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Class Division in Castillo’s and Ferlinghetti’s Poems Essay (Critical Writing)

Table of Contents Introduction The Issue of Class Inequality in the Poems Comparison and Contrast between Class Representatives Figurative Elements in “Napa, California” and “Two Scavengers…” Conclusion Works Cited Introduction No matter how developed and civilized the world has become, there is always space for a variety of distinctions between people. Differences may be based on skin color, sexual orientation, or religious beliefs. However, there is one more issue that has always existed and is highly unlikely to disappear – the problem of belonging to various social classes. Some people are poor and others are rich, and the disparity between them has always inspired people of art. There are many kinds of music, literature, and other pieces that depict class differences. Lawrence Ferlinghetti’s “Two Scavengers in a Truck, Two Beautiful People in a Mercedes” and Ana Castillo’s “Napa, California” belong to the masterpieces of poetry illustrating social inequality. The current paper will discuss the issue of class division as the most prominent theme of Castillo’s “Napa, California” and Ferlinghetti’s “Two Scavengers…” The Issue of Class Inequality in the Poems Both Castillo and Ferlinghetti discuss the lack of balance between different social groups of people by means of depicting hard labor. In “Napa, California,” the story is being told in the first person. The narrator describes the grueling work of grape pickers and the unfair treatment of landowners where these people are employed. In “Two Scavengers in a truck…” the story is being told in the third person, and two different kinds of work are described. Both authors manage to present a distinct contrast between the jobs of poor people and those who can afford education and well-paid positions. In Castillo’s poem, grape pickers have “weatherworn hands” (l. 4) and “sun-beaten brows” (l. 10). They are so exhausted that they “pick / With a desire only survival inspires” (l. 18-19). It is impossible not to feel sympathy towards these poor workers who never have any rest. They work from early childhood and never manage to notice any fun in life: “our youth seems to pass before us and we have grown” (l. 14). The laborers do not see anything pleasant in their life, and they are deprived even of pride and dignity. Their pessimism is most vividly seen in these lines: “And the land / That in turn / Waits for us” (l. 24-26). People who spend their whole life in hard labor have only one thing to wait for: death. Their only consolation is “A little love” (l. 29) in the end. Ferlinghetti’s poem is less pessimistic, but it also depicts a rather hard and underestimated job: that of garbagemen or scavengers. As well as grape pickers in Castillo’s poem, these two men grow rather tired towards the end of their working day. They are “up since four a.m.” (l. 16) and “Grungy from their route” (l. 17). Ferlinghetti does not use many words to describe the hardships of the scavengers. However, it is possible for the readers to understand that doing strenuous work all day long cannot be an easy thing. Unlike in Castillo’s poem, “Two Scavengers…” does not depict a disparity between the workers and their employers. However, both poems show how underrated physical work is and how society does not appreciate those who do it. Comparison and Contrast between Class Representatives In both poems, people belonging to different classes are contradicted each other. In “Napa, California,” hardworking grape pickers suffer from the unfair treatment of cruel landowners who know nothing about strenuous physical work. In Ferlinghetti’s poem, “Grungy” (l. 17) garbagemen are contrasted to “elegant” (l. 9) young people in a posh car. However, in “Two Scavengers…” there are also some similarities between the representatives of different classes. Young men from both social groups look similar – the one in Mercedes has “blond hair

IT 625 Southern New Hempshire University Project Evaluation Draft

IT 625 Southern New Hempshire University Project Evaluation Draft.

You should read and be familiar with the Medical Informatics case study as well as the Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric document prior to beginning this assignment. Submit Milestone Two of your final project, a draft of an evaluation of the project in its current state.What is the status of the project? Analyze the current and potential problems that need to be addressed. Forecast the future performance of the project. Discuss how events in the past have impacted the current status, and what corrective actions need to be taken. This can be done in a table or outline format, as it is only a draft.
IT 625 Southern New Hempshire University Project Evaluation Draft

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By the due date assigned, review your final draft carefully, making sure that you have edited and formatted it carefully. Once you are satisfied with it, submit it.
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Repeat the title on the top line of the second page.
Be sure that your essay is at least 1,200 words in length.
Include a clear thesis statement in your introduction, and support it with quotes, examples, and facts from at least three credible sources.
Include a separate references page. Encyclopedia articles (such as those from Wikipedia or Ask.com) are not acceptable sources.
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Corporal Punishment in Children
Hope Manchester South University
Corporal Punishment in Children
Corporal punishment is a hot topic that has attracted a lot of controversies. Fueled by media stories how this type of punishment endangers the life of a child makes it receive opposition from many quarters. For this reason, a debate ensues on whether it should be legalized. In 1977, the United States Supreme court ruled that corporal punishment was legal in schools as long as it was only spanking and paddling. However, the local legislature was given powers to overrule the judgment. Corporal punishment happens in different ways, whereby some of them are spanking, pinching, slapping, twisting, and hitting with an object. Those who use it think that it is a way of instilling discipline, yet they are not aware that it has far-reaching consequences. Therefore, this paper will look into the reasons why corporal punishment should be abolished.
Social Behavior
Given the many negative effects that corporal punishment has brought to children, many organizations involved in protecting children’s welfare have held a firm stance in dealing with the issue. Teaching children acceptable behavior is a vital part of their growth. However, some parents opt to use corporal punishment to achieve these goals. Parents and teachers harbor no ill intentions of harming the children when executing this form of punishment. The issue is that it brings more harm than good.For instance, it accelerates the bad behavior of children instead of correcting them. While corporate punishment may cause immediate compliance, researchers have revealed that a change in behavior will be short-lived (Sege, 2018). Numerous works of research have shown that children who are spanked have a higher likelihood of hitting other people. Corporal punishment models rebellion and aggression, which only show children that the only way to solve problems is through violence. It also instigates other behaviors such as bullying and anything that may make them wield power over others. A meta-analysis conducted by Gershoff (2018) reviewed 27 studies in childhood and four in adulthood. The results of the analysis affirmed that there physical infliction of pain to children propelled aggressive behavior. His study also included delinquency, and it was revealed that there was a strong link between corporal punishment and antisocial behaviors. Such behaviors may cease to show immediately, but my later be manifested after a while.
Cognitive effects
Social interactions play a pivotal role in a child’s cognitive development. Early social interaction with parents, peers, caregivers, and teachers influences the development of relationships as well as collaborative learning in children. The use of verbal methods to instill morals is much likely to yield positive results such as cognitive development as compared to using physical punishment. I9 states in the USA uphold corporal punishment. However, a study done on these states revealed that they performed dismally when it came to academic performance.States that did not uphold punishment showed a positive performance (Gray, 2019). Children who have been subjected to harsh punishments suffer from depression, fear, and anger management. Such students cow from engaging in school activities, thus performing poorly in academics. On top of that, they develop problems with concentrating, dislike for authority, school avoidance, and school dropout. Corporal punishment places parents and teachers at a disadvantaged position whereby they have to choose the educational wellness of the child and the children’s physical wellbeing. Additionally, schools that use corporal punishment affect every student. This is because it creates a threatening atmosphere, which affects the students’ ability to perform well. Children who witness or experience physical harm end up disrupting their classmates learning.
Parental- Child relationship
One major concern that arises from the use of corporal punishment is the effect it has on the quality of relationships on parents and their children. A warm, positive interaction with children proves it can enhance attachment. Attachment plays a vital role in the development and social outcome of a child. It is a vital aspect that gives children the assurance that they are safe. Numerous studies have affirmed that physical punishment is linked to poor parent-child relationships. A study conducted by (Laible, Davis & Karahuta et al., 2019) looked into several factors that affected attachment security. Factors such as maternal depression and stress were analyzed, and from the results, two-thirds of the children were insecurely attached. Parents are more likely to spank their children when depressed, and as a result, they have adverse attachment consequences on the children.
Mental Health
Corporal punishment, apart from causing physical harm, usually affects mental health. Some of the mental problems raised are depression, suicidal ideas, anxiety, and other mental health problems. Most of the time, such problems are left unattended, whereby they usually have long term effects. For instance, the effects may appear later in the parenting of the next generation. Mental health appears as a result of the suppression of anger by children since they are amazed that the same adults who are supposed to protect and care for them can inflict bodily harm.
Gershoff (2018) conducted a study whereby she analyzed 12 counts of mental health and punishment in childhood and eight studies of the same in adulthood. There was consistency in the findings in that mental problem in both adulthood and childhood were a complete result of physical punishment. Additionally, there have also been incidents of low self-esteem among children subjected to such atrocious types of punishment.
Moral Internalization
Social information processing theory reveals that the long term goals of instilling discipline in children are molding the children to accept the values and morals of the society to guide their own behavior. Moral regulation involves being sensible on any wrongdoing and the ability to prevent themselves from bad behaviors. Many parents prefer their children having good behaviors, but they are not aware that the induction of physical pain has opposite effects. This affirms that such uncouth discipline measures do not have any effect on building discipline; instead, they cause aggression. There are other measures that can be used to instill discipline, but physical harm has proved that it is ineffective.
Interactions with culture and ethnicity
There have been questions regarding the use of physical punishment and interaction with culture and ethnicity. For instance, different cultures have their own views on how they see corporal punishment. In African-American societies, this form of punishment is acceptable and is regarded as a sign of good parenting. Children in such cultures do not exhibit the harsh consequences that come with inflicting corporal punishment.
In conclusion, inducing physical pain to children has far-reaching consequences in their lives. Instead of instilling discipline, children exhibit aggressive behaviors and rebellion. Children know that the only way to solve problems is through violence. Numerous works of research have shown consistency in the negative effects of using corporal punishment. The cognitive and intellectual growth of children is hampered. Additionally, it is found to cause insecure attachment and the poor parent-child relationship. In every family, the goal is that children grow with proper discipline, but the use of physical punishment does the complete opposite of that. The health risks associated with this form of punishment are evident. The mental health of children is affected since some of them get depressed while others get ideas to commit suicide. Therefore, parents and teachers should explore other avenues of instilling discipline since physical punishment has proven to have negative consequences.

References
Gershoff, E. T. (2018). Corporal punishment associated with dating violence. Journal of pediatrics, 198, 322-325.
Gray, L. A. (2019). Corporal Punishment in Schools. In Educational Trauma (pp. 175-193). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Laible, D., Davis, A., Karahuta, E., & Van Norden, C. (2019). Does corporal punishment erode the quality of the mother-child interaction in early childhood?. Social Development.
Sege, R. D., Siegel, B. S., ABUSE, C. O. C., & COMMITTEE ON PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH. (2018). Effective discipline to raise healthy children. Pediatrics, 142(6), e20183112

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ITS 835 GGUSF Wk 1 Enterprise Risk Management Process Research

ITS 835 GGUSF Wk 1 Enterprise Risk Management Process Research.

After reading the article this week, and any other relevant research you locate, please discuss the following: Please summarize, in your own words, a description of enterprise risk management. Why do you feel ERM is different from traditional risk management?Please make your initial post with 500 words and two response posts with at least 150 words and should be substantive. A substantive post will do at least TWO of the following:Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topicAnswer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructorProvide extensive additional information on the topicExplain, define, or analyze the topic in detailShare an applicable personal experienceProvide an outside source (for example, an article from the UC Library) that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA 7)Make an argument concerning the topic.At least one scholarly source should be used in the initial discussion thread. Be sure to use information from your readings and other sources from the UC Library. Use proper citations and references in your post.
ITS 835 GGUSF Wk 1 Enterprise Risk Management Process Research

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors In The Pig Urinary Bladder Biology Essay

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors In The Pig Urinary Bladder Biology Essay. Background and purpose. This investigation sought to identify the principal muscarinic receptor subtype associated with contraction of the pig bladder. Additionally, comparisons of muscarinic receptor expression in the pig bladder and caudate nucleus were conducted. Experimental approach. Contractility of isolated strips of pig bladder was assessed using isotonic tension recordings in an organ bath. Radioligand binding to particulate preparations from pig caudate nucleus and bladder detrusor was assessed using [3H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate. Key results. The results obtained from the contractile response experiment showed that the best antagonists for pig bladder contractions were methoctramine, pirnezepine and oxybutynin, this was according to the pEC50 data. These results led to the identification of the presence of M1 and M3 receptor subtypes in the bladder. Whereas M1 and M2 receptor subtypes were found to occur in the brain. Pirenzepine exhibited the smallest Rmax value, and was therefore the most successful antagonist. Whereas 4-DAMP had the largest Rmax value, identifying this as the worst antagonist. Conclusions and Implications. It is clear that M3 muscarinic receptors are found in the bladder, but are absent in the brain. This is made more certain as 4-DAMP showed fairly low affinity for muscarinic receptors in the bladder, but its affinity was higher than that recorded in the brain which is known to contain a low amount of M3 receptors. 4-DAMP also has the highest affinity recorded in the brain, due to binding at the M1 muscarinic receptor. Introduction There are five distinct types of muscarinic receptors (M1,M2,M3,M4,M5), all of which belong to the same family of G-protein-coupled receptors. M1 receptors are found mainly in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain, but also on the CNS and peripheral neurons. These receptors are excitatory, this excitation is produced by a decrease in potassium ions which causes membrane depolarization. M2 receptors exert inhibitory effects; they are present in the heart and so are of little importance in this experiment. M3 receptors reside in smooth muscle. These receptors are excitatory and produce vasodilatation and bronchodilatation, via an increase in intracellular calcium levels. As this experiment includes analysis on the effects of muscarinic antagonists on muscarinic receptors in the brain and bladder, it is mainly the M1 and M3 receptors which are being concentrated on. The aim of the experiment was to add a range of antagonists pig bladder tissue, and then recording the effect each had on the tissue’s contraction. The five antagonists used in the experiment were atropine, pirenzepine, methoctramine, 4-DAMP and oxybutynin. Each of the antagonists used are able to bind to muscarinic receptors, but they bind to different subtypes as they have differing affinities. Atropine is a non-selective antagonist, which acts via competitive inhibition of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It is a naturally occurring alkaloid which can be found in solanaceous plants, for example the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Atropine causes anti-cholinergic effects such as mydriasis, salivary inhibition, tachycardia, inhibition of GI motility and smooth muscle relaxation. It can be used clinically to treat anticholinesterase poisoning, bradycardia and GI hypermotility. Pirenzepine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist, and is slightly selective for the M1 sub-type. It is used clinically for the treatment of peptic ulcers, whereby it inhibits gastric acid secretion. Methoctramine is a slightly M2 selective antagonist. It has also been found to show selectivity for cardiac M2 muscarinic receptors, but to have low affinity for both vascular M2 and ganglionic M1 receptors. 4-DAMP is a slightly M3 selective antagonist, although it has only low affinity. There is no clinical use for 4-DAMP, it is mainly used in experiments for the analysis of muscarinic receptors. Oxybutynin is a non-selective muscarinic antagonist. It is used clinically to decrease muscle spasms of the bladder in patients suffering from frequent urination or urge incontinence. During the contractile experiment these antagonists will be used to determine which of the muscarinic receptors are present in the bladder, and which occur in the greatest amount. The same antagonists will then be used in the radioligand experiment, to compare each of their effects on brain tissue. Once both experiments are performed, the results can be used to compare the presence of muscarinic effects in the bladder and brain tissue. Materials and Methods Contractile response studies Strips of urinary detrusor were stored overnight at 4 °C in Kreb’s Ringer solution [composition (mM): NaCl (118); KCl (4.9), MgCl2 (1.2); KH2PO4 (1.2); D-glucose (12); NaHCO3 (25); CaCl2 (1.3); gassed with O2:CO2 (95:5)], as previously described (Lot and Wilson, 1994). On the morning of the experiment, tissue was removed from the refrigerator and allowed to equilibrate to room temperature. Thereafter, strips were mounted in an organ bath at 37 °C in Kreb’s Ringer solution. Contractility was monitored using isotonic transducers connected to CED 1502 amplifiers and recorded on a personal computer running Spike 2 software (CED, Cambs, UK). A steady baseline was then achieved for 20 minutes before 1ml 3M KCl was added to 50ml of Kreb’s solution (in water bath), to achieve a final concentration of 60mM. The tissue was then washed out three times once a maximal response was recorded, and this was then left for a further 20 minutes until a steady baseline was achieved once again. 10 dilutions containing varying concentrations of carbachol were then prepared in LP4 tubes, using 3-fold dilutions. A cumulative-concentration curve was created by adding the preparation containing the lowest concentration of carbachol to the organ bath first. After waiting for 7 minutes, the next preparation with a higher concentration was added. This process was repeated without washing out the tissue, until there was no further increase in tissue tone recorded. Once this part of the experiment was completed, the tissue was washed out 3 times with warm Kreb’s solution. This was followed by the addition of the putative antagonist and the tissue was left for 60 minutes. After achieving a steady baseline, a cumulative-concentration curve was created by carrying out the same process with increasing concentrations of carbachol as before; but this time in the presence of the putative antagonist. The results were printed off once the process was completed. Radioligand binding studies Radioligand binding to total particulate preparations from the pig was conducted essentially as previously described (Alexander et al., 1994). Briefly, tissue was homogenised in 10-30 volumes of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) using an Ultra-Turrax homogeniser. After centrifugation at 30 000 g for 15 minutes at 4°C, the supernatant layer was discarded. This homogenisation/centrifugation cycle was repeated twice more and the resulting pellet was re-suspended in 10 volumes. After storage at -20 °C, thawed tissue was incubated in a total volume of 500 µL 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), containing 0.25 nM [3H]-QNB for 30 minutes at 37 °C. Rapid filtration with repeated washing allowed isolation of bound radioligand, which was then estimated using liquid scintillation counting. A dilution curve was prepared using 10-fold dilutions once the drug was provided, this contained the highest concentration. 32 LP4 tubes were labelled 1-32 and these were placed in test tube racks. 50 µl aliquots of different concentrations of drug were then added to tubes 5-28, with each being made up to 500 µl by adding 450 µl of buffer. 50 µl of buffer was added to tubes 1-4, these acted as a control whilst atropine was added to the remained tubes 29-32. 400 µl of the radioligand was added to each of the tubes, with 50 µl of particulate preparation being added to the tubes in groups of 10 at 12 minute intervals. Once this process was completed, the tubes were incubated in a water bath at 37°C for 30 minutes. The Whatman GF/B filters were placed in the 10-place manifold and were wet using the buffer solution. Ten of the tubes were then removed from the water bath, and 3ml of ice-cold buffer was added to each of them. They were filtered immediately after this process. Once two additions of 3ml of ice-cold buffer had taken place on each filter paper, they were washed. This was repeated for each of the LP4 tubes, once incubation in the water bath was halted on their removal. The filter papers were then placed into labelled scintillation vials, they were then analysed. Data analysis and statistical procedures There are equations which can be used to analyse the data collected in the experiment, once the information has been put into a concentration curve graph. The first equation used is the Gaddum equation: pKi = log (CR – 1) – log [Ant] In order to make use of this equation it is neccessary to work out the EC50, which is the effective concentration of drug required to give 50% of the maximum response. This EC50 value can be obtained from the concentration curve, as it is at 50% of the maximum response on the graph. The results collected from the graphs were Molar, these can be converted to µM by multiplying the values by 106. These values can now be used to produce a concentration ratio, indicating the EC50 response with and without the presence of the antagonist. Graph 1 shows bladder tissue contractile responses to histamine in the presence of different concentrations of promethazine. The EC50 values recorded for histamine and promethazine were -6.5 and -5 respectively. By converting these Molar values to µM by using the technique stated above, histamine 0.316 µM and promethazine 3.16 µM can be inputted into the Gaddum equation. The pKi value which is calculated in this equation is an indication of potency of the antagonist used, and a high pKi indicates a high affinity for the receptor. The pKi in this case was -8.5. As the radioligand was being carried out, calculations were made in order to work out the Kd and Bmax. The equation used in the radioligand binding experiment was the Cheng-Prusoff equation: IC50/Ki = 1 [A]/Kd To work out the pKi, the same process as the contractile response experiment is used. Then the pIC50, the concentration of the antagonist which displaces 50% of the ligand, can be calculated. It is then necessary to work out the IC50 value to be used in the Cheng-Prusoff equation, this is achieved by -log of the pIC50 value. Finally, -log of the Ki obtained from the equation gives a pKi value of 8.2. Drugs, chemicals, reagents and other materials Porcine material (from pigs of the modern Hybrid white strain, either sex, approximately 50-70 kg) was obtained from an abattoir and transported rapidly to the laboratory on ice. [3H]-QNB (specific activity 1591 GBq mmole-1) was obtained from Amersham Pharmacia Biotech (Herts, UK), while muscarinic receptor ligands were all obtained from Sigma (Dorset, UK). All drug and molecular target nomenclature conforms to the British Journal of Pharmacology’s ‘Guide to Receptors and Channels’ (Alexander et al., 2008). Results Table 1. Contractile response results: Drug pEC50 Rmax Concentration Ratio pKi Atropine 4.5 131 20.9 9.1 Pirenzepine 4.3 109 42.6 7.4 Methoctramine 4.3 50.2 7.1 4-DAMP 4.6 139 37.9 9.2 Oxybutynin 4.3 210.5 8.1 Water 4.7 116 5.0 Table 1 shows the results obtained from the contractile response experiment, whereby the pig bladder tissue was exposed to five antagonists and the contractility of the tissue was measured. Table 2. Radioligand binding results: Brain Bladder Drug pKi SEM pKi SEM Atropine 9.8 0.1 9.8 0.1 Pirenzepine 7.7 0.2 8.0 0.6 Methoctramine 8.0 0.0 7.7 0.1 4-DAMP 9.2 0.0 8.4 0.1 Oxybutynin 7.4 0.0 7.8 0.0 Carbachol 4.8 0.1 4.3 0.0 Table 2 shows the results obtained from the radioligand experiment, which identified the different muscarinic receptors found in the brain and bladder tissue. Discussion and conclusions The conclusions that can be made from the results are that the main types of muscarinic receptor involved in the contraction of the bladder are the M1 and M3 receptor. Whereas, M1 and M2 muscarinic receptor subtypes occur in the brain. Therefore, an ideal drug for therapeutic treatment of urge incontinence and bladder dysfunction would be M3 selective. This would not have any adverse effects in the brain, as M3 receptors are not present in this part of the body. Bladder contractions occur due to activation of muscarinic receptors leading to an increase in intracellular calcium, which causes contraction of the smooth muscle. The results collected in the contractile response experiment were due to antagonism of M1 and M3 receptor subtypes. 4-DAMP recorded a pKi value of 9.2, a value which corresponded with the M3 subtype and was the highest of all the antagonists. This antagonist is M3 selective but also has affinity for the M1 muscarinic receptor; this may have caused its high pKi value to be due to binding at this muscarinic receptor subtype. Atropine recorded the second highest pKi, 9.1 .This was to be expected as it is a non-selective antagonist, with high affinity for each of the muscarinic receptor subtypes able to cause contraction of the bladder tissue. Oxybutynin recorded the third highest pKi value, 8.1. Oxybutynin has a slightly higher affinity for the M3 muscarinic receptor, therefore the pKi value is due to binding at this receptor subtype. Pirenzepine, being an M1 selective antagonist, would be expected to have a similarly high pKi to 4-DAMP. This was not the case as pirenzepine only recorded a pKi of 7.4, a value expected to be obtained from M3 selective antagonists. Methoctramine recorded a pKi value of 7.1, the lowest of all the antagonists. Although it is an M2 selective antagonist, the pKi value leads to the conclusion that contractile response is due to the presence of M1 or M3 receptors. The results obtained in the radioligand experiment revealed that mostly M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors occur in the brain. Methoctramine has low affinity at the M1 receptor, even so, the results recorded in the experiment showed the antagonist to have high affinity. The pKi range of the M2 receptor subtype for methoctramine is 7.8-8.3. Therefore, the recorded pKi value of 8.0 suggests the presence of M2 receptor subtypes in the brain. The pKi of 8.0 is quite far from the pKi range of methoctramine for the M3 receptor subtype, leading to the conclusion that there are a small number of M3 receptors in the brain. Atropine, perenzepine, 4-DAMP and oxybutynin antagonists are able to act at the M1 muscarinic receptor and each of these antagonists possess similar affinities for the receptor. Atropine (pKi 9.8) and oxybutynin (pKi 7.4) are both non-selective antagonists, so as in the contractile response will have fairly high affinities for any of the muscarinic receptor subtypes present in the brain. Perenzepine recorded a pKi value of 7.7; this failed to fall into any of the pKi ranges expected for the muscarinic receptors. The value was closest to the M1 subtype range (7.8-8.5). The SEM recorded was the highest of all the antagonists (0.2) concluding that some of the results may have been anomalous, with most of the pKi values falling within the M1 range. The Pki range of pirenzepine for the M3 receptor subtype is 6.7-7.1. The pKi recorded, much like that of methoctramine, was quite far from the M3 range. 4-DAMP recorded a high pKi of 9.2. This pKi value fell into the ranges for both the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, showing high affinity of the antagonist for both subtypes. In this experiment the pKi value recorded was with respect to the M1 receptor, not the M3 subtype. The non-selective muscarinic antagonist oxybutynin is the principle drug used to treat urge incontinence. This antagonistic drug possesses anticholinergic and antispasmolytic properties, which together act on the bladder to inhibit micturition. However, there are significant adverse effects associated with this choice of therapeutic treatment; such as dry mouth, constipation and blurred vision. These side effects highlight the non-selectivity of oxybutynin as each occurs due to antagonism at the M1 receptor. The radioligand binding experimental results show that oxybutynin has a pKi of 7.8 in the bladder, which is only slightly higher than the pKi of 7.4 recorded in the brain. These pKi values indicate that oxybutynin is slightly more selective towards the M3 receptor subtype present in the bladder. However, it is evident that the antagonist also has significant affinity towards the M1 and M2 receptor subtypes which are present in the brain. There were a few limitations encountered in both parts of the experiment. The contractile response experiment was carried out for a fairly short amount of time, more reliable results could be obtained by increasing the amount of time that the experiment is undertaken. As not all of the tissues used in the experiment were of the same source or size, the results obtained were inconsistent the responses recorded were of varying degrees. By ensuring every piece of tissue is the same size, more accurate and reliable could be obtained. Human error when collecting and interpreting the data in the experiment could have caused considerable variations in the results recorded. During the radioligand binding experiment complications arose due to contamination, with various external factors such as temperature and buffer strength affecting the results. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors In The Pig Urinary Bladder Biology Essay