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Collin County Community College US Constitution Argumentative Research Essay

Collin County Community College US Constitution Argumentative Research Essay.

Instructions for Essay #3
Instructions for Essay #3The Argumentative Research Essay Purpose: To persuadeAudience: Diverse / Educated adults.Length: 5-6 pages (1500 – 1800 words)Research & Documentation: Minimum of 6 sources with MLA citationsVisual Element: At least one visual element embedded in the essay (chart, graph, photo, etc.) Your final essay will be an argumentative research essay. Once again I expect you to “join a conversation,” quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing from outside sources, while at the same time making your own individual contribution to the topic. You will choose your topic from the New York Times “Room for Debate.” Go to: and view the many topics available. For each topic there are multiple viewpoints. These will be a central part of the “conversation” to which you respond. Most topics have between five and eight separate viewpoints. Read all of them. Then begin formulating your own argument in response. While I don’t expect you to quote or summarize from each individual viewpoint for your topic, you should quote, paraphrase, summarize from at least three them. In addition to the articles on the Room for Debate pages, you will be required to conduct additional research to support your argument. This research can come from any reputable source. See “Evaluating Sources” for tips on selecting reputable, scholarly sources.Whichever topic you choose, you will eventually need to develop an argumentative thesis statement that clearly identifies your position on the topic. Remember that a thesis for an argumentative essay should be debatable and should clearly take a stand. Refer to the readings in this section to help you create a debatable thesis statement.To supplement your argument, you must also include at least one visual element in your essay. The visual element can be a chart, graph, photograph or illustration. The visual should be used in such a way as to support the ideas and arguments in your essay and it should be embedded within the body of your essay (not added as an attachment or link). Identify the source of your images next to the image in a textbox or within the body of the corresponding paragraph. To help you choose or create a visual element, refer to the reading in this unit on Visual Rhetoric.Finally, now would be a good time to review the readings from part one of this course, particularly those on integrating quotations and citing sources. It is not enough to simply meet the research requirement by throwing in a quote here and there. I want to see that you can integrate the ideas of others neatly into your own argument.NOTE: is not 100% free. It allows users to access 10 articles per month for free. Once you reach that limit, the website will ask that you subscribe. Subscriptions start at about two dollars a week–less than a cup of coffee. While I strongly recommend that you subscribe, at least until the course is over, there are a variety of ways to access the content you need, including saving articles to your computer or changing computers when your 10 article limit is up.
Collin County Community College US Constitution Argumentative Research Essay

Sustainable AG Answer Questions.

1. The focus of agroecology involves Increasing the diversity of plants and organisms in a given area Increasing conservation of soil-water resources Sustaining long-term productivity of the soil A & B only 2. Sustainable agriculture means going back to what our grandparents did or involves rejecting appropriate technology. True False 3. Agriculture systems can be studies from various levels of organization and viewpoints. The levels of organization include Individual Population Community Ecosystem All of the above 4. Explain three components of agricultural history that has impacted how farms are managed today. 5. The movement to domestication of agriculture involved the transition of humans from the hunter-gatherer to agriculture/crop producers. This first step of humans becoming farmers had many hurdles and losses. Explain two issues that humans encountered during this transition period, AND, explain how this problem has been resolved in the 21st century. 6. Compare and contrast what you have learned about sustainability and agroecology. Do the two terms refer to the same concept? 7. Detail and describe your understanding of the Three “E’s” of Sustainability. 8. Using an example, please describe how selection of the TYPE of farming operation can impact the cash flow / income for the business. 9. Develop a stance on conventional agriculture (either pro or con). Create an outline of information that supports your stance – be sure to relate this to whole world food supply. 10. Distinguish between incremental and transformative approach to sustainability. Use examples of where we may have seen each approach. 11. Agriculture is a dynamic practice which requires farmers and producers to adapt. Describe 3 influences/forces that require change in farming practices. 12. Write one question that summarizes at least 2 modules that we completed (for example, history and conventional practices), and develop a complete answer for this question. *Note – this is not an easy task – you will need to develop a question to describe a large amount of material. Be thoughtful when developing this question! Module 1: What is Sustainability? What is Agroecology, and how are they different? Module 2: The History of Agriculture Module 3: Sustainable Farming Practices — Will it Cash Flow? Module 4: The 3 “E”‘s of Sustainability Module 5: Conventional Farming or Sustainable Farming…….is there a “right” or “wrong” way to produce food??Answer every question in detail 1-3 Paragraphs
Sustainable AG Answer Questions

Advantages and Disadvantages of Building Restoration

Advantages and Disadvantages of Building Restoration. Using examples explore the advantages and disadvantages of allowing redevelopment and reconstruction of historic buildings. For the purposes of this discussion it is primarily important to determine what is meant by historic and to rationalize the terms redevelopment and reconstruction. The terms will be used in the context of preserving and conserving buildings. This includes maintaining their predominant features and characteristics, whilst enhancing new features in keeping with the style and building constraints relating to traditional use of materials and resources. According to English Heritage buildings exist across the UK that span over a thousand years. They also work with the Department of Culture, Media and Sport and local authorities to allocate buildings such as these according to their criteria for listing – or categorizing for the purposes of their historic importance. These are identified using the following criteria: Those having architectural interest: buildings which are nationally important for the interest of their architectural design, decoration and craftsmanship; also important examples of particular building types and techniques. Those deemed of historic interest: this includes buildings which illustrate important aspects of the nation’s social, economic, cultural or military history. A variety of places that have a close historical association with nationally important buildings or events. Places which have group value, especially where buildings are part of an important architectural or historic group or are a fine example of planning (such as squares, terraces and model villages) [1] English Heritage define historic in relation to a number of factors. All buildings constructed before 1700 are automatically listed. Similarly this is the case with most properties up to 1840. A number of post 1945 buildings are also included in these terms. A comprehensive breakdown of listed buildings statistics across the UK is illustrated below: 38% are domestic dwellings 15% date from before 1600 nearly 20% date from the 17th century 31% from the 18th century 32% from the 19th century 3% from 1900-1944 0.2% from 1945 or later[2] Introducing conventional features can have negative consequences on properties such as those defined above. Not only for cosmetic or domestic purposes but also in relation to implementing safety measures into a property. and accessibility by way of lifts and hand rails etc for the benefit of people with disabilities. There is also a trend for interpreting properties of historical interest into entertainment or ‘edutainment’ orientated experiences which can be argued devalues the historic importance and often encourages historical inaccuracy from the learning perspective. The final consideration to be made in relation to this essay question is the notion of whether old buildings should remain preserved exactly as they are without any enhancement, improvements, additions or restorations. That they should reflect the period they were constructed in and be immortalized as a historical or scientific study. This paper will seek to exemplify many of these issues relating to the redevelopment and reconstruction of historic buildings which covers a broad argument for discussion. The English Tourist Board published a paper in 1991 entitled ‘Maintaining the Balance’ which proposed new schemes designed to ensure that historic town environments worked in sync with their communities whilst providing the visitor with a traditional experience. Visitor Management Plans were adopted and Town Centre Managers were recruited as means of taking these initiatives forward. The conservation and preservation of built heritage often involves maintaining tight restrictions and limited planning opportunities which is not conducive to new housing projects or business opportunities which could generate enterprise and economic benefits. Instead many of the UK’s classified historic towns remain stagnant and non progressive.[3] Similarly there are currently plans to renovate and restore the city centre of Amsterdam in keeping with its cultural heritage. The city centre is divided by two groups of residents. One enjoys the aesthetic benefits of living in this area, while the second are simply living centrally for the purposes of work and being close to amenities. This second group is unconcerned with the historical importance of the city and is not prepared to invest in maintaining or developing it as such. Often when areas such as this are under preservation orders high costs are incurred for maintenance and renovation in the style accustomed to the period. This in turn raises the rents of properties which become too high for existing residents to afford, eventually forcing them out of their homes, as is feared in Amsterdam.[4] When considering the practical aspects of individual houses, when a building is disassembled or exposed for the purposes of renovation or reconstruction, a great many vital elements which are original to its heritage can be lost. This might include clay or lime mortars used in between joist, foundations and chimney linings. Wooden frames held together by pegs can fracture if disengaged and it is crucial that that high levels of carpentry skills and traditional craftsmanship techniques are applied when rebuilding and renovating buildings.[5] There are an abundance of sites, Museums and stately homes which are testaments to ‘living history’ and function for the benefit of the public across the world today. Colonial Williamsburg and the Historic Charleston Foundation in the United States, Slave Forts in Africa and Weald and Downland Open Air Museum in the UK to name a few. They all encourage the preservation of old buildings. With this redevelopment comes the opportunity of numerous availability of grants and Heritage Lottery funding to help with this process. They enable people to remain aware of what is important historically and that reflects the lives and communities from which we all originate. People managing these processes need the necessary expertise with which to achieve these renovations and reconstructions. Acquiring documentation of age is essential as is being true to the period in which it was built architecturally. Architectural historians in the United States for example have divided buildings into around half a dozen significant periods of half a century each. These phases are then sub-divided into over-lapping periods. Even then not all of these categories are universally recognized.[6] This suggests reason enough for ensuring that each building selected for re-development is accurately assessed and renovated accordingly and appropriately. It is important also to remember that this is not a new phenomenon. In 1877 the painter and writer William Morris wrote a manifesto against the proposed restoration of Tewkesbury Abbey. During this and subsequent periods architects considered restoration to be about changing a building for the purposes of altering it to reflect its key historical importance. For example during the late nineteenth century many Anglo-Saxon churches in the UK were ‘restored’ into Gothic interpretations. This was a reflection of people’s attitudes then surrounding medieval masons, who were deemed uninitiated into religion. Consequently the Gothic form and design purported to purist representations and was in essence closer to God.[7] It is important then to remember that when renovating buildings they do not become exploited for the benefit of contemporary tastes and trends. It can be argued that many of these ‘living history’ experiences have become just that and are able to be devalued very easily. Accuracy based on the facts available to the architects is what should remain of paramount importance when reconstructing any historic building. One of the most exceptional examples of reconstruction to be seen today is with the city of Warsaw in Poland. During the Second World War over 85% of the city centre was destroyed. A huge campaign and total restoration took place over a number of years. The results of which stand today including replica churches, palaces and a market places all sensitively and historically representative of a history which spans some eight hundred years in its reconstruction. [8] On the other hand reconstruction is never going to be entirely accurate in some instances and it is these examples that encourage debate. Take for example the tourist reconstruction site at Mount Vernon in Washington where the coach house, slave quarters/ greenhouse and ‘stercorary’ have all been restored following fire damage that occurred in the mid nineteenth century. Some of which was based on documents and reminiscence accounts from past generations. Parts of the stercorary were rebuilt in 2001 incorporating the original cobbled stones and brickwork uncovered by archaeologists with research sourcing a drawing from 1807 which provided structural accuracy to be maintained. However when builders came to reconstruct the blacksmiths shop the old plantation ledgers illustrated detailed records pertaining to its location and activities. Whilst other archives provided details relating to the working blacksmiths themselves. Nonetheless contradictions began to appear relating to the shop’s exact location and its appearance during the year 1799. This contention has raged for over fifty years and has raised all the issues regarding physical reconstruction and the amount of evidence that is required in order to support the justification for re-building the property without sufficient authenticity.[9] Another similar example of this where reconstruction has been curtailed is with the handling of Franklin Court in Philadelphia, the residencies of the former President Benjamin Franklin. During the 1970’s an extensive programme of research both archaeological and archival was carried out on the assumption that the house and grounds would be renovated and fully furnished into an interpretative museum. But the research revealed little evidence of any pictures or drawings of what the house had actually looked like. Consequently no reconstruction took place other than the outbuildings and grounds which had retained more documented evidence. Proving that accuracy is reassuringly not always taken for granted in this type of work. Future functional requirements of a building are also aspects of development to consider within a historic building, as the law now governs that public buildings need to comply with the DDA (Disability Discrimination Act) by ensuring they have accessible routes both internal and external as well as ramps, lifts and toilets where necessary. This legislative requirement has had an impact on the way in which many historic buildings have had to alter their environment, which is of course an enormous and necessary benefit for people with a disability; although it remains one more area of concern where public renovations and redevelopments are taking place. The most heated debate in terms of redevelopment of historic buildings is of course a matter of architectural and archaeological appreciation. Some sites are considered simply not available to be rebuilt. Sites such as Pompeii for example or the Pyramids of Egypt. They are revered as preserved examples of the past, museums in their own right. They consist of ruins which are fragile and vulnerable. If these ruins become too fragile or it becomes impossible to maintain them then it is understandable that some sort of structure may have to be built around them. This may of course eventually decrease the visual enjoyment of a historical building which is why so many sites of importance are now being re-built. Such historical monuments are now able to be reconstructed far more easily by way of digitization. Several digital projects of this type exist for educational purposes and are becoming more widespread. In addition many historic houses like the Queens House in Greenwich, London provide significant 3D models that demonstrate the different architectural development of the construction and alterations over time. [10]Technology has become so precise and truthful in its interpretations that this may prevail as the preferred method of reconstruction and development in the future. Many historic buildings get demolished just because they are old, so the modern appreciation for rebuilding and conserving these properties are essential to maintaining the cultural heritage of nations throughout the world. However it is important that the historic environment from which they have descended is fully understood. The right skills, techniques and materials from an archaeological perspective are fundamental to ensuring this process is achieved accurately and sensitively. Bibliography Deben, L, Salet, W (2004) Cultural heritage and the future of the historic inner city of Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis Smith, M.K, Robinson, and S.M (2006) Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (re)presentation: Channel View Publications Paravalos, P (2006) Moving a House with Preservation in Mind: Rowman Altamira Nash, G (2003) Renovating Old Houses: Bringing New Life to Vintage Homes: Taunton Press Sickles-Taves, L (1999) The Use of and Need for Preservation Standards in Architectural Conservation: ASTM International Jameson, J.H (2004) The Reconstructed Past: Reconstructions in the Public Interpretation of Archaeology and History: Rowman Altamira Fitch, J.M (1990) Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World: University of Virginia Press, 1990 Sourced from:, Date accessed, 20/11/08 Sourced from:, Date accessed, 20/11/08 [1] Sourced from:, Date accessed, 19/11/08 [2] Sourced from:, Date accessed, 19/11/08 [3] Smith,M.K, Robinson,S.M (2006:292) Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (re)presentation: Channel View Publications [4] Deben,L,Salet,W (2004:247-248) Cultural heritage and the future of the historic inner city of Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis [5] Paravalos,P (2006: 62-63) Moving a House with Preservation in Mind: Rowman Altamira [6] Nash,G (2003:21) Renovating Old Houses: Bringing New Life to Vintage Homes: Taunton Press [7] Sickles-Taves,L (1999: 14) The Use of and Need for Preservation Standards in Architectural Conservation: ASTM International [8] Sourced from:, Date accessed, 20/11/08 [9] Jameson,J.H (2004: 80) The Reconstructed Past: Reconstructions in the Public Interpretation of Archaeology and History: Rowman Altamira [10] Sourced from:, Date accessed, 20/11/08 Advantages and Disadvantages of Building Restoration

The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades Essay

research paper help The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades is a book written by Paul Cobb. Being a Professor of Islamic History, he deepened into this topic for a long time and received an opportunity to provide his readers with the most significant historical information. In addition to that, the author had written two other books in this sphere that were highly appreciated by professionals, which proves that The Race for Paradise is an authoritative and reliable source of information. In his work, Cobb revealed an Islamic view on those events that are usually described from the European side. The professional did not stop on those simple explanations of the Crusades’ history during the Middle Ages and disclosed more complex ideas. He discusses the Crusades in the framework of European expansion that reached Islamic countries. The book consists of seven chapters, prolog, and afterword. In addition to that, it includes additional sections, such as acknowledgments, maps and illustrations, a note about names, principal historical figures and dynasties, abbreviations, notes, bibliographic sketch, and index. It focuses on the Islamic leaders and politics of crusading territories from the 11th to the 15th fifteenth centuries. Thus, while western professionals discuss “the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and North Africa and the Middle East” as separate areas of conflict, Cobb claims that they gathered for “global Frankish assault on Islam” (156). He states that Frankish people (western European Christians) interfered with religion and politics. Regardless of their modern views, they took slaves and cooperated with some Muslim leaders against those who supported other Franks so that Islam and Christianity competed (278). Even though the history of the Crusades cannot explain current struggles, it allows the readers to find out how Christians and Muslims were connected in the past. Cobb based his writing on qualitative research, literature review, in particular. Then he analyzed obtained information and interpreted it from his point of view. He refers to the multidisciplinary approach to discuss a wide variety of features that can be observed in the opposition between Christianity and Islamic religion. Cobb provides information in a logical order and includes many details and clarifications to enhance readers’ understanding. Even though his book can be too complicated for school children, its main ideas are likely to be understood by everyone. Being an Islamic scholar, the author received an opportunity to reach a lot of sources that are generally difficult to find. He based his book on authentic Islamic sources that are considered to be reliable by other professionals as well, such as those written in the eleventh century. What is more, he worked with sources written in Arabic, which provided Cobb with the opportunity to use those books and articles that were not translated in English. It also means that a lot of his sources are new and were not utilized by other scientists and researchers who discussed his topic. Cobb prefers to refer to the writings of Islamic contemporaries instead of western ones, as they consider everything from the Christian point of view. In this way, there is a high possibility of the fact that Cobb reveals information that was not previously discovered by others, which makes his work even more critical. The author made his book not very difficult to read and understand so that it can be useful even for those readers who are not involved in the sphere but are interested in history. Even though a lot of complex and compound sentences are used, it does not affect the understanding adversely, as many explanations are added. Still, it cannot be denied that the language is not very simple and that some people will find reading this source challenging. Fortunately, Cobb added several sections that made it easier to work with the book and perceive the information written in it, such as maps and illustrations or a list of names of historical figures. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to this book, I got to know a lot of interesting facts about the confrontations between Muslims and the participants of the Crusades. I realized that the first experienced various situations during the holy war and found out that some Muslims and Franks cooperated successfully even though they are believed to be at enmity. My attention was attracted by the way different groups of people responded to the threat, as in the majority of sources they are divided just to leaders and the general public. I realized that for medieval Muslims, the Crusades turned out to be not only religious but also cultural, diplomatic, commercial and political events that affected their reality and reshaped it. They made Muslims ponder and master international relations. Cobb does not only focus on the information received from the authoritative sources but also adds his own explanations and ideas. In this way, he improves readers’ understanding but also increases risks of implementing biases. For example, he adds his assumptions: “initially – and perhaps fittingly” (Cobb 45). It would be better if only objective information was provided for the readers so that they could make their own interpretations and conclusions. Work Cited Cobb, Paul. The Race for Paradise: An Islamic History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Negotiation, Pricing and Conflict Resolution Essay

Table of Contents Cost-volume-profit analyses (CVP) ADR acronym Identifying the problem References Cost-volume-profit analyses (CVP) Cost-volume-profit analyses (CVP) are managerial accounting systems that offer procedures for analyzing the ability and viability of growing a business. To understand the company’s future performance, they need to look at the effects the shift in volume has on the business cost structure. This narrows down to understanding the different types of costs incurred and knowing the implications they have on the business’s profitability. “Variable costs vary in direct proportion to the changes in the level of activities” within the industry (Albretch et al., 2010). For example, sales commissions, direct labor, and natural materials costs will increase with each produced extra output unit. An example is, if a doughnut shop sells more doughnuts, the total cost of ingredients goes up, and this cost is what is referred to as the variable cost. On the other hand, fixed costs are not affected by the change in volume and level of activity within the business. Costs such as property taxes, rents, and administrative salaries are examples of fixed costs (Albretch et al., 2010). For example, even if more doughnuts are sold in a food outlet, the cost of rent and property taxes will still remain constant. Most companies strive to reduce fixed costs so as to increase profitability. For example, airlines have higher fixed costs that include maintenance, reservation, and gate charges. During lean years, airlines struggle with the fixed costs, whereas during boom years, they reap huge profits from the high turnover of passengers. ADR acronym ADR acronym for Alternative dispute resolution refers to the informal processes of dispute resolution, where a meeting is arranged between the disputants and the third party, which helps in finding an amicable solution to the problem. Arbitration and mediation are the most commonly used forms of ADR. In arbitration, the third party holds hearings, and the disputants are given a chance to express their problems and concerns (Cohen, 2005). After sufficiently listening to concerns raised by both sides, arbitrators deliver a decision that is deemed as appropriate and fair to both parties. Arbitrators set the amount of time that will be spent on the hearings and the decision-making process. One of the advantages of arbitrating is that both parties are given a chance to air their grievances. Thus the judgment is perceived as just and fair. In organizations, managers acting as arbitrators demonstrate control by making decisions that conform to the organization’s objectives and goals (Cohen, 2005). The disadvantage of arbitration is that the arbitrator retains so much control, and the disputants will blame the arbitrator if they think the decision was unfair. The disputants might not also own the decision since they didn’t participate in formulating the solution. Meditation brings the disputants together and assists the parties in the collaborative problem- solving procedure (Cohen, 2005). Disputants are allowed to raise their concerns, and only those solutions that are accepted by the disputing parties are adopted. The advantage of mediation is that disputants have more control over the process; thus, they are likely to find the decision more just and fair. Mediation also promotes collaborative and creative problem-solving skills that parties can use in future conflicts. However, mediators are sometimes forced to adopt the decisions made by the disputants even if they are not always viable (Cohen, 2005). Furthermore, mediation consumes a lot of time and involves a lot of work, and in some instances, some disputes are still left unsolved. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I would choose a hybrid approach to benefit from the merits of arbitration and mediation. I would use the mediation-arbitration procedure whereby the third party would facilitate meditation and set the timeline by which the solution must be found. If the parties fail to reach a resolution by the given timeline, then the mediator would turn into the arbitrator and find a solution to the problem. Identifying the problem I would advise a coworker who is unable to make a decision to follow the steps outlined below. According to Walker et al. (2009), the first step is identifying the problem that is accepting that the problem exists and a solution must be found. If it is a big problem, break it into smaller components that are easier to handle. The colleague should then analyze the situation by studying it closely and finding out the underlying causes. After that, they must set up the goals that they expect the solutions to fulfill, under the guidance of their priorities and values. The next step is to outline the numerous practical alternatives that can solve the problem and analyze the viability and benefits of each solution (Walker et al., 2009). After a comprehensive analysis of the other options, they should select the most viable one and start using it immediately. The next step is accepting the responsibility and consequences that arise from the decision, and lastly, they should evaluate the outcomes of the decision so that they can determine its effectiveness. References Albretch, S., et al. (2010). Accounting: concepts and applications. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning. Cohen, R. (2005). Students resolving conflict: peer mediation in schools. Glenview, Illinois: Good Year Books. Walker, K., et al. (2009). Improving your decision-making skills. Web.

SOCW 6456 WU Social Work Practice with Couples & Family Systems Discussion

SOCW 6456 WU Social Work Practice with Couples & Family Systems Discussion.

I’m working on a writing project and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Assignment: Treatment Planning for Couples and Families Experiencing Pervasive Mental Illness or Health IssuesAs you explored in this week’s Discussion, assessment becomes more complex if a couple or family member shows signs of pervasive mental illness or a significant health concern. Using theory-based interventions may help you navigate this challenging terrain.For this Assignment, consider a couple/family where one member has a severe and persistent mental illness. (Note: This may be a fictitious case or a case from your professional experience). Think about how you would conceptualize the couple’s/family’s problems using the lens of your chosen theoretical orientation. Using the Walden Library, locate two evidence-based journal articles that support interventions for the present issue.The Assignment (2–3 pages)Identify the pervasive mental illness or health concern present in the couple/family.Conceptualize the couple’s/family’s problem through your chosen theoretical orientation.Design a treatment plan including short- and long-term goals.Explain two evidence-based interventions you would use to address the couple’s/family’s issues and how you would use them. (Note: The interventions may not emerge from your chosen theoretical orientation.)Justify the intervention you selected with two evidence-based research articles.Assgn 9 Gurman, A. S., Lebow, J. L., Snyder, D. K. (2015). Clinical handbook of couple therapy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Chapter 14, “Couple Therapy for Partner Aggression”Chapter 22, “Couple Therapy and Depression”Chapter 23, “Couple Therapy and Medical Issues”
SOCW 6456 WU Social Work Practice with Couples & Family Systems Discussion