How does assessing client needs in education, employment, treatment, and so on help develop the program plan? How much should a client be expected to do while on supervision? Consider interviewing a probation officer to discuss their ideas and techniques in developing a program plan.**The required response is 650-900 words – excluding the references. You must include in-text citations from at least two references in APA format (7th edition)**In addition, you must reply to at least two of your classmates in the forum. Replies must be at least 300 words and include citations from at least one reference in APA format.**You must also respond to your peers on your original post
CMRJ 317 APUS Correctional Program Plan for Prisoners Discussion
Developing Regression Models Of Students Performance In High School Geometry
Given a rapidly changing world, today’s student success hinges on the students’ abilities to organize and apply Mathematics in the solution of meaningful problems. According to Osborne (2002), making a valid projection concerning an outcome for a particular individual can be achieved by making prediction models through multiple regressions. The need to improve the standard of living in Nigeria through the advancement in science and technology has made Government at all levels and stakeholders in education to be more concerned now than ever about the poor performance of students in Mathematics. A study on Some Student Personal Variables as Predictors of Mathematics Achievement in Secondary Schools in Central Cross River State – Nigeria concluded that in tackling poor performance in Mathematics, variables within the learner need to be addressed, as they also contribute to explain or predict learners’ performance in Mathematics (Obo, 2007). Internationally, the Philippines belongs to the bottom five of poor achievers in Math and Science. According to the study by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2003, in the Math Achievement test, the Philippines ranked 41st . According to Tinio (2002), public school students do poorly in diagnostic and achievement tests. He also added that those students who took the exam were prepared by their teachers months before the actual tests, and their teachers had to go to a seminar in PNU (Philippine University of the Philippines) in preparation for the review, but still their performance is poor. In the local scenario, specifically in Davao Del Sur, Mathematics is one of the weakest subjects having a low performance in the 2006 National Achievement Test and Division Achievement Test (Angco, 2007). Subscribing to the belief that the quality of education is measured by the performance of students, every educator feels the imperative need to identify variables that could be used as a tool in predicting performance in Mathematics subjects. As of the present, no study has been conducted yet to predict students’ performance in High School Geometry in Davao Del Sur. Thus, this study was undertaken to formulate regression models that will help to project future performance in Geometry of the Secondary School Students. Statement of the Problem The study was conducted to develop regression models of students’ performance in High School Geometry. Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the level of the following student variables: 1.1 Study Habits 1.2 Perceived Teacher Support 1.3 Attitude towards Mathematics 1.4 Parent Involvement 1.5 Monthly Family Income? 2. What is the level of Students’ Performance in Geometry in terms of: 2.1 Polygons and Space Figures 2.2 Measurement of Polygons and Space Figures 2.3 Relations Involving Line Segments and Angles? 3. Is there a significant relationship componentwise between student variables and performance of students in High School Geometry? 4. What regression models can be developed in predicting Students’ Performance in High School Geometry? Hypothesis The null hypothesis tested in this study was that there is no significant relationship componentwise between student variables and performance of students in High School Geometry. Review of Related Literature This section includes varied sources of materials that are viewed in relation to the investigation. The topics are hereby presented to provide a better background and insights of the present investigation. Student Variables as Predictors Researchers in psychology and education have always been interested in determining differences inter and intra-individuals in order to investigate causes and/or effects of some variables (independent) on other variables (dependents), knowing that the individual is the one who decides the outcome of the treatment. It is his nature and the nature of the interaction among his personal variables on one side, and family, and school factors on the other side, which decides how he receives, assimilate, react to the treatment, and produce the behavioral changes (Fawziyah, 2001). Study habits. Educators and parents long have been plagued by the problem of students’ low achievement in school. Many have had the frustrating experience of watching a child undermine his or her chances for a good performance simply by not trying. A student who performs poorly as a consequence of not studying or not completing assignments is usually perceived by his teachers as a hopeless case (Camahalan, 2006). He further added that many students who encounter achievement problems in school frequently warrant the concerned scrutiny of teachers and parents alike. They are victims of pre-judgment that they can do no better. Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work privately. Azikiwe (1998) described study habit as the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject. According to her, good study habits are good asset to learners because they (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization anal consequent excellent performance, while the opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure. Ikegbunam (1998) pointed that poor study habits as one of the major causes of poor academic performances among Nigerian university students. Efficient study habits can strengthen writing. Professors in the developing countries, such as those in Nigerian universities, should attempt to equip graduates with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind. A research study on “Effects of self-regulated learning on Mathematics achievement of selected Southeast Asian Children” by Camahalan (2006) revealed that students’ low achievement in school is related to their poor study habits. It is also indicated that training the students to be self-regulated learners through the Self-Regulated Learning Program (SRLP) will help them improve their Mathematics achievement and study habits. The said research was based on the conceptual framework that students’ low mathematics achievement in school is related to their poor study habits. Thus, the intervention titled “Mathematics Self-Regulated Learning Program” aimed to help selected children from Southeast Asia (the Philippines) improve their Mathematics achievement, Mathematics self-regulated learning, and Mathematics school grade. Good (1996) defined the term study habits as the student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc. Good study habits are perceived to be the determinants of the academic performance. That is why efforts are made to develop and improve study habits in students. Secondary school students in public schools of Pakistan come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor study habits hence they show poor academic performance. A great deal of evidence is present to show the positive correlation between study habits and academic achievement. Ansari (1998) found that study habits and study attitudes are both significant variables which determine the academic performance of the students. Russell and Petrie (1997) have cited a research study aimed to find out the relationship between study habits and student attitude and academic performance (cumulative GPA) of college students. Findings of this study indicate a positive correlation between study attitude, study habit and academic achievement. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in 1994 conducted a study to find out the relationship between study habits and academic achievement. Findings of the study revealed a positive correlation between study habit and academic achievements of elementary and secondary school students. Onwuegbuzie (2001) also conducted a series of studies to find out relationship between study habits and academic success and reported positive relationship between study habits and academic success. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of guidance services on students study attitudes, study habits and academic achievement. Perceived Teacher Support. The teacher is the key person in the teaching learning situation. Hence, he must be a model to all his students in all aspects of life. Students are good imitators, especially the ones, and they usually make their teachers their role models (Calderon, 1998). He further stressed that the teacher is the manager of the teaching learning situation, the facilitator of learning and the evaluator of the student achievement. Hence, he must possess the mastery of the subject matter upon the principle that one cannot give what he does not have. The teacher should master the methods and tools of teaching. The teacher is like a carpenter. The carpenter who uses old, rusty, and unsharpened tools cannot produce fine furniture. In like manner, the teacher who uses haphazardly outmoded and ineffective methods and tools of teaching cannot produce a good product. But the teacher who combines the best features of techniques and who manipulates with utmost dexterity the tools at hand turn out the most desirable. Hudley (2002) cited that teacher support seems to be one of the most influential variables that promote higher student achievement. They focused more on students’ ethnicity and engagement as factors of achievement, but students who reported feeling more supported by the school community showed more engagement in the learning and greater achievement. Likewise, Yeung and McInerney (1999) revealed that perceived teacher support made greater impact on students’ GPAs and attendance than self-image and even input from family and friends. Surely teachers’ ability to influence students’ academic achievement translates to their ability to impact their achievement on high stakes tests. Ewen (2002) emphasized that the question of how to motivate students in the classroom has become a leading concern for teachers of all disciplines. Student motivation and student management are especially relevant to mathematics education in light of recurring questions about how to get more students interested and involved in learning. If students were provided with everyday situations for practicing and learning the important uses of mathematics, they would develop such skills as “making inferences, evaluating the reasonableness of results and using references to look up what they need to know (Cawelti, 1999). Swartz (2003) noted that there is a great deal of qualitative and anecdotal evidence from school classrooms that infusion lessons both improve student thinking and enhance content learning. Teachers report that student interest in their learning improves, their understanding of the content they are learning deepens, many students do better on content-area tests, and many students begin using the thinking strategies introduced in these lessons. When using infusion as an approach to teaching thinking and enhancing learning, the learning students engender will prepare them to enter an increasingly complex and technological world with skills that they will need to use information meaningfully, to make sound judgments, and to develop confidence in themselves as thoughtful people. Skemp (1996) cited that more recent studies with improved methodology which have provided evidences that teachers who have a conceptual or rational understanding of Mathematics, can influence students’ learning. Given that teaching skill is associated with student achievement, school districts and policymakers are interested in how teachers are prepared. While teaching skill is a goal of preparation, usually a credential only requires an academic degree and coursework. Virtually all public school teachers in the United States have at least a bachelor’s degree, and many possess advanced degrees (Ashton, 1996). Greenwald (1996) reviewed a number of studies of the relationship between school inputs and student outcomes. Some school resources, i.e., teacher ability, teacher education, and teacher experience were strongly related to student achievement. Attitude towards Mathematics. The conceptions, attitudes, and expectations of the students regarding mathematics and mathematics teaching have been considered to be very significant factor underlying their school experience and achievement (Borasi, 2000). The general conceptions determine the way students approach mathematics tasks, in many cases leading them into nonproductive paths. Students have been found to hold a strong procedural and rule-oriented view of mathematics and to assume that mathematical questions should be quickly solvable in just a few steps, the goal just being to get “right answers”. For them, the role of the student is to receive mathematical knowledge and to be able to demonstrate so; the role of the teacher is to transmit this knowledge and to ascertain that students acquired it (Frank, 1998). Based on the study on the “Roles of Attitudes, Perceptions and Family Backgrounds on Students Achievement in Mathematics”, student engagement in mathematics refers to students’ motivation to learn mathematics, their confidence in their ability to succeed in mathematics and their emotional feelings about mathematics. Student engagement in mathematics plays a key role in the acquisition of math skills and knowledge – students who are engaged in the learning process will tend to learn more and be more receptive to further learning. Student engagement also has an impact upon course selection, educational pathways and later career choices (Leder,2003). Reys (1999) asserted that the influence of attitudes, values, and personality characteristics on achievement outcomes and later participation in the learning of mathematics are important considerations for mathematics educators. Teachers not only want students to learn mathematics but also want to be able to enjoy and be confident about the subject. He strongly believed that affective variables such as motivation and self-esteem facilitate or hinder students’ learning and achievement in mathematics. Furthermore, affective goals are included in statements of educational objectives for mathematics curricula. Students’ causal attributions are not only fundamental motivational variables but are also critical motivators of their persistence in learning. Optimism, pessimism, and achievement in mathematics were measured in a sample of primary and lower secondary students on two occasions. Although achievement in mathematics was most strongly related to prior achievement and grade level, optimism and pessimism were significant factors. In particular, students with a more generally pessimistic outlook on life had a lower level of achievement in mathematics over time. Gender was not a significant factor in achievement (Kloosterman, 2001) McLean (1997) investigated attitudes toward learning with regard to their achievement and found that five attitudinal factors were significantly related to academic performance by distinguishing between the attitudes of high and low achievers. Students’ attitudes may not only directly affect academic achievement, but also indirectly influence the effect of other variables, as well. Abu-Hilal (2000) found that the effect of attitudes passes through the level of aspiration. McLean (1997) and Abu-Hilal’s (2000) studies shared consensus with regard to the significance of attitudes in predicting achievement. They further complemented the results of earlier studies, with the former proving that the students’ initial attitude towards school was significantly related to academic performance, while the latter found that attitudes predicted their deep approach to learning. Parent Involvement. In her review of literature on parent involvement and student achievement, Hendrickson (1997) concluded that for now the evidence is beyond dispute: parent involvement improves student achievement. When parents are involved, children do better in school, and they go to better schools. She also noted the following: the family provides the primary educational environment; involving parents in their children’s formal education improves student achievement; parent involvement is most effective when it is comprehensive, long-lasting, and well-planned; the benefits are not confined to early childhood or the elementary level; there are strong effects from involving parents continuously throughout high school; involving parents in their own children’s education at home is not enough; to ensure the quality of schools as institutions serving the community, parents must be involved at all levels in the school; children from low-income and minority families have the most to gain when schools involve parents. Parents do not have to be well-educated to help. The research showed that parents can play an important role in strengthening their children’s education by participating in their learning and by reinforcing the efforts of teachers and schools. It is noted that parents can take many positive steps to help their children, including the following: they can encourage students to pursue advanced course work, to invest significant amounts of time in their homework, and to devote more time to reading than to television. An interest in reading and learning can be fostered by reading aloud to children; holding family discussions about reading materials, school work, and current events; and encouraging frequent trips to the library to gather more information about interesting topics. (Mullis,1997). According to Gianzero (1999), the premise that strong family-school linkages improve children’s educational outcomes has acquired almost axiomatic status. Research studies abound documenting the association between parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling and a host of benefits accruing not only to students themselves, but to their schools and parents as well. Among the documented findings are strong positive correlations between parental involvement in children’s schooling and improved student attitudes, achievement, and attendance. Involved parents reap benefits as well, including increased confidence in their abilities to parent, help their children learn at home, and communicate effectively with schools. For some parents, involvement in their children’s education prompts them to pursue further education themselves. Studies reveal that teachers not only hold involved parents in higher regard than uninvolved parents, but they also have higher expectations for their children. (Henderson
Corporate Strategy of Fedex Corporation
custom writing service Corporate Strategy of Fedex Corporation. Executive Summary This analysis of the corporate strategy of FedEx Corporation relates to three specific issues in the corporate strategy case. The first issue is a critical analysis of the global express transportation and logistics industry. The second issue discusses about the mergers and acquisitions in transportation and logistics industry. The final issue is a critical review of the performance of FedEx in the events leading to the January 2000 reorganisation. In the first section, the global express transportation and logistics industry is an attractive sector based on the fundamentals of the sector given in the five forces analysis using Porter’s framework. There are large barriers to entry, there are minimal substitutes that exist, industry is relatively disciplined, and the power of buyers and suppliers are mixed. FedEx is well placed in the sector given its core competencies and dynamic capabilities relating to its management and the functional areas of marketing, human resources and information technology and systems. In the second section, gives a brief knowledge about the benefits and limitations of merger and acquisition strategies in this industry. This also describes how effective was the 1998 Caliber System acquisition and where did it led the company do in its further years. In the final section, it is noted that FedEx performed poorly within its sector and given its capabilities, the firm was expected to have been more proactive in moving past its poor performance. Nevertheless, the firm had to wait until after several quarters of poor performance and only after the competitors have taken advantage of the development in the Internet market did FedEx make changes to its business. Post the changes, FedEx did well in utilising its core competencies that were identified in the first section, and leveraging these competencies to its advantage. CHAPTER-1: Analysis Of Global Express Transportation And Logistics Industry Introduction To Transportation And Logistics Industry. Global TransportationCorporate Strategy of Fedex Corporation
16. For part-time employees to be eligible to be in a company’s retirement plan,
16. For part-time employees to be eligible to be in a company’s retirement plan,.
part-time employees to be eligible to be in a company’s retirement plan, which
two qualifications must be met?
a. age 21 or older & worked 1200 hours in a
year of service
b. age 21 or older & worked 1000 hours in a
year of service
c. age 18 or older & worked 1200 hours in a
year of service
d. age 18 or older & worked 1000 hours in a
year of service
16. For part-time employees to be eligible to be in a company’s retirement plan,
Fate In Herman Melville’s Moby Dick
Exploring the Concept of Fate in Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick. Fate is a tricky concept to define. In one sense, fate indicates an unalterable course that a person takes in life; meaning that the events in a person’s life are pre-ordained and cannot be changed. Another view of fate seems to be best illustrated as a fork in the road: fate maps out a series of paths one may take and, depending on individual choices, a person can reach this end or that end. It is difficult to say which idea is right, or if either idea is right. It is possible, after all, that life is simply random and that fate plays no role whatsoever. The many ways to consider fate, I think, is a concern posed in Moby-Dick. In the relationships between Ahab and the whale, and between Ishmael and Queequeg, there can be little doubt that Melville intends for his reader to feel that certain forces are at work, forces driving these characters to a particular end. But to what extent Ahab, Ishmael and Queequeg have control over their destinies is somewhat left to the reader to decide. These men, Melville seems to suggest at times, are not without their free will; however, they all seem to place so much stock in the idea of fate that they feel (perhaps wrongly) bound to what they perceive to be a destined course. In consideration of this idea, the following chapters will be scoured for relevant details: XVI (“The Ship”), XXXVI (“The Quarter-Deck”), CXXXII (“The Symphony”), LXXII (“The Monkey-Rope”), XCIX (“The Doubloon”), CXXXV (“The Chase-Third Day”), and the epilogue. The intent here is to highlight instances in the novel where characters-namely Ahab, Ishmael and Queequeg-interpret relatively ambiguous portents and then act according to these interpretations; the goal being to address the possibility that the men are placing faith in signs and readings that may have no actual relevance to their lives. Let it be made clear that I do not intend to emphasize any glaring evidence that fate is or is not at work, for I believe Melville so carefully crafted this theme as to allow his reader to choose for him or herself whether or not the Pequod was fated to be destroyed by the whale. Chapter XXXVI, “The Quarter-Deck,” has Captain Ahab emphatically demonstrating his belief in fate, presenting this belief in a way which inspires a sense of purpose in his crew, save Starbuck. “And this is what ye have shipped for, men,” Ahab tells the crew, “to chase that white whale on both sides of land and over all sides of earth, till he spouts black blood and rolls fin out” (202). Ahab, in his approach to the subject, first presents the whale as an elusive, even mystical creature, then fills his crew with the notion that they have been chosen for this endeavor; that it is their destiny to kill the white whale. Moreover, Ahab makes a ceremony of this revelation: he issues “an order seldom or never given on shipboard except in some extraordinary case,” which is to summon the ship’s company to gather on deck. The captain then presents the men with a gold doubloon (which will be expounded on later in this paper) and passes around libations to further mark the occasion. Ahab here plays on fate a bit in order to rally his crew for his own chosen cause. It is seen in later chapters, such as “The Symphony,” that Ahab feels he is fated to battle the whale once more. In a moment of self-doubt, he explains to Starbuck that he cannot relent in his pursuit for the whale: “how then can this one small heart beat; this one small brain think thoughts; unless God does the beating, does that thinking, does that living, and not I. By heaven, man, we are turned round and round in this world, like yonder windlass, and Fate is the handspike” (622). But in sharing his intent to hunt the whale with the Pequod’s crew-and especially in his approach to the matter-Ahab is decidedly manipulative. He instills in his men the idea that his fate is theirs as well, when it remains unclear if this endeavor is in fact anyone’s fate. Furthermore, Ahab’s speech serves to bolster Queequeg and Ishmael’s notion that they themselves are being guided by fate. Just as Ahab believes himself to be bound by fate, the reader can see early on that Queequeg is a man whom believes in pre-destination; and, in time, Ishmael too seems to believe. It is in chapter XVI, “The Ship,” where Yojo’s insistence that Ishmael choose the ship on which he and Queequeg would work puts into motion a chain of events that ends in Ishmael’s life being indirectly saved by Queequeg. In “The Ship,” Ishmael explains, â€¦and Yojo had told [Queequeg] two or three times over, and strongly insisted upon it every way, that instead of our going together among the whaling-fleet in harbour, and in concert selecting our craft; instead of this, I say, Yojo earnestly enjoined that the selection of the ship should rest wholly with me, inasmuch as Yojo purposed befriending us; and, in order to do so, had already, pitched upon a vessel, which, if left to myself, I Ishmael, should infallibly light upon, for all the world as though it had turned out by chanceâ€¦ (100). There are two issues in this passage which suggest the workings of fate. One is the supposition that Yojo had intentionally brought Queequeg and Ishmael together; and the second is that the two friends were meant to board the Pequod for reasons yet unknown. Both suppositions make the strong argument that our heroes are following a set destiny, one which is supported in later chapters, such as “The Monkey-rope,” where Ishmael makes the suggestion that he and Queequeg are connected; that one’s fate invariably depends on the other. In this particular episode, the monkey-rope itself acts as the symbol of their connection: “for better or for worse, we two, for the time, were wedded; and should poor Queequeg sink to rise no more, then both usage and honour demanded, that instead of cutting the cord, it should drag me down in his wake” (376). It may be suggested that, at this point, Ishmael has taken to heart the idea that Yojo had brought he and Queequeg together; our narrator, in this case, uses the symbolic monkey-rope to further illustrate this bond. The epilogue, therefore, presents what can be seen as the reason for Ishmael and Queequeg’s fated relationship. As Ishmael says in the short chapter, “I was he whom the Fates ordained to take the place of Ahab’s bowsman,” in effect being spared, like Job, to tell the story of what he had seen. In addition to this statement, the reader sees that Ishmael’s life is saved by the very coffin which had been built for Queequeg, and had been subsequently transformed into a life buoy. There is then a powerful suggestion that Ishmael was fated to pass on the story of the Pequod, and that Queequeg was equally fated to help our hero reach his destiny. Indeed aspects of the duo’s story-their meeting; their immediate bond; Queequeg’s sickness which demanded the production of the coffin-all seem to fit together like puzzle pieces, forming a larger picture. But these sorts of interpretation, and Ahab’s own impression of his fate, are just that; interpretations; and this ambiguous nature of the supposed portents of the novel may very well be Melville making the suggestion that fate is a subjective device, the meaning of which varies from man to man. I believe this point to be strongly hinted at in chapter XCIX, “The Doubloon,” where Melville shows the reader differing views of a single object. A series of characters approach the gold doubloon nailed to the mast; and each offer their own interpretation of the coins’ illustrations. Ahab, in his monomania, sees himself in the doubloon-“The firm tower, that is Ahab; the volcano, that is Ahab; all are Ahab” (499)-while Starbuck sees in the coin a balance of gloom and righteousness. Stubb sees in the coin “the life of man in one round chapter,” and simple Flask sees nothing at all (501, 502). As one character comes, another goes, and the interpretations are always different, if only slightly. As so many characters look upon arguably trivial details etched onto the surface of a doubloon and invest in these images significantly contrasting meanings. Regarding fate, a similar sort of subjective reading appears in Chapter CXXXV, “The Chase-Third Day,” as Ahab seems to force Fedallah’s prediction to come true in a rather literary bit of interpretation. The captain takes the Parsee’s prediction regarding two hearses to a symbolic level, seeing the whale and the Pequod as the portended vehicles. And it is likely that, if Ahab had not shouted “The ship! The hearse!-the second hearse!” the reader would not have picked up on the allusion at all. The “fulfillment” of Fedallah’s prediction is one of many cases where fate is seen through a somewhat subjective lens. In consideration of this and other instances mentioned, it seems reasonable to argue that Melville wished only to raise the question of fate in the minds of his readers, and did not intend to answer the question in any finite way within the text. Characters are likened to prophets, gods and archangels; storms and fires are seen as portents; the white whale itself is considered by many to be an agent of darkness or chaos or even God; but, ultimately, each piece of evidence, and each fatalist interpretation holds a certain ambiguity. Melville, I believe, was aware of this ambiguity, and took pains to write his novel so that one reader may see the ship’s crew as being mistaken in its endeavor and another reader may see the Pequod as a brave and daring vessel facing its fate head on.
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