued that all these negative influences and limitations have changed the mobile telephony. Mobile computing has made mobile devices multi-functional and ‘smart’. However, at the same time it has come with side effects. 3. Hardware and Software Strategies of Nokia and Apple As it is suggested by the given theories, the traditional mobile telephony has been always influenced by innovations and advances in mobile computing technologies. For instance, it is reported by Bradley (2011:1) that Nokia, one of the largest communication companies, entered a strategic alliance with Microsoft. This decision should be understood as a software strategy of the Finnish company. In the near future, Nokia’s smartphones will support the Windows Phone 7 operating system. It is argued that “for Nokia to bet on Microsoft’s new phone platform is an incredible vote of confidence but it is also a natural partnership given the various points of synergies” (Bradley, 2011:1). Windows Phone 7 is a completely new level of mobile computing and this mobile operating system is a powerful platform for individuals and businesses. Furthermore, the software strategy is also aimed at strengthening Nokia’s competitive advantage against Apple (Bradley, 2011:1). It is expected that the adoption of the Windows Phone 7 OS by Nokia’s smartphones will enable the use of more advanced applications. Furthermore, Nokia will continue a building software base for its touchscreen technologies and the new operating system allows for more efficient human-device interaction. Finally, Nokia’s users will be able to use Microsoft Office applications directly from their phone (TechNet Magazine, 2011:1). The software strategy of Nokia is consistent with the three-aspect model formulated by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11). The level model by Umar (2006:29) can be also applied to this strategy and Nokia used this strategic decision to introduce changes in customer and business levels. In accordance with the Mac Daily News (2007:1), “Apple’s practice of producing equivalent consumer and professional applications suggests they may pursue professional versions of iWeb or iTune” (Mac Daily News, 2007:1). The company’s software strategy is to develop creative applications, which will be demanded in the market. Regardless of the fact that there are equivalents produced by competitors, Apple is not afraid of providing an alternative. At the same time, the company has always remained highly innovative. For instance, the company developed the multi-touch ecosystem, which influenced human-device interaction to a considerable degree (Info World, 2009:1). Apple’s hardware strategy has always revealed that mobile telephony is influenced by advances in mobile computing technology. For example, iPad 2, the second generation of Apple’s tablet computer, was launched in March 2011. Regardless of the fact that sales of the iPad 1were still successful, the company introduced a new device (Mobile Computing Today, 2011:1). It should be specified that iPad contains a 3G module, which enables it to be used for mobile telephony. In addition, the device provides rich possibilities of using various applications, internet and accelerometer. The only significant difference with the iPad 2 is that the second generation device acquired back and front cameras and this provides greater possibilities for video calling (Word Cast, 2011:1). As it may be understood, the iPad is an example of a multi-format device. It is a mobile tablet computer, which provides rich multimedia and communication possibilities. 4. Empirical Evidence Herzog et al. (2007:495) pursued an empirical investigation, which was aimed at the identification of the relationship between mobile computing advances and the development of mobile telephony. The researcher conducted a case study of Germany and its telecommunication industry. Herzog et al. (2007:495) obtained secondary data from the Mobile Research Centre in Bremen. It is concluded that the recent innovations in mobile computing have a multi-aspect effect on mobile telephony. The scholars argue that the main aspects of the effects are the development of hardware and software (Herzog et al., 2007:495). For instance, it is reported that Siemens made serious attempts to increase battery capacity in mobile devices. Furthermore, all mobile phone producers constantly upgrade software so that mobile devices could support new applications. One of the main advantages of the case study conducted by Herzog et al. (2007:495) is that the researchers identified and measured the influence of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony. The findings may be compared with the three aspect model formulated by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11). Herzog et al. (2007:495) analysed only two of the three aspects: hardware and software, however, the researcher failed to consider the aspect of mobile communication. Another limitation may be seen in the fact that the results of case studies can hardly be generalised. Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) pursued a different empirical investigation aimed at the analysis of limitations associated with mobile computing. The researchers argue that “mobility raises new issues such as more dynamic context, limited computing resources, and frequent disconnections” (Fjellheim et al., 2005:75). Regardless of the fact that mobile technologies are transportable and convenient to use, they have important limitations and weaknesses. According to the scholars, the most important limitations are energy consuming software, low battery capacity and security problems. Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) argue that mobile computing technologies do not solve the problems of mobile telephony but simply add new ones. The findings of the researchers can be compared with the arguments provided by Upadhyaya (2005:173) and Bernardo and Bogliolo (2005:241). One of the key weaknesses of the study is that Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) are excessively pessimistic about the development of mobile computing. 5. Summary It may be summarised that the key theories on mobile computing and its development are aspect, level and result models. Aspect models identify such dimensions of mobile computing as mobile communication, mobile software and mobile hardware. From this standpoint, the impact of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony has three dimensions. Level models single out such levels as macro mobility, micro mobility and ad-hoc mobility and this theory implies that micro mobility is always limited by the degree of macro mobility. In the case of mobile telephony, this limitation is reduced to a minimum. Finally, the result models suggest that the influence of mobile computing may be both positive and negative: positive influence was seen in the process migration; negative influence is associated with security problems and power consumption. Nokia and Apple were found to have different software and hardware strategies and Nokia relies on strategic alliances to gain new mobile computing technologies, whereas Apple conducts a strategy of innovation and product differentiation. References Bernardo, M. and Bogliolo, A. (2005) Formal methods for mobile computing: 5th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, New York: Springer. Boronowsky, M., Herzog, O., Knackfuss, P. and, Lawo, M. (2006) ‘Wearable computing – an approach or living labs’3rd International Forum on Applied Wearable Computing, Berlin: VDE Verlag. Bradley, T. (2011) ‘Analysis: Nokia-Microsoft deal is a win for Apple’, [online] Available at: http://www.macworld.com.au/news/analysis-nokia-microsoft-deal-is-a-win-for-apple-24333/ [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Business Link (2010) ‘Information security best practice’, [online] Available at: http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1075406928Mobile Computing Technology Impact on Mobile Telephony

MTH 410 CSUGC LL Research Firm Data Collection & Business Profits Case Study

MTH 410 CSUGC LL Research Firm Data Collection & Business Profits Case Study.

Business ProfitsThe research firm LL Research collected data from 200 client businesses. They want to determine how the businesses compare among four variables:2015 Profit in millions of dollars2016 Profit in millions of dollars2015-2016 Two-Year Change in Daily Average Customer VisitsTwo-Year Average Number of EmployeesData collected for the sample of 200 businesses is contained in the file named Businesses. Be sure to use all 200 data points.Managerial ReportPrepare a report (see below) using the numerical methods of descriptive statistics presented in this module to learn how each of the variables contributes to the success of a client’s business. Be sure to include the following three items in your report.Compute descriptive sample statistics (mean, median, two quartiles Q1 and Q3 (using QUARTILE.EXC), minimum, maximum, range, interquartile range, sample standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) for each of the four variables along with an explanation of what the descriptive statistics tell us about the client businesses.In this case, which measure of central tendency would be best for this application? Explain why.Which measure of variation would be best for this application? Explain why.How can one use the above descriptive statistics to understand the businesses better?Which graphical displays of data would you use to help understand or complement the above descriptive statistics? Explain how and why.Note: QUARTILE.EXC works only for Excel 2010 or newer.Compute the percent change in profit from 2015 to 2016 for each business.What would the percent change tell us in this application?Then use the z-score to determine which businesses were outliers with respect to percent change in profit.How would identifying outliers be useful in this application?What advice might you give to businesses that are outliers?How else would you determine outliers?Compute the sample correlation coefficient, showing the relationship between percent change in profit and each of the other two variables (2015-2016 Two-Year Change in Daily Average Customer Visits and Two-Year Average Number of Employees).Explain what the correlation coefficients tell us about the three pairs of relationships. Use tables, charts, or graphs to support your conclusions. Write a report that adheres to the formatting and APA expectations outlined in the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.). As with all written assignments at CSU Global, you should have in-text citations and a reference page. Submit your Excel file in addition to your report.Requirements:The paper must be written in third person.Your paper should be four pages in length (counting the title page and references page) and cite and integrate at least one credible outside source. Include a title page, introduction, body, conclusion, and a reference page.The introduction should describe or summarize the topic or problem. It might discuss the importance of the topic or how it affects you or society as a whole, or it might discuss or describe the unique terminology associated with the topic.The body of your paper should answer the questions posed in the problem. Explain how you approached and answered the question or solved the problem, and, for each question, show all steps involved. Be sure the Word document is in paragraph format, not numbered answers like a homework assignment.The conclusion should summarize your thoughts about what you have determined from the data and your analysis, often with a broader personal or societal perspective in mind. Nothing new should be introduced in the conclusion that was not previously discussed in the body paragraphs. Your conclusion should emanate (be aligned with) your findings.Include any tables of data or calculations, calculated values, and/or graphs associated with this problem in the body of your assignment.Document formatting, citations, and style should conform to the CSU Global Writing Center (Links to an external site.). A short summary containing guidelines for paper formatting, citations, and references is contained in the New Sample APA Paper (Links to an external site.). In addition, information in the CSU Global Library (Links to an external site.) has many helpful areas (Writing Center, Writing Tips, Template Examples/Papers Essays, and others).
MTH 410 CSUGC LL Research Firm Data Collection & Business Profits Case Study

Arguments in the wild 2 -Logic

Arguments in the wild 2 -Logic.

I’m working on a humanities question and need support to help me understand better.

I’m working on a humanities writing question and need support to help me understand better.This assessment method is designed to help you see how logic is used (or misused) in everyday life, and thereby appreciate the importance of good reasoning. You are asked to do some fieldwork related to logic. In particular, you are asked to document an argument “in the wild,” that is, an argument someone makes during a debate, a dispute, or a disagreement as you witness it in everyday life. The argument cannot be taken from a book or an article. You may use various mediums to document this “argument in the wild,” such as text, image, audio, or video. Then you should analyze the argument using the logical tools we learn throughout this course. For the second Argument in the Wild, you should write the argument in canonical form and then evaluate it, that is, determine whether the argument is valid or invalid, using a Venn diagram. If the argument is valid, determine whether it is sound or unsound.Here is an example of what an “Arguments in the Wild 2” submission should look like:In this video, Trevor Noah discusses the following argument, which is made by the CEO of CBS, Les Moonves: “The money’s rolling in… This is going to be a very good year for us. Sorry, it’s a terrible thing to say, but, bring it on, Donald.”Moonves’ argument in this video can be reconstructed in canonical form as follows:P1: Anything that brings in money is good for CBS.P2: Trump’s presidential bid brings in money.Therefore,C: Trump’s presidential bid is good for CBS.Reconstructed in this way, Moonves’ argument is valid; that is, if P1 and P2 are true, then C would have to be true as well. Indeed, the argument is an AAA-1 categorical syllogism.S: Things identical with Trump’s presidential bidP: Things that are good for CBSM: Things that bring in moneyAll M are P.All S are M.All S are P.Since the argument is valid, the question is whether the premises are in fact true. Is the argument sound? If the only thing that CBS cares about is the bottom line, then it would follow that Trump’s presidential bid is good for CBS, given that it is good for CBS’s bottom line. However, it might be argued that CBS, as a major source of news, has a journalistic responsibility to the American public. If the American public loses trust in CBS, upon finding out that CBS reports only the news that bring in money, then that could also hurt CBS’s bottom line.Since there are doubts about whether the premises are true, although Moonves’ argument can be reconstructed as a valid categorical syllogism, it cannot be said to be sound.This, then, is how your second “Arguments in the Wild” assignment should look like. That is, you should use the tools of Categorical Logic (in particular, Venn diagrams) to analyze one argument in the wild. You should determine whether the argument is valid or invalid by means of a Venn diagram. If valid, you should determine whether the argument is sound or unsound.Please submit your work on the due date before class. In class, you will be asked to share your “argument in the wild” with the class.
Arguments in the wild 2 -Logic