Colorado State The Connection Between Diabetes and Suburban Sprawl Paper.
Consider the multidisciplinary interactions of biological and social sciences as presented in Chapter 2 of Global Public Health. With this in mind, perform an analysis of the information delivered in this episode about the connection between diabetes and suburban sprawl, as discussed in the text.Episode One (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ttyE7ZnupYWatch the video and look at the suggestions there for improving health in your own community. Once you are satisfied with your review of the episode, write an essay that addresses the following questions:Begin by summarizing the episode in 100 words or less.Relate the information from this episode to what you learned in Chapters 1 and 2 of your textbook, Global Public Health. What specific public health disciplines mentioned in Chapter 2 of your textbook are related to the information presented in the video and why?Critique the information. Do you feel that the information presented is valid and easy to understand?What information does the episode offer about public health problems? Consider, for example: whether it provides details on how public health can be characterized and measured; and whether it describes common hazards and afflictions affecting modern Americans and American communities.What information does the episode offer about the nature of communities? Consider whether it provides details on how communities may be altered to improve public health.What information was missing from the episode? How could the content be improved? What would you like to see in future episodes?Instructions:Write a 2- to 3-page paper of about 1,500 words, not including the title and reference pages, which are required.The paper must be formatted correctly using APA style. Remember, all research material used in your paper must be paraphrased and include an in-text citation.Be sure you utilize your text appropriately as a reference and cite at least one other credible external reference such as a website or journal article to support your proposed resolution of the case.
Question In the first half of your essay generate a broad and deep biblical basis for social justice being an integral part of the Christian life. In the second half of the essay, synthesising all the material from this unit, clearly communicate your understanding of the interplay between the three (3) areas of faith, reason and justice, refer to historical and contemporary figures engaged in justice and give your own personal response. Response Introduction Social Justice is a response from God’s own heart as he loves and rules over His Creation, faithfully, reasonably and justly. As His people, our response should mirror His, not only towards our Creator but with Creation as well. Social Justice is defined as justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society (Lea, 2017) and practised, with varying success, as a philosophical idea promoting the interests of all people in a society, no matter their wealth, status or circumstances. This term originated from a desire to create economic and social equality between workers and the wealthy in the Industrial revolution (Manolopoulou, 2017, 3). Justice is multi-layered and requires understanding beyond a definition, as Wytsma says, “Justice is a sum of many parts” recognising that love, mercy, service, charity, ethics, truth, integrity, laws, righteousness and more come together to form true Biblical justice (Wytsma, 2013, 4). Today, justice is used to describe the underlying principle for diplomatic and prosperous coexistence within and among nations and the peaceful and thriving relationships between neighbours (Caritas Australia, 2019). This idea has always been at the centre of Jewish and Christian culture but has also been adopted by the secular world. Even as early as the creation of human beings, we see that God created humans to have His likeness (Gen 1:27), imbuing us with his character and acknowledging that all humans are created equal, with a desire and right to be treated with fairness and justice. Although this perfect ideal was broken by The Fall resulting in malfunctioning faith (Volf, 2011) and a breakdown of social justice, Jesus enabled propitiation for the sins of all humans, giving people the opportunity to accept grace and salvation. Understanding that all have fallen short (Rom 3:23) and all are both guilty and responsible, yet are freed and still called to repent, restore and redeem; means that social justice is possible once more. 2. Social justice, an integral part of the Christian life Social Justice is God ordained and has a strong and clear Biblical basis throughout the Old and New Testaments as an essential Christian value in daily life. The overarching narrative in the Bible promotes equality of all people as God’s creation and as a response to human sin, God’s Word also shows justice and grace held in tension, as both are necessary for righteousness and genuine transformative change. These things coupled with proactive, preventative principles such as the Ten Commandments (Exo 20:2-17), as well as reactionary practices responding to injustice such as deacons distributing food to widows and orphans (Acts 6:2-3) demonstrate the people of God’s cultural value of social justice throughout history, uniquely standing apart from the world’s social values of status, wealth and power. While social justice was not exclusive to God’s people, in surrounding cultures such as Mesopotamia and Egypt, it seemed to serve the interests of the rulers of the time to satisfy public opinion, perpetrate other injustices, be short-lived or was implemented poorly (Hendrickx, 1985, 3-6). What set the Israelites apart was that that their King was not a god, was not the source of the law, did not create the law and therefore, was not above the law and needed to submit to justice which was inseparable from God’s character (Epsztein, 1986, 105). From the nomadic time of those faithful to God to the days of establishing the nation of Israel, we see justice described, enacted and prioritised by God and intended for His people. God’s ‘mishpath’ is a legal and restorative justice and ‘sedek’ is a relational justice (Hendrickz, 1985, 16-20), both of which are used prolifically in the Old Testament to describe His just nature, actions and gift of justice, a gift of His good intention and plan to enact that intention. God heard His people’s cries when they were enslaved under Egyptian rule (Exo 3:7), He freed them and then compelled them to do the same for others (Exo 22:22). God intended to establish belonging and security for the Israelites in the Promised land (Josh 1:2-3) and instructed them on how to maintain it (Deut 15:4-5). God established a system of justice and reparation through the commandments and judges were entrusted to steward that system (Deut 25:1) saving the people from oppression (Hendrickx, 1985, 16) and mirroring God’s image and His character of justice, compassion, moral clarity and rescue (Haugen, 2009). These values and systems to execute them were unique to the Israelites when compared with contemporary cultures; however, the iniquity of the people to misinterpret and corrupt them was not. Unfortunately, time and again, God’s own people committed ‘hamas’ meaning violence, exploitation, abuse, oppression and betrayal (Hendrickx, 1985, 21-26) by the rich and powerful, towards the poor and vulnerable. As God’s people repented and obeyed the Lord, social justice and equality flourished (2 Kings 23:10), but whenever they turned from their calling, embracing idolatry and corruption (Mic 3:5,9) the most marginalized suffered. All of this prepared the way for the world to see social justice in a new way. Instead of being slaves to the law, where strict codes of conduct could be manipulated for selfish gain (Isa 10:1-2) and values and reality were juxtaposed (Prov 14:20-21, 31), people were about to experience a voluntary servitude that could only result from true freedom and the restoration of all people’s intrinsic value and rights. When many of the Jewish people had given up their faith that God was just, Jesus appeared, fully God and fully human, to re-energise social justice as revolutionary, relational justice. Jesus’ mission to declare good news to the poor, release the captives, give sight to the blind and free the oppressed (Luke 4:17-21) wasn’t just a statement but a state of mind which he applied in his life, transforming the lives of others. Radically, culturally different from the religious leaders of the time, Jesus didn’t judge failures of justice by the law, he fulfilled the law by restoring, healing and preventing malfunctions of faith (Volf, 2001). Jesus lived the call for justice through relationship, whether by proximity, dining with the socially segregated (Mark 2:15) and physically touching the untouchables (Matt 8:2-3) or influence, teaching whoever would listen (Mark 6:34) such as he did when he gave the sermon on the Mount. He diagnosed a problem, identified the harmful consequences and gave specific practical guidance on how to transform the situation (Matt 5:3-12). Not only that, but to restore justice completely, Jesus gave up his own life to satisfy the just consequences of sin to relationally reconcile human sinners with the Holy Father (Rom 5:6-11). And while reasonably that should have been the end, Jesus was resurrected to amplify our perception of God’s power and love for us, showing He is not satisfied with justice as a bare minimum standard, but a reasoned and faithful outpouring of justice is one where the Saviour lives, is active and dwells with His people (Acts 2:24). In other words, “Our sins were the judicial ground of the sufferings of Christ, so that they were a satisfaction of justice; and his righteousness is the judicial ground of our acceptance with God, so that our pardon is an act of justice.” (Hodge, 2003, 151). From the indwelling of the Holy Spirit on the day on Pentecost onwards (Acts 2), to the strong, just, moral lifestyle of the Early Church (James 1:27), it is evident that social justice to them was more than just a legal code, a self-seeking tool to manipulate others or pressure from public opinion. Social Justice was and continues to be an integral part of the Christian life. 3. Faith, Reason and Justice The Christian life is intertwined with social justice to a level where the two are meaningless without the other, as James says, “Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by my deeds.” (James 2:17-18). Faith and reason compliment each other, as God has gifted a complex ability to reason and solve problems, this gift should be employed as Christians seek to think through, question and reflect on their faith (2 Tim 2:7). Reason also affects the way we understand and apply justice with a Christian perspective and the critical analysis of God’s Word, and our modern cultural context is necessary to determine what is truly right and just (2 Tim 3:16-17). These three essential elements interplay in the Christian life to emulate the life of Jesus and promote human flourishing (Volf, 2001). Because of Paul’s writing about human rights, The Early Church were counter-cultural in their approach to justice, stemming from a radical love and genuine care for all people. Notably, the Christians of Corinth saved the city from the plague in 252AD (Parrish, 2015) in a selfless act which was unheard of at the time, as the culture literally ‘avoided this like the plague’. As Christianity began to increase in popularity, the Roman emperor Constantine converted and condoned the worship of the one true God, bringing in in era which opposed infanticide, the degradation of women, gladiatorial combat, and slavery, (Parrish, 2015) transforming Roman culture, laws, social life and the Church. In the Middle Ages Christian monasteries established formal hospitals and education. Monks taught that classical philosophy and theology were able to be reconciled as well as academics and practical skills like agriculture and the arts (Parrish, 2015). This paved the way for reason and argument to be valued alongside faith and social justice. In the Reformation, education continued to be prioritised as printing was popularised and the Bible was mass produced, enabling more people access to the Word of God. Martin Luther opposed the selling of indulgences as a means of exploiting the poor and reformed the way faith, reason and justice were viewed at the time (Parrish, 2015). John Calvin believed that the Church was no longer fulfilling it’s calling from Christ – to preach the gospel, administer the sacraments, exercise church discipline, and care for the poor. So, he set about holding the government accountable to the high standards necessary to care for its poor and reforming the church to do the same (Tuininga, 2018). Christian revivals in America and England sought to build social spaces such as parks and libraries, establish universities, promote just values through literature like ‘Uncle Tom’s Cabin’ by Harriett Beecher Stowe and create a foundation for ethical politics as in the American Declaration of Independence. Howard, Fry, Fliedner, Nightingale and Cooper are among many passionate Christians who reformed prisons, healthcare and child labour laws while Wesley, Whitfield and Wilberforce were the first to regulate and then later to abolish slavery based on compassionate Christian beliefs (Parrish, 2015). More recently Missionary and Philanthropic organisations such as the Salvation Army, Barnardo’s, the Red Cross, YMCA, and CMS were formed to promote faith, reason and justice around the world. These organisations have significantly transformed cultural mindsets, poverty and the treatment of the poor, inclusion, aid, hospitality, education, medicine and cultural practises such as widow-burning and child sacrifice (Parrish, 2015). In the last century Martin Luther King Jnr campaigned for the civil rights of African American citizens through peaceful means and in Australia Frank Engel and other Christian leaders and organisations opposed assimilation and supported the rights of Indigenous people to their own culture and their traditional land (Taffe, 2014). Today the likes of Liz Bohannon, who established Sseko designs as a means of promoting opportunities for women in East Africa to end the cycle of poverty and create a more equitable society (Bohannon, 2019) and Robin Seyfert, founder of Basha which provides training, employment, children’s programs and other support to women and their families who are at risk or have been sexually exploited (Seyfert, 2019) continue the legacy left before them to live lives of faith, reason and justice. While many more examples remain, these few show the incredible dedication Christian men and women have displayed to engaging with faith, reason and justice and advocating for them to be agents of change in traditionally non-Christian or secular cultures. These examples also show the interplay between faith, reason and justice which support, influence, create and confirm one another as if they were three strands of the same cord, woven for strength and are not easily broken (Ecc 4:12). 4. Personal Response Injustice is unconscious (Samson, 2007, 47) but it is not invisible. In our modern Australian culture it’s normal not to think about the consequences of everyday tasks – purchasing clothes, filling up at the petrol station, eating a hamburger, cleaning the bathroom, walking to work and countless others – but it is our unconscious actions that can have the most devastating and far-reaching consequences. Taking the time to use our God given reason to follow an action to its end can change lives, for example, purchasing jeans at one store or another may perpetrate slave labour in a sweatshop or strengthen a struggling economy providing jobs to those who otherwise would be forced into slavery. Then using faith to apply that knowledge wisely, seek the good of others and make disciples, we can find solutions to the problems we didn’t know were there and transform lives through the power of the Holy Spirit. Responding with justice means we can take steps to form new systems, restore hope and create change in different ways, whether procedural, restorative, retributive, redemptive or distributive (Maiese, 2003). Once this has occurred, we can also implement pro-active justice to prevent further injustice in the future with solutions like positive discrimination where workplaces with low Indigenous representation may specifically hire or give preference to Indigenous applicants or community preventative policing where neighbourhoods would ensure clean up and maintenance of all properties, even abandoned ones, to deter vandals and petty crime. Injustice is not invisible, but we can be blinded to it whether by choice or circumstance. Australian culture often shields us from injustice through media coverage, convenience and education; however, more and more voices are being heard in an effort to fight for developing countries, minorities, refugees, the environment and the vulnerable. Once you see, you are responsible. Once you are aware, you are able to advocate. Peace or ‘shalom’ exists when we deal with the things that cause unrest and we live up to our responsibilities (Samson, 2007, 178). Upstream prevention and downstream care are two key factors necessary for transformative change in the area of social justice. I would go on to argue that for true transformation and innovation to occur, reason and faith are necessary, and they are so intimately connected with justice and an essential part of the Christian life. Micah 6:8 declares “He has shown you, O mortal, what is good. And what does the Lord require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.” This call to act, love and walk is a practical yet deeply philosophical and theological embodiment of the interplay of faith, reason and justice. Most importantly, it leaves no excuse for inaction, “Evil need nothing more to accomplish its end, than good men who look on and do nothing.” (Aked, 1916). The passage in Micah gives us something to do and our world leaves us much to look on. And we must do something, not just think something, solely using our reason or make something religious instead of seeking a relationship with God, relegating our faith to death by idleness (Samson, 2007, 79). Our response to injustice should not only be actively living out faith, reason and justice together, but also as the passage suggests, living humbly. This humility invites grace into devastating problems which affect real people. Our response must include listening, empathy and acceptance at its core. Christian influence is powerful but should be balanced without judgement, acknowledging the views of others in our pluralistic society. Our influence, including the apologetic methods we use to communicate the benefits of God’s desire and parameters for society, should be attractive and compelling but not at the cost of imposition or indifference. Even Christian approaches to justice, from conservative, emphasising equal liberty, to liberal who advocate for equal worth or a radical approach which is concerned with structures and immediacy (O’Donoghue, Moore, Habel, Crotty, Crotty, 1993, 10-13) need to be humbly considered to find a solution that meets the needs of the people affected. We should respond to God’s call for justice, mercy and humility with faith and reason, revealing the invisible and making conscious the unconscious. 5. Conclusion Social justice has a broad and deep Biblical basis, from Creation to Revelation and is an integral part of the Christian life, inseparable from faith. The interplay between faith, reason and justice, can be seen throughout history and is a response to injustice and evil that mirrors God’s own heart. God established the law to affirm the equal value and rights of all people yet the fracture of relationship with God and the disobedience caused by sin meant that people fell short in implementing social justice. Because of Jesus, humans are able to experience justice and grace and now restore and redeem others in His name. These Biblical values form a lens through which we see the world and all its problems and solutions as well as our responsibility of guilt and making right the injustice we see. The strong legacy of Christian figures engaged in justice throughout history and today, provide a wealth of wisdom and experience useful in many circumstances and contexts. Their example, along with solid schools of thought on methods of implementing justice and living alongside those with different ideas pave the way for all Christians to act justly, love mercy and walk humbly with our God (Mic 6:8). Ultimately, Christians need to approach the problem of social justice through relationship with God and His creation, trusting in His plan for redemption and restoration. This relationship fuels the responses of faith, reason and justice which overflow into the lives of a family member, a stranger, a community and beyond. The Christian is empowered to set wrongs right, challenge thinking and persuade decision making only when connected to the source of faith, reason and justice, our Lord Jesus Christ. Bibliography Aked, Reverend Charles F. 1916. The Only Thing Necessary for the Triumph of Evil is that Good Men Do Nothing. QuoteInvestigator. Accessed at: https://quoteinvestigator.com/2010/12/04/good-men-do/ Bohannon, Liz. 2019. Our Impact. Sseko Designs. Accessed at: https://ssekodesigns.com/impact/ Caritas Australia. 2019. What is Social Justice? Caritas Australia. Accessed at: https://www.caritas.org.au/learn/blog/blog-detail?ID=c64ae150-b7ec-4afb-8524-a2a510c80e04 Epsztein, Leon. 1986. Social Justice in the ancient Near East and the People of the Bible. SCM Press Ltd.Haugen, Gary, A. 2009. Good News about Injustice, a witness of courage in a hurting world. IVP Books.Hendrickx, Herman. 1985. Social Justice in the Bible. Claretian Publications.Lea, Sian. 2017. Five Ways Human Rights Help The Fight For Social Justice. RightsInfo. Accessed at: https://rightsinfo.org/5-ways-human-rights-help-social-justice/ Hodge, Charles. 2003. Systematic Theology, Volume 1. Ravenio Books. Accessed at: https://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology estimate that 10-20% of known pregnancies result in spontaneous abortions (RCOG 2006). This statistic alone highlights the importance of the roles of midwives preconceptually and during the antenatal period, essentially being just as important as those in the intapartum and postnatal period. Support and counselling pre-conceptually should be provided for all women with the intention of childbearing that suffer from pre-existing medical conditions; whether they are physical or psychological conditions which may be irritated by a pregnancy (CEMACH 2007). The role of the midwife preconceptually is to guarantee both parents are at the most favourable state physically and emotionally to manage pregnancy safely and happily (Wallace and Hurwitz 1998 PG 3). The role of the midwife in the pre-conceptual state is to obtain a history from the prospective parents and determine if any issues could affect the reproductive health of a woman/couple. They may also assess the holistic factors that may affect a pregnancy. The midwife is to advice where necessary; this must be handled with sensitivity to the individuals’ needs (Henderson and Macdonald 2004). During an initial assessment there are a number of health issues that a Midwife must concern themselves with, including pre-existing medical conditions, environment and life style and maternal body weight, the optimal Body Mass Index (BMI) between 19.8 and 26 for highest fertility and positive pregnancy outcomes (Fraser and Cooper 2009). It is the midwifes role to advice with maternal dietary requirements and advise for pregnant women to eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, eat more starchy food and less fat, increase folic acid and folate intake and lower caffeine intake (Ramsay 2006, WHO 2009).A midwife must also inform parents about the dangers of smoking and alcohol consumption. Pre-conceptionally the midwives role is to support a woman in getting her body at its optimal state for the physiological aspects of pregnancy. This could mean additional support for ladies with pre existing medical conditions, such as; diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, hypertension or heart disease. With pre-existing medical conditions it is important to get the maternal body to an ideal state healthy enough to carry a foetus to term. For example with a diabetic woman the aim is to achieve normaglycaemia before pregnancy occurs. Women with type 2 diabetes should have insulin during the preconception period and throughout pregnancy (Jovanovic, Peterson and Fuhrmann 2008). A midwife that cares for an epileptic women aims to keep her seizure-free while on the lowest form of anticonvulsants possible. Both oral medications to treat hypoglycaemia and anticonvulsants are known to have teratogenic effects (Chillemi and Vazquez 2008). Preconception care is not widely accessed as not all pregnancies are planned. It is somewhat difficult to advice on care preconceptually once conception has occurred, however it is good practice for the midwife to offer advice to a postnatal woman for future pregnancies (Burden and Jones 2009). From my own experience I can note that the majority of women tend to attend their doctors surgeries for assistance preconceptually. This may be because it is easier to access a doctor through appointment; not many people are aware that you can contact midwives directly before pregnancy. The maternity act of 2010 hopes to change this. Many women discuss becoming pregnant and acquire advice at family planning centres if this is where they receive their contraception. I feel it would be more beneficial for families if midwives were able to offer more care pre-conceptually. This is because continuity of care would be greater if the same midwife gave care throughout the preconception, antenatal and postpartum stages. Once a pregnancy has been established routine antenatal care should be implemented (NICE 2008). Antenatal care is defined as the care a pregnant woman and her family receive from conception until the beginning of labour (Vicars 2003). Families must be supported throughout pregnancy as a unit. It is important to establish how involved a family wishes to be and for the midwife to facilitate it. Many women hear of negative experiences others have during pregnancy and childbirth; it is vital to listen to the families and women’s worries to try to put them at ease. Pregnancy is supposed to be an enjoyable experience for all involved. The way in which care is usually given and the lifestyles families have tend to influence this. The physical and hormonal changes a woman is to experience may also cause distress if she or her family are not expecting it, for example morning sickness or other minor disorders of pregnancy can be somewhat worrying and have a great family impact. Midwives must support and assist when necessary, but still clarify the importance if something if is abnormal and in need of referral. The first and advisable second appointment a woman receives is usually referred to as booking the woman. This is an important meeting with the woman as it is possible to provide her with helpful information about her pregnancy, birth and postnatal experience (NICE 2008). Within this booking period it is important to identify any women that may benefit from additional care (NICE 2008). This is because midwives are autonomous practitioners and are accountable for the safety of the women and unborn children in their care. It is the responsibility of the midwife to measure height and weight at the booking appointment and to calculate maternal BMI. Midwives must also measure blood pressure and test urine for anything abnormal such as proteinuria. This must be recorded accurately. Midwives are experts of the normal therefore it is their responsibility to determine and risk factors that may affect the pregnancy and its outcome. This includes risks such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes or possibilities of a genetic condition. The midwife will then refer to the appropriate professionals. This complies with Rule 6 of the Midwifery Rules and Standards (NMC 2004). It is also important to obtain a clients family and personal medical history. This is to determine any particular risks the baby may have or the mother. We are also responsible to obtain any previous surgical history. This is to elicit any illnesses or operations that may complicate pregnancy (NICE 2008). At the booking appointment it is essential to offer all relevant information regarding screening for any abnormalities. A midwife is a facilitator and an educator to pregnant women; it is important that the woman and her family have received all necessary information on any procedures or tests to enable them to make an informed choice (Baston and Hall 2009). It is the midwives responsibility to ensure this happens. Blood tests are offered to confirm blood groups and rhesus D status, hepatitis B status, HIV, rubella, asymptomatic bacteria or any other deviations of the norm for the mother. It is also important to identify any women who have had genital mutilation (NICE 2008). The midwife must also offer screening for Down’s syndrome and offer early scans to establish gestational age and ultrasound screening for structural anomalies. (NICE 2008). Screening tests may be an emotional time for families particularly if they are aware of genetic disorders already within either family. Parents may be conscious that both carry a trait such as sickle cell anemia or thalassaemia, this may put huge stress on all members of the family. A midwife must be ethical in her advice and information. It is unethical for midwives to tell a family with trait that there baby is low risk or the same risk as families without the trait. Information received from the booking visits is often used to establish whether the woman is at high or low risk of complications during pregnancy or labour. This allows the correct care to be given and the correct care pathway to be used (NICE 2008). Multi-vitamins and vitamin D are given if necessary. (NICE 2008). Information is to be given on vitamin K. At each antenatal appointment it is essential to undertake urinalysis to detect abnormalities in urine. This is an important way of detecting any irregularities early on. Blood pressure and abdominal examinations are also to be conducted at each appointment. During the 1st and 2nd trimester this to determine the height of the fundus to ensure correct growth progress is being made (NICE 2008). From 28 weeks the measurements from the fundus to the symphysis pubis is to be recorded accurately by plotting on a graph. This is to ensure growth is noticeable. At this time also the lie and position of the baby is also to be noted. It is the midwives role to promote normal vaginal deliveries’ (Royal College of Midwives 2010). It is also significant to determine whether any psychiatric or mental health treatment has been received, allowing midwives to implement the care needed for that particular woman and determine any risks for antenatal or postnatal depression. It is essential to provide information on the development of the baby throughout pregnancy and discuss feeding intentions along with antenatal classes. A midwife must empower their clients and facilitate them to make their own decisions’ relating to the care they receive. (NICE 2008). It is at this early stage a midwife may advice on maternity benefits, this is due to the fact midwives play a large role in reducing health inequalities (Asthana and Halliday 2006). The Department of Health (2008) declare that healthy mothers have healthy babies. Infant mortality rates are lower among babies born to those of higher social classes (Acheson 1998). As midwives we are to offer smoking cessation sessions and promote healthy life styles. Along with this we are to recognise disadvantaged groups and try to reduce any equality that may be experienced. This is all intended to reduce mortality and morbidity in newborns and babies (Henderson 2005). Nulliparous women are offered ten antenatal visits whilst multiparous women are offered 7 (NICE 2008). This is founded on the fact that the pregnancies have no variations of what we would class as normal. If a midwife was to feel a woman needed extra appointments for specific reasons her plan of care would implement what was needed. It is for the midwife to determine whether a woman needs extra attention for the safety of herself or that of the unborn baby (NICE 2008). I feel as though multiparous women should receive the same amount of appointments as nulliparous women; just because it is not a woman’s first child does not mean that the reservations of pregnancy and birth are eliminated, particularly on an emotional level if her previous experiences have been negative. All appointments are to have a focus and structure. It is crucial for women to feel comfortable with their midwife; to allow them to receive the best care possible. If a woman does not feel the ability to trust her midwife she may withhold vital information through embarrassment or just through feeling uncomfortable sharing intimate details. This could put herself and the baby at high risk of complications (Baston and Hall 2009). It is essential for a midwife to have appropriate communication skills and have excellent listening skills (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2008). This is particularly relevant when discussing lifestyle advice with women and their families. It is beneficial for a woman to provide their midwife with the correct information; some women feel ashamed or embarrassed to admit situations such as smoking or alcohol consumption. This is why it is important that as midwifes we portray professionalism and not judge clients. It is valuable to build up positive relationships with women so they are empowered with their decisions’ although they have been provided with informed choice (NICE 2008). It is imperative to discuss lifestyle choices such as smoking, alcohol consumption medication, drugs, domestic violence and sexual health in order to identify possible risk factors that may cause harm to the woman or her baby (Fraser and Nolan 2004). Health can be considered is as a holistic concept; this refers to all dimensions of health (Dunkley 2000 A). It is essential for midwives to consider all aspects of health in relation to the care of their clients. Maslow (1954) portrays all dimensions of human requirements in his hierarchy of needs. This is what as midwives we must consider and ensure our clients are having all of their needs met. It is particularly important to offer all women no matter of gravida or parity antenatal education. Good midwifery care includes all members of the family actively in preparing for the birth of the baby. This is why antenatal education can be shared with all members of the family to initiate them in making informed choices and providing the skills to do this in the future relating to their newborn (Dunkley 2000 B). A midwife must ensure that during the antenatal period the correct educational information is provided at the appropriate moment. NICE guidelines (2008) state that all women should be offered information on breastfeeding and support groups along with information on all newborn screening by 36 weeks gestation. It is also correct practice to offer advice preparing the client for labour and birth, including assistance on filling out a birth plan. It is important to provide women with information on how to recognise active labour and provide essential information regarding Vitamin K prophylaxis so an informed choice can be made. It is not acceptable to leave it until the woman is in labour before providing this information. By 36 weeks all midwives should offer advice on postnatal self-care and give information raising awareness of the ‘baby blues’ and postnatal depression. This is to prepare the women early as to know what to maybe expect (NICE 2008). Through personal experience it has been noticed that most pregnant women are happy to accept antenatal education from a range of sources. It is common for health care professionals such as doctors, health visitors and physiotherapists to give educational advice to women as well as midwives. Pregnant women can also receive antenatal information from the National Childbirth Trust, hypnobirthing providers, peer groups, la leche and internet groups such as net mums. The midwife must be able to advice on reliable and accurate sources of accessible information. It is important to acknowledge and respect the ability and life experience of a women and her family or support network. Each woman and pregnancy is different. I fell as though refresher parent craft classes would benefit multiparous women rather than the same classes’ nulliparous women attend. The aim of childbirth education is to build up parents’ confidence and self esteem to enabling informed choices to be made. Childbirth education enables parents to communicate effectively with health professionals. (Nolan 2004). Women’s’ awareness of their own feelings, bodies and needs is something as midwives we are to support as well as prepare women, their partners and family of these needs. Antenatal education should encourage parents to take responsibility of their health care and the health of their baby. As midwives it is also important we create positive senses of identity so that parents’ experiences are of a positive nature (Nolan 2004). Women’s families can be a great support network so it is essential to include them in all aspects of care that the woman feels comfortable and appropriate. Having a baby affects every member of a family; this is why it is essential to prepare everyone for the changes a newborn creates. Classes for fathers-to-be are a great way of preparing and helping them understand what their partner is going through. There have been persuasive cases implementing new ways to offer antenatal classes with an increased focus on fathers (Walsh 2006). A midwife must be able to communicate with her clients in a professional and open manner. This must be the case for midwives communication with women’s family members as well as other members of the multidisciplinary team. A midwife must be sensitive towards her clients needs and communicate openly and freely allowing the woman to feel comfortable and able to form a supportive network with their clients. Midwives must also be able to assert the woman as an individual and provide individual care necessary to the woman’s unique needs (NICE 2008). A midwife must also have a high-quality of intuition and be able to recognise when women may be showing signs of distress that may not be portrayed verbally (Henderson and Jones 1997). This is why I feel continuity of care is a positive aspect of midwifery practice. If a woman has the same midwife throughout her antenatal care a relationship is built meaning the midwife is more likely to notice if the client is feeling low or not herself. The woman is more likely to open up with her concerns with a midwife she knows and recognises. The tone and approach a midwife uses when communicating is essential, listening skills are critical also. Midwives are to provide emotional and psychological support that co instates with the social circumstances of each family; this allows women and their families to share their experiences which may improve midwifery practice (Magill- Cuerden 2006). This assignment has outlined the midwife’s responsibilities and roles in the provision of care preconceptually and during the antenatal period. It has demonstrated the uniqueness of each individual pregnancy and how the role of a midwife adapts to provide the care necessary. I have explained my feelings regarding the number of antenatal appointments offered, as well the way in which care is given preconceptually. Word count 2999 Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Colorado State The Connection Between Diabetes and Suburban Sprawl Paper
discussions. I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.
Utilizing the course textbook, respond to the following prompts in 200 words each. Please utiilize APA format. Please utilize prompts as headers:
The first prompt I will need by Wednesday. The others 5 days from the award of the bid. I will extend out the due date if needed.
Discuss the role of the leader of groups involving children. In what ways does the role of the leader in a group involving children differ from a group involving adults? What are some ways that the group leader can influence what happens in a children’s group?
Compare and contrast the role of the group leader in transactional analysis and person-centered groups. Be specific in describing how the two function differently and the overlaps they have. Additionally, what ultimately are the desired outcomes for TA and PC groups described in this chapter? Include in the discussion techniques utilized in each theory, which lead to the desired outcomes. Are these two theories consistent with your faith and the values you intend to implement in practice? What inconsistencies exist? How will you overcome them?
Compare and contrast REBT groups with Gestalt oriented groups. Include different techniques and what the role of the leader is in each group. Also, are the expected outcomes similar or different? Are these two theories consistent with your faith and the values you intend to implement in practice? What inconsistencies exist? How will you overcome them?
Compare and contrast the advantages of Edward DeBono’s Six Hat approach with Robert Eberle’s SCAMPER model in promoting creativity in a group.
4: Exploring geospatial relationships
online homework help 4: Exploring geospatial relationships.
A lot of what we do in GIS wizardry is nothing more than a series of clicks. GIS does a lot of the heavy lifting so why do people get paid so well for doing this? They know the value of good data. If your amazing looking map does not represent data properly then wrong decisions can be made which makes the map worthless. Data like anything in life can be good or bad.In this chapter I want you to do exercise 3a and 3d. You must however do exercises b and c i just don’t need shots of those.Take screen shots after saving at the end of the exercise.
4: Exploring geospatial relationships
Choose a research article related to nursing to critique
Choose a research article related to nursing to critique.
A research critique demonstrates your ability to critically read an
investigative study. For this assignment, choose a research article
related to nursing to critique. Your critique should include the
following: Research Problem/Purpose State the problem clearly as it is presented in the report.Have the investigators placed the study problem within the context of existing knowledge?Will the study solve a problem relevant to nursing?State the purpose of the research. Review of the Literature Identify the concepts explored in the literature review.Were the references current? If not, what do you think the reasons are? Theoretical Framework Are the theoretical concepts defined and related to the research?Does the research draw solely on nursing theory or does it draw on theory from other disciplines?Is a theoretical framework stated in this research piece?If not, suggest one that might be suitable for the study. Variables/Hypotheses/Questions/Assumptions What are the independent and dependent variables in this study?Are the operational definitions of the variables given? If so, are they concrete and measurable?Is the research question or the hypothesis stated? What is it? Methodology What type of design (quantitative, qualitative, and type) was used in this study?Was inductive or deductive reasoning used in this study?State the sample size and study population, sampling method, and study setting.Did the investigator choose a probability or non-probability sample?State the type of reliability and the validity of the measurement tools.Were ethical considerations addressed? Data Analysis What data analysis tool was used?How were the results presented in the study?Identify at least one (1) finding. Summary/Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations What are the strengths and limitations of the study?In terms of the findings, can the researcher generalize to other populations? Explain.Evaluate the findings and conclusions as to their significance for nursing. The body of your paper should be 6 double-spaced pages plus a
cover page and a reference page. The critique must be attached to the
article and follow APA guidelines. APA Help
Choose a research article related to nursing to critique
Melodrama in Realism and Naturalism Essay
Melodrama in Realism and Naturalism Essay. Melodrama French artists coined the term melodrama to refer to plays with exaggerated plots and actors with the purpose of touching the emotions of the audience. The term melodrama has two morphemes that have different etymologies; melos, a French word that means music and drain, a Greek word that means to perform or to do. Artists later adopted the word drain into French and Latin as drama and drama respectively. So, French artists only combined the words melons and drama to form the word melodrama. The most popular American melodrama is considered to be Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Even though her book was a bestseller in the 19th century, the majority of Americans preferred watching the dramatized version in theatres to reading the book from their homes. Historical developments that influenced realism The historical developments that had the greatest influence on realism were the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s. These hard times led to the withdrawal of playwrights and directors from Romanticism. They then focused their attention on the real conditions of human beings in the world. The independent spirits that resulted from the French Revolution led to liberalism in drama. Furthermore, the Industrial Revolution changed the focus of theatre from rich to poor citizens. Directors made plays that reflected the plight of workers employed in the industries and other problems that came with industrialization. They, therefore, painted a pessimistic world, unlike their Romantic predecessors who always portrayed the world as the best place for everybody. Emergence of naturalism Another movement, Naturalism, developed from Realism in the later parts of the 19th century. This movement based its principles on the scientific works of Charles Darwin, who argued that chance, heredity, and the environment are the things that control the fate of human beings. These Darwinian ideologies made playwrights use characters that were controlled by external forces. Realism and Naturalism were similar in the sense that they were both committed to depicting the world in its real sense. Naturalism, however, differed from Realism because it had a clearly defined attitude towards life and playwrights imposed this view of life on their works. Notable 19-century Theatrical Naturalists Emile Zola was the real leader of the literary School of Naturalism. He argued that plays should be true and simple and that theatre should educate people on how to be moral and just. August Strindberg was the founder of modern Swedish literature and theatre. He combined psychology and naturalism and made drama out of them. It was, however, hard to stage his plays because the Royal Theatre did not accept his plays. André Antoine was an actor, theater manager, film director, critic, and naturalist playwright. He advocated for Emile Zola’s ideologies in France and staged performances based on Zola’s plays. Meaning of the term Realistic The term realistic in its literal usage means something that is not imaginary; one that can be seen. In literary works, the term realism refers to plays that directly expose particular evils, especially among leaders, without using a figurative language. The meaning of this word in the 19th-century drama was different. Then, it referred to the movement in art that represented the world as it was; with minimal imaginations and emotions. Modern drama should embrace the meaning of realism as purposed by the 19th-century drama and eliminate unrealistic elements like science fiction from modern drama. A Doll’s House I would adopt most characters as they are, but empower Norah to fight for her rightful place without leaving her house. She would be equally learned to challenge Krogstad with facts instead of running away from home the way Ibsen’s Norah does. I would create Norah who would go to court to ask for a divorce because women of the 21st century are educated and usually challenge their husbands as equals. Melodrama in Realism and Naturalism Essay