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Collective Bargaining Development in the USA Research Paper

Collective Bargaining Development in the USA Research Paper. Collective bargaining entails a series of negotiations between employers and the representatives of workers with the major aim of arriving at an agreement to regulate, improve, or enhance the conditions of working. In the current labor market, Marczely (2008) is of the view that trade unions are charged with the role of ensuring workers are not subjected to inhuman conditions that degrade them. Through the process of collective bargaining, the writer notes that the two parties usually agree to set out a wage scale, working hours, the training needs, healthcare issues, overtime, conflict resolution, mechanisms, rights, freedoms, and safety of workers as they undertake their normal duties in their respective stations. The author’s views are valid and credible in the sense that he captures the most important aspect of trade unions since they are expected to engage in talks with a single employer or group of employers representing various businesses. He further observes that the country’s laws usually determine the terms and conditions of negotiating, but the aim is always to reach at a consensus in order to prevent conflicts, as they have the potential of bringing down the performance of the organization. In this regard, his ideas are reliable because the negotiated agreement serves as the labor contract between the employees and business owners. In many countries, workers in various sectors, including both public and private sectors, are supposed to present their grievances through the trade unions. The United States is one of the countries that witnessed a complex collective bargaining process. Some analysts are of the view that the country has the best trade unions with the capacity to fight for the rights of workers appropriately. The paper looks at the developments of collective bargaining in the country with the aim of drawing a conclusion on whether the process has been successful. In their view, Haber, Malin-Adams, and Khamalah (2008) observe that employees of any country are allowed to present their issues through unions. Again, they analyze the idea suggesting that the US constitution allows members of any trade union to force their employers to provide for them what they want. They trace the activities of unions to the National Labor Relations Act (1935), which talk about the relationship between the employed and the employers. They further note that the bill was introduced specifically to address the issues of employees in the private sector who were often oppressed. In the 1935 law, the researchers note that the employer was prohibited from spying on the worker, discriminating them based on gender, race, and age, harassing them, and firing workers without giving sufficient reason and following the due process. At the time, employers were concerned with the rate at which trade unions were being formed in the country forcing some to develop strategies to counter the trend. The ideas of the scholars are reliable because organizations formed trade unions that served their interests, something that the 1935 law attempted to address. Unfortunately, the article tends to suggest that the law protected the employer as well because it was against antitrust in the sense that members would not fix high wages and salaries for their services. Again, they observed that it was illegal to force an individual to belong to a trade union or hire them based on the opinion on labor organizations. Klein (2014) noted that workers were empowered further in the subsequent years because voting was made free and fair particularly to reflect the national presidential and local elections. In his analysis workers were influenced to vote for particular members, especially those believed to represent the interests of employers. The owners of the means of production understood that trade unions existed to empower and enlighten workers on wages, conditions of work, and benefits. Electing radical leaders to high offices was considered disastrous since organizations would not have the power to determine salaries, which would have an effect on the profitability and financial performance of organizations. On the side of employers, the author noted that it was determined that the senior management was supposed to negotiate with worker’s representatives on behalf of stakeholders. The ideas of the scholar present accurately the demands of workers at the time, as he noted that the main issues that affected workers were setting up of commensurate wages, establishing the required work hours, calculation of benefits, the conditions of employment, and the issue of inappropriate firing. He also captured an important aspect on the development of collective bargaining claiming that individual negotiations have never been allowed since the organizational management is likely to cajole a single worker to accept a faulty decision, something that validates his study. The process of designing a contract between workers’ unions and managements of various companies is bureaucratic since a team sits down with the management before approving the new contract. Each worker has the chance to participate in the process by voting to the already formulated policy. Once the policy or contract is approved through a simple majority vote, it is expected to serve its purpose for a specified period upon which reforms are undertaken to ensure it meets the current needs of both parties. Memoli and Semuels (2011) conducted a study concluding that, in at least twenty-eight states in the country, each employee is expected to contribute towards the trade union account since it facilitates of the effecting handling of issues. The researchers note that, even though no specified amount is set, many states suggest one or two percent of the salary. The expenditure of union dues has been a cause of disagreement in the country prompting the Supreme Court intervention. In Ohio for instance, the scholars note that the judges ruled that the workers unions do not have the authority to utilize an individual’s dues without consent because leaders tend to misuse resources in facilitating political debates that do not bring benefits to workers. Before industrial revolution, the issue of collective bargaining was never coordinated since workers in each organization had to fight their way. However, the enhancement of the industrial sector was a blessing to the trade unionists since it facilitated the formation of various labor organizations throughout the country. In the late 19th century, Kiely (2007) observed that the American Federation of Labor was created, which improved the bargaining power of many employees in the country. In 1926, the scholar clarified that employees in the railway industry participated in the formulation of the Railway Labor Act forcing each employee to channel his or her grievances through the trade union, which was a turning point in the activities of workers aimed at improving their welfare. The court reaffirmed in 1931 that its previous decision prohibiting employers from interfering with the process of electing union officials, as this had a direct impact on the employee’s bargaining power. In 1962, the administration in the US bowed down to pressure when the president, F. Kennedy, issued a directive order permitting workers in the civil service to form unions that would play a role as far as bargaining collectively was concerned. References Haber, L., Malin-Adams, N.,Collective Bargaining Development in the USA Research Paper

California State University Fullerton Anthropological Analysis of Friends Essay

California State University Fullerton Anthropological Analysis of Friends Essay.

Watch an episode of a sitcom (comedy series) or a drama series on television or any online media services such as Netflix, Hulu or Amazon.com. Record the number of representatives of different identity groups (ethnic, racial gender, age, class, sexuality, religion and so on) that appear in the show, also record the role that each person plays. In a substantive 2-3 double-spaced pages long essay, answer the following questions:How many different groups were represented?What groups were most represented? Why do you think this is so?What groups were least represented? Why do you think this is so?What differences (if any) were there in the roles that members of the various groups played? Did one group lay more sophisticated or more glamorous roles than others?In how many cases were people represented in stereotypical roles – for example, women as homemakers? What stereotypes were reinforced?What do your finding suggest about the power of the media and their effect on identity formation and intercultural communication? (Think about avowal, ascription, and interpellation from last week).
California State University Fullerton Anthropological Analysis of Friends Essay

one-sample t-test

essay help online For this assignment, use data you downloaded in your W1 Project. ATTACHED Suppose you have information that the average stress score of students in online universities is 13.15. Using Microsoft Excel, compute a one-sample t-test to find out whether the stress scores reported by your sample are significantly different from those of the population of online students. Move your output into a Microsoft Word document. Write one paragraph to explain how you located and determined the critical value of t, and how you determined whether your obtained t-statistic was significant. Write a 1-paragraph, APA-formatted interpretation of the results modeled on the example given in your lecture.

Write a 3pg essay

Write a 3pg essay.

Attached are the powerpoints that cover some of the material. Feel free to use the internet, however, make sure to CITE AND REFERENCE. PLAGIARISM will not be tolerated. Here is the question. Last assignment is devoted to the issue of slavery and the law.The overarching question you must address is how the law was used in the United State to make chattel slavery a race based institution.How did the law differ, if at all, between North and South?How did the federal Constitution deal with slavery, What political and economic forces led to the industrialization of slavery in the South. Why did Dred Scott not decide the issue of slavery?Were the legal principles state by Taney in Dred Scott sound or could the case have benn decided in a less confrontational way?Final, once the Civil ended slavery what steps did Congress take in the form of constitutional amendments and statutes to ensure that slavery would not return and were those steps successful?
Write a 3pg essay

Penn State University Writing Python Code with Tow Task Programming Project

Penn State University Writing Python Code with Tow Task Programming Project.

I’m working on a python question and need a sample draft to help me study.

The attached input data file “Assignment_data_input.csv” contains the information about the passenger’s temperature readings and other Covid-19 symptoms. Using that data identify the passengers who should get Vaccination and who should not. Only the passengers with positive Covid-19 will get the vaccination. The first check should be done for the temperature and if the temperature is above the normal temperature then the other symptoms should be checked. If the temperature is normal then we do not need to check for other symptoms and passengers should be allowed to travel without the Vaccine. The normal temperature should be in the range of 36 Celsius to 37 Celsius. Any temperature above this range should be considered doubtful and hence other symptoms should be checked. Once the temperature check is done then the other three symptoms (Dry Cough, Sour throat and respiratory problems) should be checked. For the conformation of Corona virus, the two symptoms should be yes from the three symptoms mentioned above otherwise the passenger is safe to travel and no vaccination is required. After classifying the passengers the affected passenger’s data should be put in a different output file so that the Vaccination is provided to them. (We will assume that the patients are recovered instantly after the vaccination and allowed to travel- this is a hypothetical situation)For full marks on this task, you need to output the correct number of passengers who have Covid-19 symptoms and need Vaccination in the Vaccine.csv file.Note: You can do the coding using Vim on terminal or Jupyter notebook.Note: You can use procedural programming or Object Orientation programming for this task (both are acceptable). However for the next task it is mandatory to use the OO programming.Airport Conveyer Belt: After the Vaccination process is over, all the passengers are allowed to travel. The attached input file contains the data about the luggage of passengers. Depending upon the weight and dimensions of the luggage, it should be classified into under-weight, appropriate weight and over-weight luggage. You need to check for the weight and dimensions for the luggage. The luggage is divided into four categories in the attached “Assignment_date_input.csv” file. The categories are Very Small, Small, Normal and Big. For the ease of programming the actual dimensions have been avoided. After the identification of luggage it should go to the appropriate belts as described below:a.C1 (Conveyer belt for under-weight luggage)(Assumption: We assume that the under-weight category is less than 30 Kgs and the dimensions of the allowed luggage can be small and normal)b.C2 (Conveyer belt for appropriate-weight luggage)(Assumption: We assume that the appropriate -weight category is equal to 30 Kgs and the dimensions of the allowed luggage can be small and normal)c.C3 (Conveyer belt for over-weight luggage)(Assumption: We assume that the over -weight category is greater than 30 Kgs and the dimensions of the allowed luggage can be normal and big)d.Identified as CL (Cabin Luggage)(Assumption: We assume that the Cabin Luggage category is less than equal to 7 Kgs and the dimensions of the allowed luggage can be very small only)You will have to figure out where should the luggage go and then display where the luggage finally is. You should have 4 output files for the 4 categories mentioned above. Design a menu from where we can go to any of the output file and see the data (which luggage went to which belt along with the other related data of the passenger).For full marks in this section you should have the correct number of luggage items in each output file. The four output files of the task 2 should be in .csv format.Note: You can do the coding using Vim on terminal or Jupyter notebook. For this task you should use classes and objects (eg: passenger and luggage objects) and Object oriented programming concepts.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….You can have two different code files for two different tasks.There should be 5 output files from two tasks mentioned above- one from task1 and 4 from task 2.”Assignment_data_input.csv”

William

30

Normal

37

N

N

N

James

25

Small

36.8

Y

N

N

Harper

21

Normal

36.2

Y

N

N

Mason

33

Normal

36.1

N

Y

N

Ella

30

Small

38

N

Y

N

Oliver

12

Small

39

Y

Y

N

Harry

7

Very Small

38.5

N

Y

Y

Noah

6

Very Small

36.1

N

N

N

Jacob

25

Normal

36

N

N

N

Leo

5

Very Small

38.5

Y

N

Y

Olivia

5

Small

36

N

N

N

Adam

6

Very Small

37

Y

N

N

Oscar

7

Small

36.8

N

N

N

Ava

9

Normal

36.2

Y

N

N

Indie

22

Normal

36.1

N

N

N

Levi

23

Normal

38

N

Y

Y

Ackley

30

Normal

39

N

N

N

Charlotte

54

Big

38.5

N

N

N

Zara

44

Big

36.1

N

N

N

Asha

58

Big

36

N

Y

N

Alice

25

Normal

38.5

Y

N

Y

Gracie

36

Big

36

Y

N

N

Ruby

22

Small

37

N

N

N

Esme

26

Normal

37.5

Y

N

N

Anita

27

Normal

36.4

N

N

N

Anshu

7

Small

36.2

N

N

N

Vishal

7

Normal

38

Y

N

N

Raj

28

Small

37.5

N

Y

N

Ankush

32

Big

37.6

N

N

N

Aryan

30

Normal

37.2

N

N

N

Vikram

31

Normal

36.4

N

N

N

Varun

5

Very Small

36.3

Y

N

N

Isha

33

Normal

38

Y

Y

N

Adrian

21

Small

39

Y

N

Y

Alan

10

Very Small

37.5

Y

N

Y

Aleksa

12

Very Small

36.9

Y

N

N

Luca

15

Small

36.8

N

N

N

Armani

22

Small

36

N

N

N

Romeo

38

Normal

35.9

N

N

N

Gianna

41

Big

36

N

N

N

Angelica

29

Normal

36.2

N

N

N

Benedetta

46

Big

38

Y

N

N

Bianca

13

Small

39

N

Y

Y

Carlotta

48

Big

39.2

N

Y

N

Claudia

16

Normal

38

Y

N

Y

Elana

9

Very Small

39

Y

N

Y

Mark

7

Small

37.5

N

Y

N

David

8

Very Small

36.9

N

Y

N

Elisa

5

Very Small

36.8

Y

N

N

Emilia

27

Normal

36

N

N

N

Emma

26

Normal

35.9

Y

N

N

Gabriella

29

Big

36

N

N

N

Rekha

30

Normal

36.2

N

N

N

Superna

38

Big

38

N

Y

Y

Padmini

35

Big

39

Y

N

N

Ying

46

Big

39.2

Y

Y

Y

Fei

44

Big

35.9

N

N

N

Feng

8

Very Small

36

N

N

N

Bao

4

Very Small

36.2

Y

N

N

Chun

6

Very Small

38

Y

N

N

Huan

7

Small

39

Y

N

Y

Meilin

6

Very Small

39.2

Y

N

N

Shufen

5

Very Small

38

Y

N

N

Yawen

44

Big

39

N

Y

Y

Zhen

59

Big

37.5

N

N

N

Aalam

30

Small

36.9

N

N

N

Abbas

33

Normal

36.8

N

N

N

Abdul

37

Normal

36

N

N

N

Amir

21

Normal

36.2

Y

N

N

Dabria

26

Normal

38

N

N

N

Daewon

24

Small

39

N

N

Y

Fabia

28

Normal

39.2

Y

N

Y

Fahim

45

Big

35.9

Y

N

N

Gael

23

Small

36

N

N

N

Hadwin

37

Normal

36.2

N

N

N

Isla

15

Small

38

Y

N

N

Maya

16

Normal

39

N

N

Y

Lola

30

Small

37.5

Y

N

Y

James

38

Normal

36.9

N

N

N

Hunter

6

Very Small

36.8

N

N

N

Thomas

9

Small

36

N

N

N

Alexander

5

Very Small

36.2

Y

N

N

Cooper

5

Very Small

38

Y

N

Y

Benjamin

6

Small

39

N

N

N

Charlie

58

Big

39.2

N

Y

Y

Ryan

47

Big

35.9

Y

N

N

Max

30

Normal

38

Y

N

N

Edward

30

Big

39

Y

N

Y

Flynn

54

Big

39.2

Y

Y

N

Archer

22

Normal

35.9

Y

N

N

Matthew

23

Normal

36

N

N

N

Tyler

7

Small

36.2

N

N

N

Jesse

4

Very Small

38

N

N

N

Paolo

30

Normal

39

N

Y

N

Martin

51

Big

37.5

N

N

N

Agustin

30

Normal

36.9

Y

Y

N

Vicente

7

Small

36.8

N

Y

N

Mateo

30

Big

36

N

N

N

Juan

30

Small

36.2

Y

N

N

Felipe

30

Big

37

Y

N

Y

Penn State University Writing Python Code with Tow Task Programming Project