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The Classical Era spanned roughly 80 years in music history and gave us 3 of the most famous composers of all time: Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn. The classical era spans roughly 80 years in music history during the 18th and 19th centuries and is often associated with the movement called the Age of Reason. It is defined by a return to symmetry and simplicity not only in music, but also in architecture and fine art.

The excavation of Pompeii began in 1748, and the visible remains which were drawn and engraved became a template for the aesthetics of the time. The best known composers from the Classical period are Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn. Time Period Most musicologists mark the death of J. S. Bach in 1750 as the end of the Baroque era and the dawn of the Classical era. There are fewer consensuses on when it ended: some consider the death of Beethoven in 1827 to be the boundary line whilst others cite 1800 as the beginning of the Romantic era. The Oxford Companion to Music marks the end of the Classical era as “sometime between 1800 and 1830”.

Few disagree that there was an overlapping of classical and romantic ideals by the early 19th century. Style The style of music from the Classical Era is predominantly homophonic, consisting of a single melody line with accompaniment as opposed to the polyphonic style of the Baroque Era which weaves together a number of melodic lines. Composers of the Classical Era rejected the elaborate styles of the Baroque Era, which they considered self-indulgent and vulgar. They simplified harmonic structures, shortened musical phrases and applied symmetry that was often lacking in the music of their predecessors.

The Classical Era also saw a shift to more instrumental genres, particularly the symphony and the string quartet. Form Great emphasis was placed on developing musical forms in the Classical era, the most important and overarching being sonata form. Sonata form consists of 3 clearly defined sections: the exposition (and introduction), the development section (a contrasting section in a different but related key) and the recapitulation (a return to the introductory material but remaining in the original key).

Sonata form had a direct impact on the development of instrumental music types, particularly the symphony, concerto, sonata and string quartet. All of these types are still used by contemporary composers. Composers The Classical period produced fewer enduring composers than any other musical period from the 1600s onwards. The Emphasis on form was to have a lasting impact on musical composition but in its infancy it had a rather stifling effect on musical substance and expression. Although there were hundreds of successful and revered composers during that time, only three of them composed music which would truly stand the test of time.

Main Characteristics Classical music has a lighter, clearer texture than Baroque music and is less complex. It is mainly homophonic — melody above chordal accompaniment (but counterpoint is by no means forgotten, especially later in the period). Variety and contrast within a piece became more pronounced than before. Variety of keys, melodies, rhythms and dynamics (using crescendo, diminuendo and sforzando), along with frequent changes of mood and timbre were more commonplace in the Classical period than they had been in the Baroque.

Melodies tended to be shorter than those of Baroque music, with clear-cut phrases and clearly marked cadences. The Orchestra increased in size and range; the harpsichord continuo fell out of use, and the woodwind became a self-contained section. As a solo instrument, the harpsichord was replaced by the piano (or fortepiano). Early piano music was light in texture, often with Alberti bass accompaniment, but it later became richer, more sonorous and more powerful. Importance was given to instrumental music—the main kinds were sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto, serenade and ivertimento.

Sonata form developed and became the most important form. It was used to build up the first movement of most large-scale works, but also other movements and single pieces (such as overtures). The music of the Classical period, which spans from 1750 to 1820, is characterized by simpler melodies and forms such as the sonatas. The piano was undoubtedly the primary instrument used by composers during this period. Here’s a timeline of important events in music history which happened during the 1750s all the way to 1820.

Ethic for the information age

Ethic for the information age.

Description ESSAY QUESTIONS QUESTION 3: Identify three functions that professional codes of ethics serve within our society. Discuss, providing three different examples, how codes of ethics like the Software Engineering Code of Ethics can help minimize the existence of bugs (errors) in safety critical software applications that can have disastrous effects, either killing or severely injuring people. QUESTION 4:  While waiting for an appointment with her physician, Jane Doe sees a brochure advertising a new surgical procedure in which a tiny microprocessor is implanted inside one’s skull just behind the left ear. The purpose of the chip is to help an individual associate names with faces. The procedure for inserting the chip is so simple that her physician performs it in his office. Because Jane is sales representative, she rationalizes that such a device could help her to earn higher sales commissions so she has her physician implant the chip. One month later, she develops tinnitus (a constant ringing) in both ears that will not go away. Assuming that the tinnitus is the sole result of the implanted chip, and not any other pre-existing medical condition, determine and discuss: 1) the physician’s accountability, and 2) the chip manufacturer’s accountability, both in terms of Deborah Johnson’s senses of responsibility. QUESTION 5: An employee of a leading pharmaceutical company informs his supervisor that a number of employees have unlicensed software installed on their office computers. The supervisor subsequently shares this information with the company’s chief information officer (CIO). Unbeknownst to the employees, members of the company’s IT staff then audit the firm’s computers, all of which are networked, over the following weekend. Analyze the rightness and/or wrongness of the IT staff’s actions from the four theoretical perspectives we have studied — Act Utilitarianism, Rule Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Social Contract Theory.

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