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Construction Information Sheet No 26 ( revision2 ) skin contact with a sensitizer. the more it will perforate the tegument. and the greater the hazard of sensitization will go. Therefore. if cement is left on the tegument throughout the on the job twenty-four hours. instead than being washed off at intervals. the hazard of contact sensitization to hexavalent Cr will be increased. Introduction Cement is widely used in building. Anyone who uses cement ( or anything containing cement. such as howitzer. plaster and concrete ) or is responsible for pull offing its usage should be cognizant that it presents a jeopardy to wellness. Health effects Both thorn and allergic dermatitis can impact a individual at the same clip. Cement can do sick wellness chiefly by: Cement Burnss

Wet cement can do Burnss. The principal cause is thought to be the alkalinity of the wet cement. If wet cement becomes trapped against the tegument. for illustration by kneeling in it or if cement falls into a boot or baseball mitt. a serious burn or ulcer can quickly develop. These frequently take months to mend. and in utmost instances will necessitate skin transplants or can even take to amputation. Serious chemical Burnss to the eyes can besides be caused following a splash of cement. skin contact ; inspiration of dust ; and manual handling. Skin contact Contact with wet cement can do both dermatitis and Burnss. Dermatitis Inhalation of dust Skin affected by dermatitis feels itchy and sore. and looks ruddy. scaly and cracked. Cement is capable of doing dermatitis by two mechanisms – irritancy and allergic reaction. High degrees of dust can be produced when cement is handled. for illustration when emptying or disposing of bags. In the short term. exposure to high degrees of cement dust irritates the nose and pharynx. Scabbling or concrete film editing can besides bring forth high degrees of dust which may incorporate silicon oxide. Advice on the wellness effects of exposure to silica can be found in Construction Information Sheet 36 ( rev1 ) .

Irritant dermatitis is caused by the physical belongingss of cement that irritate the tegument automatically. The all right atoms of cement. frequently assorted with sand or other sums to do howitzer or concrete. can corrade the tegument and cause annoyance ensuing in dermatitis. With intervention. irritant dermatitis will normally unclutter up. But if exposure continues over a longer period the status will acquire worse and the person is so more susceptible to allergic dermatitis. Manual managing Working with cement besides poses hazards such as sprains and strains. peculiarly to the dorsum. weaponries and shoulders from raising and transporting cement bags. blending howitzer etc. More serious harm to the dorsum can be caused in the long term if workers are continually raising heavy weights. Allergic dermatitis is caused by sensitization to the hexavalent Cr ( chromate ) nowadays in cement.

The manner this works is rather distinguishable from that of irritancy. Sensitizers penetrate the barrier bed of the tegument and do an allergic reaction. Hexavalent Cr is known to be the most common cause of allergic dermatitis in work forces. Research has shown that between 5 % and 10 % of building workers may be sensitised to cement and that plasterers. concreters and bricklayers are peculiarly at hazard. Once person has become sensitised to hexavalent Cr. any future exposure may trip dermatitis. Some skilled shopkeepers have been forced to alter their trade because of this. The longer the continuance of Ill wellness bar and wellness surveillance Skin contact You should first see utilizing riddance or permutation to forestall the possibility of contact with cement. Otherwise. you should use control steps which minimise contact with the tegument either straight or indirectly from contaminated surfaces in the on the job environment. 1 Employees should be encouraged to analyze their ain tegument for any such marks and describe them.

Reports should be made to the ‘responsible person’ or to the occupational wellness nurse. An of import manner of commanding cement dermatitis is by rinsing the tegument with warm H2O and soap. or other skin cleansing agent. and drying the tegument afterwards. Sinks should be big plenty to rinse the forearms and have both hot and cold ( or warm ) running H2O. Soap and towels should be provided. Facilities for drying apparels and altering apparels should besides be available. Inhalation of dust Exposure to dust should be eliminated where possible. for illustration. by buying ready assorted concrete. Where this is non possible. the hazard should be assessed and appropriate control steps implemented. Baseball gloves may assist to protect tegument from cement. but they may non be suited for all facets of building site work. Caution is advised when utilizing baseball mitts as cement trapped against the tegument inside the baseball mitt can do a cement burn. You should supply protective vesture. including overalls with long arms and long pants.

Manual managing Manual handling of heavy tonss should be avoided. In peculiar. cement should be supplied in 25 kilogram bags or ordered in bulk supply. Where manual handling does take topographic point. you should measure the hazards and follow appropriate hazard control measures. Employers are required to set up for employees to have suited wellness surveillance where there is exposure to a substance known to be associated with skin disease and where there is a sensible likeliness that the disease may happen. This means you should supply wellness surveillance for workers who will be working with wet cement on a regular footing. Legal commissariats The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require the employer to measure wellness hazards and prevent or control exposure.

Health surveillance is needed to: protect persons ; place every bit early as possible any indexs of tegument alterations related to exposure. so that stairss can be taken to handle their status and to rede them about the hereafter ; and give early warning of oversights in control. The Construction ( Health. Safety and Welfare ) Regulations 1996 require those in control of building sites to guarantee that suited and sufficient public assistance installations are provided. This includes supplying equal lavation installations with hot and cold ( or warm ) running H2O and installations for altering and drying vesture. Health surveillance must ne’er be regarded as cut downing the demand to command exposure or to rinse cement off the tegument. The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 require employers to supply suited personal protective equipment for their employees. to do certain it is maintained ( and replaced. where necessary ) and to inform. instruct and train employees required to utilize it. Simple wellness surveillance will normally be sufficient.

Skin reviews should be done at regular intervals by a competent individual. and the consequences recorded. Employers will likely necessitate the aid of an occupational wellness nurse or physician to invent a suited wellness surveillance government and they will necessitate to develop a ‘responsible person’ . for case a supervisor. to transport out the tegument reviews. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 require employers to avoid manual handling where moderately operable and undertake hazard appraisal of the staying manual handling undertakings. A responsible individual is person appointed by the employer who. following direction from an occupational wellness doctor or nurse. is competent to recognize the marks and symptoms of cement-related dermatitis. The responsible individual should describe any findings to the employer. and will necessitate mention instances to a appropriately qualified individual ( eg an occupational wellness nurse ) .

Organization and disaster preparedness plans

Organization and disaster preparedness plans.

Organization and disaster preparedness plans

The Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101 discusses a variety of planning pitfalls communities and organizations often face in planning and preparing for disasters. Please provide a comprehensive well-organized response to the following: Choose a specific community, organization or type of organization you are familiar within your life, such as your employer, school, or faith-based or other nongovernmental organization that you may serve as a volunteer. Describe various pitfalls that might be encountered in its disaster preparedness plans or planning processes. A recent class lecture presented information on training and exercises, including their purposes and potential benefits. Below are some questions to consider for the specific community, organization or type of organization you chose: You don’t have to respond to all of them, but please provide reasons for your answers. Your discussion should focus on a real organization Does your organization conduct drills and training? For what particular kinds of disasters, crises, or critical incidents? Have you found the drills or training useful? Are the drills always scheduled and announced in advance, or are there “surprise,” no-notice drills and exercises? Are there “injects” of new information or changes in the original scenario to challenge the participants? Are there types of incidents for which there are currently no drills or training, but you think should be done? After drills or training, are after-action or lessons learned reports prepared, or meetings held to evaluate the results and develop action or improvement plans? What improvements would you recommend? Scholarly articles or journals only

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