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Cognitive Aids for People With Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

Table of Contents Multiple Sclerosis Critical evaluation of Evidence based assistive technologies Importance of assistive technology Relevance to occupational therapy Conclusion References Multiple Sclerosis Over the years, assistive technologies such as personal digital assistant (PDAs) have been used for management of multiple sclerosis. It is evidenced that cognitive impairment can have adverse effects on a patient’s life affecting his daily personal activities as well as family and social life. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of occupational therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis as they assist in managing the symptoms but have failed to provide efficacies of the evidence based methods. Critical evaluation of Evidence based assistive technologies The numbers of studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention of patients with symptoms of multiple sclerosis have not been without criticism. First, extensive literature that covers rehabilitation techniques for cognitive impairment are mostly concentrated on brain injury therapy which is mostly theoretical and fails to demonstrate practical functional improvement of the patient in the real world. Secondly, the emergence of computers in the 1970s introduced gamelike remedial programs that were evidenced to improve memory attention and concentration. Research conducted in this field however did not show results of improved cognitive impairment following use of computer programs as many of the patients recorded high results in game scores which did not reflect in their every day learning activities. This therefore brings us to the conclusion that computer use as compensatory rehabilitation tool may not be affectively applied in remedial therapy (Gentry, 2008, p.18). Desktop task prompting systems such as on screen keyboards specifically developed for people with cognitive impairment are only based on theoretical analysis as they provides no evidence to support on their efficacy in improving patient’s functional performance. Another study conducted to asses the Psion Organizer, as a memory aid in patients with brain injury did show limitations of the evidence based practices despite remarkable improvement in functionality of the patient after practice. The problem, however, is that, memory aid used in cognitive impairment recorded high levels of response to Psion Organizer as a reminder system but failed to describe how participants were trained and track functional outcomes (Gentry, 2008, p.19). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Electric reminder systems that include cognitive aids tools such as electric pager, voice recorder and cell phone have widely been reported in numerous case studies to help people with cognitive disability carry out their daily activities by helping them stick to one schedule. Although userbility of reminder system have showed improvement after administration, the assistive technology only displayed minimum functions that were used in the study hence unreliability of the results. It has also been argued that cognitive aids rely on theoretical research which is drawn from client-based practices, innovation theories and cognitive rehabilitation theories. Since theoretical based studies such as client-centered practice involve the collaboration of a patient and a clinician in solving everyday functional problems, use of assessment tools such as Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) need adequate and thorough training which was not administered in the beginning of the case study (Gentry, 2008, p.19). Importance of assistive technology Different practices relate to different functional needs, and as Takai (1986) affirms, most of the assistive tools are widely found, durable, pocket size, light-weighted and offer multiple organizational functions that are very beneficial. For example, assistive technologies used in cognitive impairment that include hand held computers, dressing sticks, adopted clothing and button aides are simplified, easy to adopt and affordable as they enhance functional independency. Feeding devices for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that include electronic feeders and fore-arm orthoses have enabled patients improve articulation. Reports from Takai (1986), case study indicated that after practice, many patients with muscle weaknesses were able to draw diagrams, feed themselves and even limited the number of visits to occupational therapy as they had mastered the adoptive techniques. Other assistive devices such as grab bars, bathseats, walkers among others have been widely credited for increasing independency of multiple sclerosis patients and even improve work life( Finlayson, 2000, p.549). Grasp kinematics that incorporates motor coordination help patients grasp objects and improve muscle movement of patients with amyotrophic lateral scelerosis (Maitra et al, 2010, p.101). The benefit of using hand held computers as an assistive technology is that they are easy to carry around which can be used both at home and in the community. We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive Aids for People With Multiple Sclerosis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The personal electronic devices that included calendars, alarm and memo pads enabled patients to adhere to daily schedules as opposed to paper-based schedules hence. All the participants in the case study demonstrated the ability to operate a PDA functions independently after training as majority of them of them were able to set calendar alarms and perform basic PDA which improved their lives significantly (Gentry, 2008). Relevance to occupational therapy Assistive technology relates to occupational therapy since they represent significant of daily living. In assessing activities of daily lives performance for patients, lower and upper extremity dressing has been showing disparities with patients recording different observable benefits. Occupational therapies for this case should consider all the aspect and incorporate them into patient training activities. Some of the adoptive cognitive aids of dressing that facilitate occupational engagement of wearing slippers instead of shoes as patients experience difficulties in combining socks and shoes together result to decreased mobility since patients may shy away from leaving the house. Occupational therapists should instead fabricate assistive tools that can make dressing easier. Activities that can be incorporated in the program to help these patients quickly adapt to functional independency will require introduction of sitting while dressing and other simple tools that can be used as single items. Therapists for this case should also research into new adoptive methods and incorporate them into patients (Mann et al, 2005, p.406). Assistive technology also relates to occupational therapy since it sufficiently trains individual with cognitive impairment to use therapeutic devices to improve their functional performances and satisfaction of their every day tasks. Occupational therapists engages in facilitating occupational engagement of the patient by encouraging their active participation which helps build self-esteem and deal with the illness amicably (Takai, 1986, p.360). Conclusion The research showed improvement in patient’s functional improvement more specifically in compensatory assistive technology as opposed to remedial therapy. Although this research showed lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of occupational therapy, majority of the patients successively achieved the needs of the assistive devices by partnering with therapists. This therefore brings us to the conclusion that computer use as compensatory rehabilitation tool may not be affectively applied in remedial therapy. Occupational therapies on the other hand should consider all aspect cognitive functionality and incorporate them into patient training activities to help these patients quickly adapt to functional independency. Desktop task prompting systems such as on screen keyboards developed for people with cognitive impairment should provide evidence to support on their efficacy in improving patient’s functional performance. References Finlayson, M., Guglielmello, L.,

Database Administration- (SQL)

Database Administration- (SQL). I’m studying for my MySQL class and need an explanation.


Brief explanation of the steps in establishing the client/server connectivity and the screenshots of the steps and SQL commands.
Note: Screenshot will share by MS word, So Please find the attached file
3. A:
Consider you are working as a Database Administrator (DBA) in a certain large organization. Protecting data is one of your major tasks in the day-to-day operations. As a DBA, discuss various steps you would take to ensure proper planning of the database instance redo logs.
Your solution must include the relevant SQL commands and screenshots. The solution must be written in a maximum of 3 pages, But screenshot are not counted.
3. B:

Explanation of Cloud Database (2 to 3 pages)

-Kindly make sure of, zero similarity in turn it in
-Use easy language
-Adequate referencing (in CU Harvard style), Book referencing
Database Administration- (SQL)

UC Irvine MDG in Promoting Global Equality & Millennial Development Brainstorm Discussion

assignment writing services UC Irvine MDG in Promoting Global Equality & Millennial Development Brainstorm Discussion.

In addition to this discussion, please submit the citation information (e.g., author name(s), year published, article title, journal name) for two potential sources that relate to your topic idea. The sources should be published since 2005, but if you can find more recent work, that is best. APA is not required yet, but this is a good time to practice.At the end of the assignment, please provide three questions or concerns about things you are unsure of in the course (e.g., anything that is unclear about a literature review, what counts as a topic, concerns about writing).
UC Irvine MDG in Promoting Global Equality & Millennial Development Brainstorm Discussion

CD 130 CC Purposeful Planning Supporting Rich & Meaningful Play Experiences Discussion

CD 130 CC Purposeful Planning Supporting Rich & Meaningful Play Experiences Discussion.

Purposeful planning helps support rich and meaningful play experiences.It’s important to realize that you have to plan for play! Meaningful, purposeful, fun play doesn’t happen without the right combination of environmental organization, a bounty of good, multi-purposed materials, and thoughtful, intentional planning. A preschool teacher named Ashley has created an interesting website and blog (Links to an external site.) for preschool teachers. She uses some themes in planning, which is not a method supported by our text. But I really liked some of the things she has on her website. I want to be sure that she is acknowledged and given credit for the materials I am sharing here. She doesn’t share her last name, but she calls her blog:I think she’s done a good job of creating a template for planning that can incorporate a play-based philosophy and curriculum. Here is the planning guide she developed:Discussion #2 Prompt:Instructions: You will need to post your post before replying to your classmates. To reply to a peer, click “reply” under their post, type your reply in the text box and click “post reply”. Your initial post is due by Tuesday, Sept. 15th at 11:59pm and the two replies are due by Friday, Sept. 18th at 11:59pm.Part 1: Initial Post In a well-developed paragraph, share your ideas about how a planning guide like Ashley’s can facilitate meaningful, open-ended play for a group of preschool children. Or perhaps you think a planning guide like this might inhibit open-ended play. That’s OK too. What’s important is that you think about what kind of planning best supports open-ended, purposeful play for preschool children and that you share your thoughts with your classmates.You might use your own ideas, information from our Zoom class on 9/8/20, including NAEYC DAP core considerations (Links to an external site.), our text, or other resources in developing your post.Part 2: Replies to 2 Classmates1. Read through several of your classmates posts.2. Please reply to one student whose initial post made you go “Wow! I didn’t think about that! Great idea!” and share with them how you could use their idea in your own planning to support play-based learning.3. Please reply to one student whose initial posts made you go “Whoa!! I need to learn more about this idea!” and ask that student a kind and gracious question to learn more about what they think. For example “You shared that you believe a good preschool planning guide should have a specific time for teaching reading each day. How would you set that up? What would you do to teach reading?” Please note: Be polite and supportive in the way you ask the questions. You want to learn more about what the student posted; you do not want to debate with the student. :-)Submission and GradingInstructions: You will need to post your post before replying to your classmates. To reply to the discussion, click reply on the main instruction page. Type your comments into the text submission box and click “Post Reply.” To reply to a peer, click “reply” under their post, type your reply in the text box and click “post reply”. Your initial post is due by Tuesday, Sept. 15th, 11:59pm and the two replies are due by Friday, Sept. 18th, at 11:59pm.Need help with Canvas?The following Canvas Guides will help you successfully submit this assignment and review your feedback:How do I reply to a discussion as a student? (Links to an external site.)How do I edit or delete discussion replies as a student? (Links to an external site.)How do I view and sort discussion replies as a student? (Links to an external site.)How do I view the rubric for my graded discussion? (Links to an external site.)How do I view grades in a current course?
CD 130 CC Purposeful Planning Supporting Rich & Meaningful Play Experiences Discussion

Strategic performance management

Introduction : The technological growth and the increasing usage of the internet have made every small market a part of a global business centre. Apparently, when the businesses have started reaching to the centres, which were out of reach for many giant businesses in the past, are now the matter on mouse click for even a small business unit. Undoubtedly this had made businesses have more volume but on the other hand it has increased the competition to a heavy extent and this soaring competition has left businesses to work hard to survive. This essay is based on UKs no 1 retail company named Tesco that how it work to improve its performance Tesco was also surviving before in the decade of its beginning. Tesco is Britain’s largest international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. It is the largest British retailer and the world’s third largest grocery retailer. Tesco life was started in 1929 by Jack Cohen in burnt hock , North London. The growth of tesco was continuing and in 1932 tesco became private ltd and in 1947 it became LTD and listed on stock exchange with a share price of 25p. After that it continuous growing and first superstore was opened by tesco in 1968. In 1990 tesco was a small retail market in UK. Over the year tesco have start applying its strategy effectively and efficiently to became one of the biggest retailer in the world. To improve the customer services and to cover the more market share tesco decide to bring the change as a SELF CHECKOUT. What strategy tesco did to became a market leader that is discuss below. STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT provides a detailed blueprint for turning corporate vision into reality – breaking down the things an entity needs to achieve as a business into real actions that can be measured. What is PM (Performance Management)? Performance management (PM) includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, a department, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas. Time intense : It is optional that a manager use about an hour per worker writing presentation appraisals and depending on the number of people being evaluated, it can take long time to write the department’s but also hours meeting with staff to reconsider. I know few managers who had more than 100 people to write PAs on. warning If the procedure is not a pleasant experience, it has the possible to dishearten staff. The procedure wants to be one of support, positive reinforcement and a festivity of a year’s worth of activities It is significant that managers text not only issues that need to be corrected, but also the optimistic things an worker does throughout the course of a year, and both should be discussed during a PA. conflicting Message: If a manager does not keep comments and precise accounts of member of staff behavior, they may not be victorious in sending a reliable message to the employee. We all move violently with remembrance with as busy as we all are so it is significant to document issues (both positive and negative) when it is fresh in our minds. Biases: It is complex to keep biases out of the PA procedure and it takes a very prearranged purpose method and a adult manager to stay unbiased through the practice. Performance Management Model The 7s model was is known as a Mc Kisneys 7s because of two person who has create this model. McKisney’s 7-S framework was designed by Taneters and Robert waterman in 1980. The model was designed to improve the performance of the company and to examin the effect of future changes in the company. In order to improve the improve the performance of the company 7s model was used by Tesco. The Mc Kisneys 7s model include seven interdependent which are categorised as either hard of soft elements. Hard elements are easy to define and management can directly influence them. These are policy statement , organisation chart and reporting line of process in IT system. The model can be used by any organisation in order to improve the performance of the company or team. The best time to use the model is when any organisation merge with any other organisation or the leadership change or a new system were establish in the organisation Strategy : To create a plan to take a advantage of the competitive market Structure : The way that how the structure of the organisation was created System : The daily routine activities in the organisation by managers and employees Style : The way of working or behave to do something different Staff : capability , knowledge and skills of the employees Skills : The actual skill and compentences of the employees working with the organisation Tesco have use the 7s model in two ways. First is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the organisation by gathering all 7s to each other. No S will consider as a strengths and no S will consider as the weakness. How the 7s model made to impact on other all 7s. Though the plan will according to 7s model it will make some effect on the other part of the organisation. Tesco have faced some difficulties to implement the 7s model, tesco wanted to bring the technological change in the organisation as a self checkout which was not a easy task for tesco. There are so many changes to do in the organisation but the area is very big, to implement it there are lot of things which were missing which called 7s features such as this should be bias of action but because of poor data of technology it was very hard to do. This system is new for the customer and it was the first experiment by tesco in retail industry so it was very risky for tesco. Common PM models, MBO, EFQM Excellence Model, BSC and how these are helpful to meet your organizational needs. The EFQM model was introduced in 1992 as the framework for assessing organisation. EFQM model helps organisation to how to make a development plan of the organisation. Where it includes the leaders of the organsition who create a vison of the company and people who helps to achieve the goal and to achieve the goal have to design a strategy that how to achieve the goal. The EFQM is working in a three different part like Input , process and output. In order to improve the cuetomer services EFQM model was adopt by the Tesco. As in leadership shows that tesco mission and objective policy is continuous plan to become market leader. As a first part of the EFQM model it shows input process or output process. The input process is worked in three different section like people , strategy and partnership and resourcs. On that a job has been done by tesco when they decide to bring the technological change in the organisation. To input that change tesco have design a policy that how to implement the plan in the organisation. Once the policy and strategy has been designed than it goes to the next stage which is called process where all the three different inputs have been gathered and put all of them in to process mapping and review, and health and safety plans, EU regulations ,logical framework approach , balance scorecard are self assessment by the IIP. When the process was done there are three other points which mention the output as it results the three points are people result as people satisfaction , customer result as customer satisfaction and the society result as an impact of the society. The whole excellence model put an impact on organisation results as improving the finance indicators and other indicators which support the organisation , the reason is that the employees for organisation, internal audit to support the activities in the organisation which is beneficial for the others who are directly or non directly connected with the organisation. For few years ago employment engaging was a very hot topic in the corporate market. It is a birs phrase which captured the attention of work place observer and hr managers and the executives as well. The main reason to engage the people is to achieve the goal for the organisation. For any organisation it is difficult to achieve the goal if the employees will not work as a team. To create a team top management will design a strategy that how they will have to work. The top management have a power of authority so that they can implement the strategy as which is suitable to achieve the vision. Another part is when a vision or mission is create by the top management they should have to share with the every employees so vision is clear in the mind of every employees and they should also have to discuss about the benefits of the vision that if they achieve then what the benefits the employees will get. The tesco have create the vision to become the market leader in the UK market and for that tesco decide to its customer services. In order to improve customer services tesco decide to bring technology change as a SELFCHECKOUT which was well accept by the customers and as a result the sales of tesco was increased by 4% in just within two months. The co operative plan for tesco with models and approaches, though there are many models were used to achieve the goals but it is dame sure that the goals are SMART means Specific, Measurable, Attainable , Realistic and Time base. If any of them is missing then the vision can not be achieve. Tesco needs to engage the customer by using the power, power means no by the force but by influencing them. Tesco want the give the customer what they need like good customer services etc. which will make the clear way to achieve the goal for the organisation. The graph illustrate the situation of the vision of the tesco which tesco want to achieve. It shows that after implement the self checkout the growth of the company is keep going on. Every vision have some previous category but currently it shows the achievement of tesco from bottom to top level in all categories like change environment etc. Though tesco have well planned policy which help him to improve and also beneficial for the employees. As a strategic manager when you are giving your feedback to any employee of the organisation who is not performing well you should know that you are telling against him. You should have to use the proper communication language which don’t effect the other person in a wrong way. As a manager you are giving your feedback that what you have observe in his job. The feedback should be intentionally but not personally. The impact of your feedback is either positive or negative. A positive feedback have two benefits. First is it gives confidence to the employees to be capable and second one is it helps him to promote his greater success. You must have to know that the motive of the feedback is to give motivation. “Wisdom of Teams “ “A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” The second importance factor on which company is reliable is performance. If the top management and the employees of the company will not perform well then the company will never get progress. The management and the staff are always working in two different types whether they are on X axis or on Y axis. These are the two theories which shows the working criteria of the company. In everu organisation the staff works in two different way. One is theory X and the other is theory Y. On theory X the staff is happy with what ever they have and they do not want to improve any thing though they can improve. The way they work is always repressive , authoritarian and hard control to show no improvement on their services. As a result it became a depressed or dead culture. At the other side in theory Y is focusing on liberating and development. The department ehich need control and always ready for other improvement. Tesco was also facing some problems as a part of theory X but the tesco has improve its technological power to reduce the pressure of work and to improve the customer services and to cover the more market share. Before implementing the self check out there was a threat in the employees that they may loose their job but once they have been trained and they realise the benefits of the new system they became stress free and start enjoying the work mentally and physically. If the organisation is in the stage of theory X then the development will never come and the management will have to use the force or coercion to get the staff compliance. On the other hand in theory Y we don’t need to use the force to make threat. In theory Y there is no need of any kind of improvement in policy which remain stable. So the organisation can motivate the employees by giving them some incentives, good salary package, bonus , reward and many other extra facilities to improve the moral of the employees and reason for this is if the management wants to work with theory Y and staff wants to work with theory X then the company have to focus on the theory X so the incentives will motivate the employees and they will make progress. Political skills Without political skill the Performance management will never complete the major key of the company to fulfil the vision of the company. Though the politics is every where around the world but in the working area we need a positive politics. To manage the environment of the organisation by positioning which increase the creadibility in the pocket by getting some formal and informal success criteria in which the pocket challenge the status for the best term reason of the organisation. J.Chappelet, E.Bayle (2005) “… an effective monitoring system for use in an organisation require an adequate information system that allow quick and flexible input, retrieval, and treatment of information….” As the statement tells about the flexible input, recovery and the treatment of information is essential Tesco do such thing with it to calculate and to observe and give the precedence of benefits, services to get improved and efficient performance by the employees. Tesco was measuring and monitoring the performance of the employees by separating in two parts extrinsic needs and fundamental needs. The extrinsic needs is that which needs external or outside show which is able to gathered the security and social terms like organisation benefits , job satisfaction , salary etc. On other side fundamental needs in built , inherent , legal , natural which collect the opportunities for the individual growth or as a team. “Performance appraisal is nothing but a process by which a manger or a consultant check and judge an employees work behaviour by comparing with the present standard” Tesco have adopt some method to appraise the employees such like : Give staff discount Clubcard bonus Free gift vouchers on some special occasion Salary increase after certain period Providing a good training to employees Ready to take the action against the staff complaint Also communicate with the staff to take some decision about the store Give bonus to the employees These are some appraisal methods which really motivate them to work hard and powerfully. BENEFITS TO EMPLOYEE: By appraisal there are so many benefits which the employees will get like their communication skill will generate and the employees will more focus on the customers and try their best to do good job , what ever the decision they make is more refined and they wil get proposal by appraisal and the main benefit is they can also generate their interpersonal skill which help them to know their job better. Another main benefit is that they can do better planning for the organisation work by heart and they became able to generate their productivity and team work. BENEFITS TO Tesco : After giving the appraisal to the employees the productivity will also increased in the staff members, new ideas will come in front of the management from the employees , team work will generate in all tesco workers , critical problems were solved and get possibility to improve the sales of the organisation by good performance of the team. FINDING AND RECOMMENDATION: The changes are cery big in the organisation. The tesco should make working policy to improve the performance and make a step which will guide them at every step. The Tesco is very vast by burden and it can consider the change in such a way to implement it. In any organisation change will take some time which organisation cant show clearly. There should be a tile limit for every vision which they cant go over the boundry. The theory which is based on the strategy can make better in compare to others, at the end when they see that how much the benefit they got it will always in positive only the condition is that it take some time to achieve. CONCLUSION: On above assignment we discuss about tesco that how tesco will come through in the market about the organisation performance. The discussion tells about the better performance of the employees and how they are beneficial for the organisation. There are so many models which be use to improve the performance but the two main model which are very famous is 7s model and EFQM model which shows that how the improvement require in the tesco and which model play an important role within the organisation.