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CMSC 430 UDC Modifying Interpreter For Programs to The Complete Language Proejct

CMSC 430 UDC Modifying Interpreter For Programs to The Complete Language Proejct.

this project involves modifying the attached interpreter so that it interprets programs for the
complete language.
You may convert all values to double values, although you can maintain their individual types if
you wish.
When the program is run on the command line, the parameters to the function should be supplied
as command line arguments. For example, for the following function header of a program in the
file text.txt:
function main a: integer, b: integer returns integer;
One would execute the program as follows:
$ ./compile < test.txt 2 4
In this case, the parameter a would be initialized to 2 and the parameter b to 4.
An example of a program execution is shown below:
$ ./compile < test.txt 2 4
1 function main a: integer, b: integer returns integer;
2 c: integer is
3 if a > b then
4 a rem b;
5 else
6 a ** 2;
7 endif;
8 begin
9 case a is
10 when 1 => c;
11 when 2 => (a + b / 2 – 4) * 3;
12 others => 4;
13 endcase;
14 end;
Compiled Successfully
Result = 0
After the compilation listing is output, the value of the expression which comprises the body of
the function should be displayed as shown above.
The existing code evaluates some of the arithmetic, relational and logical operators together with
the reduction statement and integer literals only. You are to add the necessary code to include all
of the following:
 Real and Boolean literals
 All additional arithmetic operators
 All additional relational and logical operators
 Both if and case statements
 Functions with multiple variables
 Functions with parameters
This project requires modification to the bison input file, so that it defines the additional the
necessary computations for the above added features. You will need to add functions to the
library of evaluation functions already provided in You must also make some
modifications to the functions already provided.
You are to submit two files.
1. The first is a .zip file that contains all the source code for the project. The .zip file
should contain the flex input file, which should be a .l file, the bison file, which should
be a .y file, all .cc and .h files and a makefile that builds the project.
2. The second is a Word document (PDF or RTF is also acceptable) that contains the
documentation for the project, which should include the following:
a. A discussion of how you approached the project
b. A test plan that includes test cases that you have created indicating what aspects
of the program each one is testing and a screen shot of your compiler run on that
test case
c. A discussion of lessons learned from the project and any improvements that could
be made.
CMSC 430 UDC Modifying Interpreter For Programs to The Complete Language Proejct

week 10 hw.

This is the format the teacher looking forUse ONE Excel fileYour first worksheet within that file should be your name and the assignment titlePut ONE problem on each separate worksheet within that fileLabel each worksheet with the chapter and problem number (i.e., Ch3-pr8)Include ALL formulas in the function ribbon for each cell so I can check your workHIGHLIGHT your final answers (I don’t care what color, as long as I can read the answer)I do apologize that I could not put all the questions in the description due to the pictures associated with.In the excel file every part of the question must be on 1 sheet. I.E. problem 1 a-d should all be on the same sheet
week 10 hw

A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images. In computing, databases are sometimes classified according to their organizational approach. The most prevalent approach is the relational database, a tabular database in which data is defined so that it can be reorganized and accessed in a number of different ways. A distributed database is one that can be dispersed or replicated among different points in a network. An object-oriented programming database is one that is congruent with the data defined in object classes and subclasses. Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as sales transactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles. Typically, a database manager provides users the capabilities of controlling read/write access, specifying report generation, and analyzing usage. Databases and database managers are prevalent in large mainframe systems. QUESTION 1 1. Create a database for a Student Information System. Your database should have the following components: i) Tables ii) Each and every table should have the Primary Key stated. iii) The relationship between the tables Answer question 1 Figure 1: table of student Student index number Student name Age Sex IP 101551 YUKARI 19 F IP 101552 ZAKA 20 M IP 101553 ZAKURA 19 F IP 101554 PAK HOE 19 M IP 101555 CHIN KIT 19 M IP 101556 MUN YEE 19 F IP 101557 YEE YAN 18 F IP 101558 BOON KIT 19 M IP 101559 CHAN HOE 19 M IP101560 YEE HOE 20 M Leaturer id leaturer Age Ic number IP 101200 CHAN MUI KAH 25 123456781 IP 101201 CHIN KANG HANG 30 123456782 IP101202 KANG QING QING 34 123456783 IP101203 YANG CHIN KAH 32 123456784 IP101204 JEFF 32 123456785 IP101205 CHAN HOE 33 123456786 IP101206 KAH YAN 25 123456787 IP101207 KAH YEE 34 123456788 IP101208 YEE YAN 31 123456789 IP101209 TEE HOE 26 123456790 Figure 2:Table of leaturer Campus ID Campus Office number Since year CA 1234 IPOH 01234561 1987 CA 1235 KUALA LUMPUL 01234562 1877 CA1236 JOHOR 01234563 1992 CA1237 KUALA TERRENGANU 01234564 1992 CA1238 SINGAPORE 01234565 1993 CA1239 SELANGOR 01234566 1994 CA1240 THAILAND 01234567 1995 CA1241 ENGLAND 01234568 1996 CA1242 INDONESIA 01234569 1997 CA1243 KUANTAN 01234561 1998 Figure 3: table of campus Couse id Couse Semester payment Full payment AA101 DIT 1000 20000 AA102 CICT 1001 20001 AA103 DHO 1002 20002 AA104 CAT 1003 20003 AA105 DBM 1004 20004 AA106 CBM 1005 20005 AA107 CHO 1006 20006 AA108 DEE 1007 20007 AA109 DOT 1008 20008 AA110 COT 1009 20009 Figure 4:table of course Primary key A primary key uniquely defines a relationship within a database. In order for an attribute to be a good primary key it must not repeat. While natural attributes are sometimes good primary keys, Surrogate keys are often used instead. A surrogate key is an artificial attribute assigned to an object which uniquely identifies it (for instance, in a table of information about students at a school they might all be assigned a Student ID in order to differentiate them). The surrogate key has no intrinsic (inherent) meaning, but rather is useful through its ability to uniquely identify a tuple. Another common occurrence, especially in regards to N:M cardinality is the composite key. A composite key is a key made up of two or more attributes within a table that (together) uniquely identify a record. (For example, in a database relating students, teachers, and classes. Classes could be uniquely identified by a composite key of their room number and time slot, since no other class could have that exact same combination of attributes. In fact, use of a composite key such as this can be a form of data verification, albeit a weak one.) Foreign key A foreign key is a field (or fields) that points to the primary key of another table. The purpose of the foreign key is to ensure referential integrity of the data. In other words, only values that are supposed to appear in the database are permitted. For example, say we have two tables, a customer table that includes all customer data, and an ordestable that includes all customer orders. The constraint here is that all orders must be associated with a customer that is already in the customer table. In this case, we will place a foreign key on the orders table and have it relate to the primary key of the customer table. This way, we can ensure that all orders in the orders table are related to a customer in the customer table. In other words, the ordes table cannot contain information on a customer that is not in the customer table. RELATIONSHIP DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Relational databases, as implemented in relational database management systems, have become a predominant choice for the storage of information in new databases used for financial records, manufacturing and logistical information, personnel data and much more. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use, even though they are much less efficient. As computer power has increased, the inefficiencies of relational databases, which made them impractical in earlier times, have been outweighed by their ease of use. However, relational databases have been challenged by Object Databases, which were introduced in an attempt to address the object-relational impedance mismatch in relational database, and XML databases. QUESTION 2 2. Represent your database for the Student Information System Entity Relationship(ER) model and create the database in Microsoft Access. ANSWER QUESTION 2 Question 2 I will show the student information relationship in Microsoft access. Figure 1 FIGURE 1 is the student information in Microsoft access. There are student id, name, age and sex. Figure 2 Figure 2 is step to set the primary key. First click the design and then click the primary key to set as the student primary key. Figure 3 Figure 3 is the lecturer table. It have lecturer id, name, age, and ic. The most importand is the student id is same as student table. Figure 4 Figure 4 is campus table, its have campus id, campus name, office num, since years. Figure 5 Figure 5 is a campus table. Its show course id, campus id, semester payment and full payment. Figure 6 Figure 6 is the relationship table like a student, leaturer, course and campus. Figure 7 Figure 7 will show you all the table of leaturer, campus, student and course. After I will do the relationship between all of it. figure 8 Figure 8 is all the relationship between the student table, lecturer table, course table and campus table. Figure 9 Figure 9 is all the relationship of them after click student id, it will show all the leaturer id, campus id and course id. All of it I already done the database for the Student Information System Entity Relationship(ER) model. CONCLUSION After I doing this assignment, I have learned many about knowledge of database. Database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system. In order for a database to be truly functional, it must not only store large amounts of records well, but be accessed easily. Another way new information and changes should also be fairly easy to input. In order to have a highly efficient database system, you need to incorporate a program that manages and information stored on the system. In the question 2, I also learned about to use Microsoft access. It is very useful to me because I can use it on another way and I can stored my information with clearly and when I use it I can easy to find my information is already stored. Finally, I can use my knowledge to work when I working.

MGMT 422 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University IT Management Plan Apple Discussion

MGMT 422 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University IT Management Plan Apple Discussion.

Hello,Here are the instructions for this discussion:ReviewIT Management Plan Guidelines for assignment details.Using the format for “IT Information Management Plan” and at least three sources (both outside sources and the textbook), you will be preparing your own IT Information Management Plan Outline to submit in Module 2. This is your opportunity to discuss your thoughts on creating an IT Information Management Plan with your instructor and classmates.Take a few moments to look at IT Management Plan examples provided in IT Management Plan and discuss the elements you will include in your own IT Management Plan. You may want to consider the type of organization in which this plan might be implemented as well. A well written IT Management plan will take into consideration the versatile nature of changing business and technology requirements. You will have the option to select an existing or non-existing organization for the business proposal assignment.DiscussExplain the type of business you will focus on with your IT Management PlanHow will your IT Management Plan align with the organization’s mission and objectives?How will your plan impact the organizational structure, business processes, or procedures?Provide helpful suggestions to other classmates as to what may be included in the initial IT Management Plan outline based on the readings within Module 1 and the latest IT trends and issues.GuidelinesYou must post first in order to see the discussion.
MGMT 422 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University IT Management Plan Apple Discussion

ELM 510 Grand Canyon University Videos and Multimedia Lessons Graphic Organizer

essay writer ELM 510 Grand Canyon University Videos and Multimedia Lessons Graphic Organizer.

A crucial component to classroom management is to have the knowledge to be able to use various forms of technology in order to manage your classroom efficiently.Part 1: Graphic OrganizerFor this assignment, research five different forms of technology that can be used in the classroom to support learning during instruction and home/school connections. Create a graphic organizer to include:The five forms of technologyA description of the proper use of each form of technologyHow students can interact, locally or globally, using this form of technologyHow each form of technology can be implemented into instruction in the classroom to support learning for all studentsPart 2: ReflectionIn addition to the graphic organizer, in 250-500 words, summarize, reflect, and include a rationale for the inclusion of technology in classrooms. Additionally, address how technology supports learning for all students in the classroom and at home. Explain how you will use your findings in your future professional practice.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required
ELM 510 Grand Canyon University Videos and Multimedia Lessons Graphic Organizer

Traditional Roman vs. Chinese Courtyard House Term Paper

Abstract Architecture is one of the primary historical records of ancient kingdoms around the world. From the Egyptian Empire in North Africa to Roman and Greek Empires in Europe and Han Empire in China, architecture was the major driver of civilization. These societies were keen on developing comfortable houses that would protect them from excessive heat and rainfall during the summer and extreme cold during the winter. They also wanted appealing structures that would be admired by visitors. In this comparative study, the researcher focused on analyzing a typical Roman house in Pompeii and a traditional Chinese courtyard house. The goal was to identify similarities and differences in their architectural designs. Data used in this study was collected from secondary sources. The limited-time within which the report had to be written and the difficulty in finding experts in this field made it necessary for the researcher to rely on secondary data. Historical records and artifacts in local archives provided more reliable and richer sources of information than interviewing people. The findings show that the two buildings had numerous similarities. The goal of the study is to conduct a comparative analysis of a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house. Introduction The architectural history of ancient kingdoms helps to understand the civilization pattern in different parts of the world and the motivation that these people had when designing their houses. The Egyptian Empire, the Roman Empire, the Greek Empire, and the Han Empire are some of the empires that made a massive historical impact on modern civilization (Barrie 52). One of the most important historical aspects of these empires is the architectural designs of their houses. Ching et al. explain that buildings in Egypt were designed differently from those in Rome and those in the ancient Chinese dynasties (49). Despite these differences, some striking similarities exist, primarily because of the contacts that people had in these early times. At that time, North Africans interacted with Europeans through trade and wars (Temin 31). The contact led to the borrowing of ideas in the construction industry, which explains the existence of some of these similarities. In this paper, the researcher seeks to conduct a comparative analysis of a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house. Comparative Analysis Architectural Designs in the Roman Empire The architectural design of different countries in ancient times is one of the most important factors that define their way of life. In the Roman Empire, people lived in an urban setting, primarily because of the need to enhance security. Centralized settlements meant that people could organize their forces as a unit in cases of attacks by another kingdom. Such attacks were common in that era (Kushner 74). However, within the settlements, people lived in houses that defined their social status. The caste system was strong in this community in that era. It was rare for people to climb the social ladder, especially if one belonged to the lower caste. The community had a unique design to protect the system. Although people lived in a community system, an effort was made to ensure that the poor do not mingle easily with the rulers (Jones 46). The royals had the liberty of visiting the neighborhoods of the peasants under tight security, but measures were put in place to limit the movement of the poor into the royal’s settlement without a clear purpose. Figure 1 below shows the caste system as was propagated in the Roman Empire. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1. The Roman cast system (Barrie 78). Housing structures were designed to reflect the social status of people within the Roman Empire. At the lowest level of the pyramid were the slaves. They were not allowed to own houses in this empire. They stayed in prison-like dormitories under close supervision of the Roman soldiers. At the next level of the pyramid were the freed slaves. Upon demonstration of loyalty and commitment to the development of the empire, slaves would be freed and allowed to be part of the society. They would leave the dormitories and own small houses within the city suburbs (Temin 52). These crowded houses lacked many basic commodities. The commons or the ordinary people, which formed the majority of the community, lived in small flats within the cities. Their houses had workshops at the back and shops in front. These houses were designed as such because the commons were the main workers. They were blacksmiths, carpenters, goldsmiths, farmers, and another physically demanding profession. Having the workshop in their backyard meant that they did not have to move a lot when going to work. They only needed to move to their backyard to start working. Their completed artwork such as furniture, utensils, farm tools, and weapons would be displayed at the shop at the front of their house. It meant that they could continue with their work as they attend to their customers as may be necessary (Harlow and Nosch 53). The design of these structures helped in improving productivity by eliminating time wastage. Equestrians were the next step in the ladder, mainly consisting of soldiers. Although it was prestigious to be a soldier in the Roman Empire, their primary role was to ensure that the community remained secure from any potential attack. They could visit the royal palaces frequently, but they lived in the fort, which was built at the main entrance and around the city (Ching et al. 75). The location was strategic to ensure that they could act promptly in cases of inversion and ensure that the threat is neutralized before breaching the city walls. These forts were comfortable but designed in a way that made it easy for soldiers to respond to attacks with ease. Steps were taken to ensure that they would be safe in cases of attack. At the next level of the pyramid were the senators and the wealthy businesspersons in the community. These individuals interacted with the king regularly and they played a major role in enacting laws and policies that governed the society. They lived in comfortable and large houses in the inner parts of the city where their security would be guaranteed. Their houses had underground heating systems to protect them during the winter, which shows the architectural advancement that had been realized in the community at that period. At the apex of the pyramid was the imperial Domus, or the king. The rulers stayed in large palaces constructed in the innermost part of the city. The location of the palaces was meant to ensure that invaders would not easily take over the kingdom after killing or arresting the king. Safety, comfort, ease of movement, and luxury were the main factors that were considered when constructing palaces in this kingdom. Having a large swimming pool in the palace was a common architectural feature of these houses, often used during hot summers (Kushner 57). They also had an advanced heating system to help maintain a normal temperature during cold winters. The paintings and decorations on the walls were part of the beautification of these buildings. The palace had large conference halls to facilitate meetings between the king and his advisors and policy-makers in the kingdom. We will write a custom Term Paper on Traditional Roman vs. Chinese Courtyard House specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Architectural Designs in Traditional China In traditional China, many dynasties existed in different periods. Some of the notable kingdoms include the Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty, Zhou Dynasty, Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty among others (Que et al. 76). Although there was a consistent improvement in the architectural designs in these dynasties as time went by, some major similarities existed. Like many other kingdoms around the world, safety, comfort, security, and beauty were the main factors that defined architectural designs. The Chinese caste system, commonly known as Hukou, largely divided the population into two broad classes. There was the haves who lived in urban settings and the haves’s not who were the rural households. Despite the existence of the caste system in this community, there was often an attempt to eliminate the gap between the rich and the poor. Although slaves had a class of their own at the lowest end of the pyramid, those in other classes had the capacity to climb the ladder based on their personal effort. The royals had their unique houses that symbolized their status in the community. These buildings were large and with huge fortresses to ensure that the ruler was safe. However, the majority of the commons had houses with striking similarities. Minor architectural designs existed, especially in terms of size and materials used for constructions based on an individual’s financial capacity (Jones 96). However, one could easily detect resemblance in the houses as shown in architectural records. Similarities The preliminary analysis shows that a typical Roman house has various similarities with a traditional Chinese courtyard house. It is important to analyze the similarities and factors that motivated these ancient architects to have a specific design for the house. According to Barrie, historical records show that although there was a significant interaction between the people of North Africa and Europeans during ancient times, the interaction between European empires such as the Roman Empire with that of the Far East in China and Japan was limited (64). As such, it is less likely that designs in traditional Chinese kingdoms such as Han Dynasty was influenced by Roman designers, and vice versa. Figure 2. Typical Roman House in Pompeii (Barrie 54). Despite the limited interaction between the two kingdoms during ancient times, it is evident that these houses had several factors in common. Figure 2 above shows a typical Roman house in Pompeii, while figure 3 below shows a traditional Chinese courtyard house. The analysis of the two figures shows several similarities. It shows that there were many common goals that architects and engineers had in common in both ancient kingdoms. Issues such as security, having a community setting, decorations, integrating nature in the designs, and the use of locally available materials are some of the striking similarities in the architectural designs of houses in the two kingdoms. It is necessary to discuss each of the factors that show similarities in the two kingdoms. Figure 3. Traditional Chinese courtyard house (Que et al. 56). Focus on Security One of the striking similarities between a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house is their focus on security. The two figures show that in both cases there are tall perimeter walls meant to limit the ability of intruders to find their way into the cities. According to Temin, in this era, it was common for one kingdom to attack another (90). Preempting a potential threat was one of the main reasons for attacks. When one kingdom felt threatened by another, they would attack it first as a way of defending their territory. Having such large fortresses was critical in slowing down an attack. Harlow and Nosch explain that the success of such attacks required an element of surprise to ensure that the enemy is caught unawares (58). With such a tall strong wall, the kingdom could delay the entry of the enemy into the city as they plan their counterattacks. The two figures show that emphasis was placed on the strength of the perimeter walls around the community to inhibit unauthorized entries. It is evident that in both cases there are tall buildings at the furthest end of the city that acted as watchtowers. Such towers housed soldiers whose primary work was to monitor any potential threats outside the city walls. Whenever they identified a threat, they would inform the commanders that would plan a counterattack. The other buildings for other members of the community were not high-rise structures. A Community Setting A comparative analysis of a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house shows that in both cases there was the desire to live in a community setting. Instead of having the houses scattered around, the community felt comfortable having a closely-knit community setting. The need to live in such a setting was motivated by various factors, as Jones observes. One of the factors was to enhance security (78). People living close together can form a formidable unit that can easily thwart any threat from external forces. The other factor was to boost trade. Division of labor and specialization had become a common practice during these days. Staying together in a town setting meant that people could sell what they produce to others and buy from them what they need but cannot produce (Barrie 113). Not sure if you can write a paper on Traditional Roman vs. Chinese Courtyard House by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Farming was mainly done outside the dwelling places. In both cases, it was common to have slaves working on the farms. Large plantations lacked the security that the cities had, but they were guarded by soldiers to ensure that city dweller had the food they needed. Slaves would be used in these fields because their lives were not as valued as that of the other members of the community. Living in a community setting also made it easy for the kingdoms to be governed by the rulers. They could set rules and regulations that their subjects had to observe. Soldiers would help in enforcing the law within the cities. The rulers would have spies to monitor the activities of the subjects to determine if they were engaging in activities that would sabotage the leadership of the community. Spying had become a common practice in the era in both cases. Temin explains that in both the Roman Empire and traditional Chinese kingdoms, members of the society were prohibited from marrying freed slaves (64). The community setting of these houses made it easy for the law enforcement agencies to ensure that people observed these rules. Harlow and Nosch also say that the setting also enhanced unity among people (37). They were made to realize that they shared the same destiny and as such, had to work as a unit to address the challenges they faced. Decorations The decoration is another common design in both a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house. According to Zhang, coloring meant a lot to the traditional Chinese people different colors had varying connotations. In the Roman Empire, color also meant a lot (65). For instance, the white color was a symbol of peace (Que et al. 45). These buildings were decorated in different colors for beautification. In China, color also helped in demonstrating the position of an individual in society. The decoration was also done using items other than the use of paint. Gold was a rare and special stone in both kingdoms. It was used in decorating palaces of kings in both kingdoms. In the Roman Empire, the palaces would have their pillars plaited in gold, especially in the conference rooms and along the paths used by the king, royal families, and other foreign dignitaries (Jones 49). It was the ultimate symbol of the wealth and power of the kingdom. The same was the case in traditional Chinese courtyard houses. The wealthy businesspersons also had golden ornaments placed strategically in their buildings. Other special stones such as silver and bronze were widely used in the two kingdoms for decorations. Figure 2 and 3 above shows how architects in the two kingdoms relied on their skills to develop unique exteriors of their structures. Integrating Nature in Designs A comparative analysis of figures 2 and 3 above shows striking similarities in the two structures in terms of integration of nature in the architectural designs. In both the Roman Empire and in traditional Chinese societies, people valued nature (Zhang 89). In traditional China, flowing trees were highly valued among the royals and peasants. Red flowers were the favorite among both men and women. It was a symbol of love. As such, it was common for such shrubs and small trees to be grown in the gardens of the palace and backyards of some of the wealthy members of the society. Paths leading to the palace were also decorated with flowers. It means that architects of the courtyard houses had to take into consideration these plants when developing their designs. In the Roman Empire, there was a general appreciation of nature among members of the community. As such, it was a common practice to have specific types of trees strategically located across the city streets and next to these houses. Architects had the responsibility of ensuring that their structures blend well with nature (Temin 83). Although some plantations had to be cleared to put up such houses, it was necessary to ensure that there was no massive damage to nature. Que et al. explain that shrubs, flowers, and trees were commonly used in typical Roman houses (85). This fact is demonstrated in figure 2 above where plants are used as part of the beautification of the palace. The canopies of these trees also provided natural shade to people during hot summer. Use of Locally Available Materials The analysis of the two houses also shows that in both cases, the construction was based on locally available materials. Temin explains that in the Roman Empire, the use of concrete (a mixture of ballast, sand, and cement) has become a common practice in the construction sector (54). It helped in ensuring the strength of tall and large structures. It eliminated the heavy reliance on wood when constructing walls and slabs. On the other hand, the use of wood was common in China. The use of concrete was not as common in China because of the level of advancement in the construction sector. Unlike in modern society where it is common for construction companies to import materials that they needed from other parts of the world when building complex structures, architects and civil engineers in these empires at that time had to rely on materials that were locally available (Harlow and Nosch 78). As such, the level of creativity was limited. It explains why traditional Chinese courthouses were rarely higher than two-story because of the limited strength of the wooden structures. In Rome, the use of concrete had become common, making it possible to have slightly tall structures. Differences It is important to note that despite the similarities above, there were significant dissimilarities that existed between a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house. The difference was caused by the varying level of civilization in the two communities, the availability of materials for construction, and the technical capabilities of the architects and civil engineers responsible for developing these structures (Ching et al. 49). As explained above, there was limited interaction between the two empires, and as such, neither of them influenced the other in terms of architectural designs. They took significantly different patterns because of the challenges that each community faced, the primary goals that had to be achieved, and the architectural advancements witnessed in the neighboring kingdoms. Figure 4. Traditional Chinese courtyard house (Que et al. 78). Figure 4 above is an image of a traditional Chinese courtyard house while in figure five below is a typical Roman house in Pompeii. It is evident that the physical appearance of the two structures clearly shows the major dissimilarities that they had. The main areas of difference that exist include materials used, the approach of beautification, and the shape of the roofs among others. Figure 5. Typical Roman house in Pompeii (Barrie 83). Materials Used in the Construction One of the main differences that existed between a typical Roman house and a traditional Chinese courtyard house was the materials used. During ancient times, the Chinese had not discovered the use of cement as a critical component of construction. Que et al. explain that a traditional Chinese courtyard house would be constructed using pounded earth and wood (93). This is clearly demonstrated in figure 4 above. These were materials, which were available for construction at the time. As explained by Zhang, the use of pounded earth and wood compromised the strength of these houses significantly (78). On the other hand, in the Roman Empire cement had already been discovered as a critical construction material. Schmidt observes that the use of cement, ballast, and sand to make concretes had become common in Roman houses (44). As shown in figure 5 above, architects and civil engineers had come to appreciate the significance of pillars to offer strength to the buildings. They no longer relied on walls as the sole strength of the house, as was the case in traditional Chinese houses. Instead, pillars were constructed along the walls to offer additional support to the entire structure. It meant that the structures could sustain greater weight than was the case in China. Que et al. point out that while the Chinese relied heavily on natural construction materials such as wood, mud, and reeds, the Roman Empire had advanced into the use of roofing tiles (113). The Romans had developed the tegulae tiles made out of red clay, which was more effective than grass and reeds. The material lasted long and was effective in both cold winters and hot summers. These advancements made it possible to make these structures attractive, especially the palaces and houses for the wealthy Roman politicians. Approach of Decoration The advancement made in the Roman construction sector also defined the decorations that were used in these buildings. As shown in figure 5 above, the use of statues had become common in the Roman Empire. They had become common images in the palace and houses of top politicians. Figure 5 above shows other decorations and beautification items made of concrete used in this empire. It is also evident that the use of metal doors and windows had become common in the Roman Empire. Kushner explains that cast-bronze grills were common in society (45). These doors would be designed to not only offer strength and security but also enhance the beauty of these structures. They would be painted based on the preferences of the owner of the house. On the other hand, traditional Chinese houses relied heavily on nature for beautification. Flowering plants and trees were used to enhance the beauty of these compounds. The shape of the Structures The analysis also shows that the two houses were different in terms of their shape. A typical Roman house was relatively taller than a traditional Chinese house. The difference in height was brought about by the fact that in the Roman Empire, the use of concrete walls and pillars made the structures stronger than those in China are (Jones 64). As such, it was possible to construct three or four-story buildings without compromising on the strength. On the other hand, traditional Chinese houses were constructed using mud and wood. These materials are weak and cannot support tall structures. The roofing style also differed. In the Roman houses, the roofs had a flat shape as shown in figure 5 above. On the other hand, the traditional Chinese roof had sharp edges as shown in figure 4 above. It is one of the unique designs in most traditional Chinese houses. The design was a unique construction skill that was used by architects in different Chinese dynasties (Que et al. 78). However, its limited durability compared to that used in the Roman empire meant that it had to be replaced regularly, especially when approaching the season of heavy rains. Conclusion The Roman Empire and traditional Chinese dynasties had a significant impact on modern civilization around the world. One of the areas where they had a major impact was the construction sector. The study shows that Roman architecture has defined the modern era designs of construction. The use of concrete (a mixture of cement, sand, and ballast) to construct walls and pillars gained popularity during this period and it has remained popular to this day. The study shows that a typical Roman house had numerous similarities with a traditional Chinese house. In both cases, the primary concern for the designers was to ensure that residents were protected from harsh weather conditions. It was also necessary to protect them from potential attacks by hostile communities. In both cases, designers had to rely on locally available materials. However, the study has also identified major differences in the architectural designs of the two houses. It is evident that the construction sector in the Roman Empire had made greater advancement than that in traditional China. As such, a typical Roman house was more sophisticated in terms of design and strength, and durability than a traditional Chinese courtyard house. Works Cited Barrie, Thomas. House and Home: Cultural Contexts, Ontological Roles. Routledge, 2017. Ching, Francis, et al. A Global History of Architecture. 3rd ed., Wiley, 2011. Harlow, Mary, and Marie-Louise Nosch. Greek and Roman Textiles and Dress: An Interdisciplinary Anthology. Oxbow Books, 2014. Jones, Nathaniel. Painting, Ethics, and Aesthetics in Rome. Cambridge University Press, 2019. Kushner, Marc. The Future of Architecture in 100 Buildings. TED Books, 2015. Que, Ze-li, et al. Traditional Wooden Buildings in China. National and University Library, 2017. Schmidt, Freek. Passion and Control: Dutch Architectural Culture of the Eighteenth Century. Ashgate, 2016. Temin, Peter. The Roman Market Economy. Princeton University Press, 2017. Zhang, Donia. Courtyard Housing for Health and Happiness: Architectural Multiculturalism in North America. Routledge, 2015.

Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance Research Paper

Abstract The historical perception of the distinction between Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance and others is traceable back to the great historical artists like Donatello and Michelangelo. They are arguably big sculptors of the Italian Renaissance, who were both original and catalysts for revolution. Their works have realism through implementation of versatility, emotional and psychological effects. These aspects are evident among current sculptors. Thesis/Problem Statement “Significance of Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance” This is a research investigating and analyzing the different arguments on philosophical nature of Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance, from various art histories to the current state of affairs, with the aim of providing a personal point of view regarding the subject matter. Purpose/Significance of the Study The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the consequences and key concepts involved in the development of Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance and offer personal suggestions or opinions over the issue of relationship between various historical stages. Objectives of the Study This research paper lays down the need for finding the background of the understanding of various Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance over the relationship as presented by diverse great artists. The study is equally an assessment of differences of sculpture work at different times. Significance of the Study The key topics to be covered entail the focus over Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance. This is in the aim of finding the reasonable conclusion on this type of work. The Procedure of the Study/Research Methodology The paper highly utilizes the literature reviews to enable better understanding of the topic. Preparation of the research over the chosen topic will enhance and quantify the research as a study topic and prepare for respondents. Information collected will equally tabulate and assist in ranking the findings from various eras, and help to narrow the scope to the objectives of the research. The analysis of findings will then draw conclusions from generally analyzed data in the literature review. Literature Review Historical Overview The Sculptors of the Italian Renaissance is arguably one of the most reflective and productive period regarding the history of art. Some of the outstanding fields of Italian art include architecture, sculpture and painting. The early nineteenth century marked the revolution of art history. Good example of the sculptural work was by Donatello (Meyer

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