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CJUS 535 Liberty University Impact of Technology on Modern Society Discussion

CJUS 535 Liberty University Impact of Technology on Modern Society Discussion.

please respond to the following discussion post with 500 words or more 2 references and 1 biblical viewpoint. There can be no denying the impact that technology has had on our modern society. The field of law enforcement is not immune to these changes. Part of the readings for this week focused on the ‘3-I model,’ which includes geographical Information systems (GIS), predictive policing, and social media. Discuss these technologies in detail. Then, explain how these technologies can be applied to a strategic intelligence apparatus. Also, discuss which of these you feel can be the most beneficial to intelligence-led policing. Be sure to defend your answer with scholarly research and remember to integrate a Biblical perspective to your posting.
CJUS 535 Liberty University Impact of Technology on Modern Society Discussion

Marketing techniques has been developed through online and yet television marketing companies has introduced a new issue to society, i.e., compulsive buying (Roberts and Jones, 2001). This phenomenon among students is being concerned because of a rising number of teenagers maladaptive preoccupation with buying or shopping or frequent buying items that are not needed or cannot afforded or shopping for longer period time than intended. This phenomenon is called compulsive buying behavior. This is based on the recent study confirmed empirically that phenomenon of compulsive buying is escalating (Neuner, Raab, and Reisch, 2005). According to the recent study which is conducted in Canada (d’Astous, Maltais, and Roberge, 1990) indicate that compulsive buying problems are present in the adolescent consumer population. According to Kraeplin (1915) and Bleuer (1930), compulsive buying was first described in the clinical and the psychiatric literature in the beginning of the 20th century in which compulsive buying behavior also known as ‘Oniomania’. As defined in Encyclopedia, Oniomania is the scientific term for the compulsive desire to shop, often known as compulsive buying, compulsive shopping, shopping craving or shopaholism. Over the past decade, interest in compulsive buying disorder has increased, perhaps due to increasing interest in the future obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (Black, 2001). According to Eric and Andrea (2006, October), about 5.8% of the U.S population are compulsive buyer. While according to a study which conducted by University of Chicago Press Journals (2008, September) suggests that compulsive buying may affect more consumers than previously demonstrated. This study suggests that as many as 8.9% of the population can be classified as compulsive buyer. This proved that compulsive buying behavior widens almost every day, with the recent research, studies, and reports related to compulsive buying published in Canada, Mexico, and Brazil, most of the countries of Western Europe, Israel, Australia, South Korea, and now even China. There are a lot of researches about compulsive buying implicate that there are many causes that contribute to make this phenomenon happened. For instance, according to Valence, d’Astous and Fortier (1988), they consider family, genetic, situational, and biological factors and anxiety as the factors that lead to the appearance of compulsive buying behavior. While based on the approach of Scherhorn, Reisch and Raab (1990), Edwards (1992), and Cole (1995), the role of the family and personality traits are one of the factors that lead to the development of compulsive buying behavior. Besides that, consumer science researchers have been focusing on the characteristic and the previous conditions of compulsive buying, such as having a more compulsive personality, lower self esteem, and more intensely fantasy life than normal consumers (Faber and O’Guinn, 1992; Lee, Lenno, and Rudd, 2000: O’Guinn and Faber, 1989; Valence, d’Asous, and Fortier, 1988). 1.1.1 Factors Influencing the Consumer’s Compulsive Buying Behavior Based on previous research, there are a lot of factors that can contribute to the appearance of this phenomenon. Hence, this study will focus on the few factors that contribute to the appearance of compulsive buying behavior among students i.e., self-esteem, materialistic value and attitude towards money (power, anxiety and distrust) among students to investigate the relationship between the factors and the compulsive buying behavior. Self -esteem Compulsive buyer always have stronger emotional that related to buying motivation, such as they will buy things uncontrolled when they are in the condition of low self-esteem or negative mood. It has been found out that compulsive buying tendencies are significantly negatively related to an individual’s self-esteem. DeSarbo and Edwards (1996) state that poor self-esteem is correlated with compulsive buying behavior. This implies that individuals, who use buying to compensate for their self-esteem, are more prone to develop compulsive buying behavior. Chang and Arkin (2002) found that people with low self-esteem and market self-doubt are obviously eager consumers. Materialistic value Belk (1985) states that previous research has shown that compulsive buyers scored significantly higher on materialism subscales. Watson (2003) found that materialistic people tended to be more likely to spend money, more likely to express positive attitude towards borrowing money for luxury purchases than were less materialistic people. Attitude towards money Yamauchi and Templer (1982) defined that money attitude of power-prestige, distrust, and anxiety is closely related to compulsive buying. There are total of five component which being included in this scale, which are power-prestige (use of money to influence and impress), retention-time (money behaviors requiring planning and preparation for the future), distrust (doubt and mistrust associated with money transactions), anxiety (an attitude that money is a cause of anxiety as well as a cause of protection from anxiety), and quality (purchasing quality products as a main behavior. Roberts and Jones (2001) explained that the following research has focused on power, anxiety and distrust because of their overlap in the major money attitude research of both Furham and Yamauchi. 1.1.2 Significant difference between gender and compulsive buying behavior Gender does appear to be a major factor. A previous study found that majority of compulsive buyers is female (Faber 1992; O’Guinn and Faber 1989; Scherhorn, Reisch, and Raab 1990). In contrast, Roberts and Tanner (2000) argue that they are failed to find any gender differences on a study among adolescents. Thus, some researchers question gender differences are an artifact created because males are less likely to make known their problematic behaviors (Faber and O’Guinn 1992; Roberts 1998). For this reason, regarding the question involving the gender differences, gender will be one of the variables which will be focused on this study too. 1.2 Problem Statement Young people are the parents, decision-makers, business people and the leaders of tomorrow. Behavior termed compulsive buying in clinical literature; has started to attract research notice (Black, 2004; Dittmar, 2004a; Faber, 2004). Hence, due to the growing number of people involved in uncontrolled, excessive buying, this has lead to psychological sadness and serious effects on individuals’ lives, such as debt (Benson, 2000; Dittmar, 2004b). Moreover, a recent study confirmed empirically that phenomenon of compulsive buying is escalating (Neuner, Raab, and Reisch, 2005). Nowadays, teenagers are still easily being influenced by all kinds of factors. As a people who are concern about the future of the teenagers, they need to find out the root cause of determining this compulsive buying behavior among teenagers and try to address this problem. Therefore, the life of development of the teenagers will be perfect in the future because they realize the factor which causes the forming of this behavior. This study is being carried out to investigate the influence of three selected factors i.e., self-esteem, materialistic value and attitude towards money (power, anxiety and distrust) among students which contribute to compulsive buying behavior. In addition, this study is also aimed to the difference of male and female students in their compulsive buying behavior. Thus, based on the scenario and problem discussed earlier, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How does self-esteem influence student’s compulsive buying behavior? Is there any relationship between materialistic value and compulsive buying behavior? Does attitude towards money (power, anxiety and distrust) have an impact on compulsive buying behavior? Do male and female students differ in their compulsive buying behavior? 1.3 Significant of the Study Young people are the future of tomorrow. As a recent study confirmed empirically that compulsive buying is on the increase (Neuner el al., 2005), therefore it is a need to undergo this study to investigate the relationship of the three selected factors which contribute to compulsive buying behavior among students, and gender differences in compulsive buying behavior. The significant of the study can be viewed from various perspectives. From consumer perspective, consumer can gain a lot of information about compulsive buying behavior that they may never hear before. They can know the factors which contribute to this compulsive buying behavior and can enhance the knowledge of this kind behavior. Hence, they will be more concern about this growing issue especially among teenagers which are easily influenced by the environment. From marketer perspective, compulsive buying behavior will boost up the economy of our country and at the same time, marketers can gain a lot of profits due to this issue. This is because in the marketer’s mind set, profit maximization is the main goals that they want to achieve. From non-government organization’s (NGO) perspective, they have be more patient on educating and addressing this social behavior compulsive buying among society especially teenagers because uncontrolled and excessive buying will lead to others social related problems for instance financial problems, heavier credit card usage and so on. 1.4 Objectives of the Study 1.4.1 General Objective This study aims to investigate compulsive buying behavior among University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Students. 1.4.2 Specific Objectives 1) To examine the influence of self-esteem on student’s compulsive buying behavior. . 2) To investigate the relationship between materialistic value and compulsive buying behavior. 3) To determine the effect of attitude towards money (power, anxiety and distrust) on compulsive buying behavior. 4) To differentiate compulsive buying behavior among male and female students. 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study Hypothesis 1 Ho: There is no significant relationship between self-esteem and compulsive buying behavior. Hypothesis 2 Ho: There is no significant relationship between materialistic value and compulsive buying behavior. Hypothesis 3 Ho: There is no significant relationship between attitude towards money (power, anxiety, and distrust) and compulsive buying behavior. Hypothesis 4 Ho: There is no significant difference in compulsive buying between male and female students. 1.6 Limitations of the Study The current study is only focused on the students of University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) at Kampar, Perak. In this study, sample size is one of the limitations. The sample size is comparatively small as it only limited to the students who go into library of University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Kampar, Perak. Hence, the study is hard to represent the whole population of students. Besides that, this study cannot specify to all the students in University Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) because there are only 100 students will be selected as the sample of the study. The truthfulness of the study is based on the honesty of the respondents when they fill in the information in the questionnaire. In contrast, the misunderstanding of the respondents towards the questions might influence the reliability and validity of the result. Subsequently, time and power that can be used by the researchers are limited. 1.7 Research Framework This study consists of two independent variables (factors influencing compulsive buying behavior and gender) and one dependent variable (compulsive buying behavior). Factors influencing compulsive buying behavior Self-esteem Materialistic value Attitude towards money Power Anxiety Distrust Compulsive Buying Behavior Demographic Characteristic Gender Figure 1: Research Framework 1.8 Definition of Terminology The conceptual and operational definitions of the main key terms are as shown below: 1.8.1 Compulsive Buying Behavior Conceptual: Compulsive buying behavior is defined as “chronic, cyclical purchasing that becomes a primary response to negative feeling” (O’ Guinn and Faber, 1989). Operational: Compulsive buying behavior in this study is refers to excessive, uncontrolled frequent buying items that are not needed or cannot afford which addicted by students. 1.8.2 Self-esteem Conceptual: Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person’s overall evaluation of his or her own worth. Self-esteem includes viewpoint and emotions such as triumph, depression, satisfaction and embarrassment (Wikipedia, 2010). Operational: Self-esteem in this study is refers to the students positive or negative attitude towards himself or herself and evaluation of his or her own worth. 1.8.3 Materialistic value Conceptual: Highly materialistic value people believes that the acquisition of material goods is a central life goal, prime indicator of success, and key to happiness and self-definition (Richins, 2004). Operational: Materialistic value in this study is refers to materialistic value among students in which can be achieved by acquisitioning material goods to fulfill own satisfaction. 1.8.4 Attitude towards money Conceptual: There are of total of five component which is being included in attitude towards money, which are power-prestige (use of money to influence and impress), retention-time (money behaviors requiring planning and preparation for the future), distrust (doubt and mistrust linked with money transactions), anxiety (an attitude that money is a cause of anxiety as well as a cause of protection from anxiety), and quality (purchasing quality products as a main behavior (Yamauchi and Templer, 1982). Roberts and Jones (2001) explained that the following research has focused on power, anxiety and distrust because of their overlap in the major money attitude research of both Furham and Yamauchi. Operational: Attitude towards money in this study refers to the three components which are power, anxiety and distrust which have been explained by Roberts and Jones at the previous research.
Florida State University The Events of The Session Group Analysis.

This analysis should be written in an objective fashion, as if you were writing a case note. After viewing the last segment of Yalom’s video series, please include the following in your analysis:******THIS PAPER NEEDS TO BE WRITTEN IN APA FORMAT! (Proper in-text citation)*****Date of groupYour name and titleMembers presentBrief summary (one to two paragraphs) of the events of this sessionDetailed analysis of the highlighted members in this sessionWho are they? (HINT: group members to pay attention to: Bob, Allen, Darlene and Betty)What do you think is going on with each of them, personally and in relation to the group? Please support your ideas with readings from the text and concepts discussed in class. Develop one goal for each of the highlighted members and justify why you developed this goal. These goals should be things that the group members need to work on in this group. A goal should not be to refer them to another group or for individual counseling.This analysis should be between three and four pages.
Florida State University The Events of The Session Group Analysis

Steinway Piano Selling Discussion.

Explain the process by which a Steinway grand piano is constructed as a subsystem of a larger system. From what the text tells you, give some examples of how the production subsystem is affected by the management, financial, and marketing subsystems.Discuss the Steinway process in terms of the systems perspective of organizations summarized in Figure 1.4. Explain the role of each of the three elements highlighted by the figure—inputs from the environment, the transformation process, and outputs into the environment.Discuss some of the ways the principles of behavioral management and operations management can throw light on the Steinway process. How about the contingency perspective? In what ways does the Steinway process reflect a universal perspective, and in what ways does it reflect a contingency perspective?
Steinway Piano Selling Discussion

SOC 101 Rice University Racism and Sexism Discussion

SOC 101 Rice University Racism and Sexism Discussion.

USE THE FINAL NOTES MAINLY AND THE BOOK ONLY ! _NO OTHER SOURCES ALLOWED UNLESS THE LINKS FROM THE FINAL NOTES ONLY! The notes that has autotyped-next to it is the teachersLecture typed- might have mistake words in it. ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS THOROUGHLY WITH EACH WITH EXAMPLES, WITH ALL THE SMALL DETAILS TO GET PULL POINTS. 2. Define the terms racism and sexism. Describe how these two issues relate to one’s socio-economic status (social class). Give at least two examples (each) of how racism and sexism are institutionalized in our society. In your opinion, how might our country’s struggles with racism and sexism play out in the future? Be sure to use examples and details to back your point of view.
SOC 101 Rice University Racism and Sexism Discussion

Software Testing – Web Based Software

best essay writers Software Testing – Web Based Software.

I need help with Software testing – I am to create a web-based software,kinda like Amazon.com where you have the different features of browsing, secure login/logout etc.  Word Document 8 PagesThe importance of unit/usability/system test planning processCharacteristics of test plansTest planning approach
Approach taken for your test project Outline of the test plan
Scope (identification, system overview)System description and operation (name of test sites, test configuration)Test identification & test levelsPlanned tests & test schedulesRequirement traceability Excel Document:The creation of at least 20 “shall” driven requirements
5 external interface requirements, 5 safety, 5 security, 5
performance that will support unit, usability and system test; and the
draft unit/usability/system test plan, test method/procedure, and test
reportNote that there should be a separate RTM for unit, usability, and system tests.Ensure
SRSs are written in a testable manner, are not vague, and capture the
required functions needed to satisfy each area: safety, security, etc. RTM should have at least 3 rows ID, Requirements, and Component. ID
should be the unique ID of the requirement. Requirements should be the
actual testable “shall” requirement. Component should be the
component(s) of the software or system that has been allocated for this
functionality (i.e., user interface, security, etc.).
Software Testing – Web Based Software

Barclays’ Organizational Behavior

Organizational behavior is a study that looks at the individuals, employees, and how management teams behave and interact within the organization in a workplace setting. OB is therefore an interdisciplinary field that comprises communication, sociology, psychology, and management. The key issues that influence organizational behavior include; organizational change, corporate culture within the industry, organizational development, and customer expectations that usually shape the organizational values. This research paper tries to explain the basic but vital principles of organizational behavior in order to equip the management teams with adequate theoretical knowledge regarding essential concepts necessary for the efficient and effective management their work, and to understand some of the concepts and challenges related to the management of behavior in organizations. This is done with focus on Barclays bank, to identify the correlation between employees and the organizations in which they work. The research methodologies adopted are online questionnaire, interviews, and the use of observation of the operation of Barclays bank employees. There is an increase in the drive by companies to develop mature organizational behavior and culture, owing to the perceived benefits and success associated with it that companies enjoy. Key words: Organizational behavior Organizational Behavior Research on Barclays Bank This paper seeks to analyze the organizational behavior adopted by Barclays bank across the world. Barclays PLC is a British multinational banking and financial services company, which is headquartered in London, United Kingdom. Barclays PLC operations in over 50 countries across Europe, Asia, South America, North America and Africa including Kenya, with a total number of customers exceeding 48 million globally and the fourth-largest bank worldwide by asset (Business.barclays.co.uk, 2013). Barclays is organized in two business clusters, (1) the corporate and investment banking and wealth and investment management and (2), retail and business banking. The corporate and investment banking and wealth and investment management cluster covers three business units: the corporate banking; Investment banking; and Wealth and investment management, while the retail and business banking cluster involve four business units that include Africa retail and business banking; Barclaycard; Europe retail and business banking; and UK retail and business banking (Business.barclays.co.uk, 2013). Most subsidiaries of Barclays PLC operate under Retail, Corporate, Treasury and Card Services with cross functional relationships to support the segments of local business and small to mid-sized enterprises (SME). Barclays financial strength coupled with extensive local and international resources have positioned Barclays as the top provider of financial services in the market for the past several years. Moreover, Barclay’s consistent financial performance has built confidence in their leadership and management among the Bank’s shareholders, as well as the industry in general making it an easy go brand. For example, the Kenyan subsidiary known as Barclays Bank of Kenya Limited has been in operation for 95 years, and has consequently built an extensive network of 117 branches and over 230 ATM’s countrywide (Business.barclays.co.uk, 2013). The network is supported by Internet and mobile banking channels plus a Customer Service Centre that operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The multinational nature of Barclays bank and the diverse clusters operating in different business environment globally present different challenges to the bank that are related to the industry environment. Similarly, Barclays bank in this regards is influenced by both local and international industry environment since decisions made at the international regions have a direct bearing on the operation of other subsidiaries around the world. The bank draws its employees across all nationalities, races, and cultures as a result of the increasing globalization and interconnectivity where people from different nationalities are hired to work far away from their countries of birth bringing with them different values, norms and cultures. To deal with this, Barclays bank has successfully managed to develop workable and standard organization behavior and culture that that cuts across the nationalities to ensure harmonious operations. Organizational Behavior Principles The success of multinational organizations is dependent upon the organizational behavior principles adopted and applied in the respective subsidiaries. The OB principles that re relevant to this study are customer responsiveness, personality and organization, work motivation, job satisfaction and reward management, communication, change management and leadership. Customer Responsiveness Being that Barclays operates in a service industry; their success is fully attributed to the quality of service and the fast level of responsiveness when handling customer queries. One of the values adopted by the bank is the declaration that ‘customer first’, to mean that customers must be attended to first before anything else. This has become part of the organizational behavior, making the bank to strengthen their customer service department by ensuring that all employees handling customers are well trained to offer quality service within the shortest time possible. Every one including the management team is oriented to treat the customers as the boss in all circumstances. Customer responsiveness is also achieved through product diversification to meet the demands of all groups of customers irrespective of their socio-economic status. This is much evident through the introduction of flexible and diversified credit card products commonly known as Barclaycards that match different needs. The market and customers expectation has been modeled to demand flexible and cheaper cards that match diverse needs of the members (Barclays.co.uk 2013a). For example, Barclaycard being the first credit card provider in Britain offers a range of quality products that match the need of all customers including those who require competitive interest-free product, or those in need of first credit card at competitive rates. Similarly, there are low standard-rate credit cards that are preserved for clients with excellent credit histories. This range of product ensures there is a suitable product for every category of customers. It is what is missing in HSBC that needs to be provided to ensure that customers’ satisfaction are met, corporate communication, group behavior, human decision making. Personality and Organization To develop a good organizational behavior, the management need to understand personality of employees in order to develop a workable interaction model within the organization. Personality involves characteristics, qualities, skills, and competencies of employees, combined with other traits such as grooming and attitude. Personality in most cases is influence by the environment and the social settings. However, there are particular universal characteristics which always emerge in individuals that are acceptable across the board. For example, customer service executives are expected to be aggressive, humble and respectful, have a listening ability, assertive and welcoming. These traits, thoughts, and feelings should be translated into visible behavior that can attract and retain the customers. Communication Clear communication within the organization is very important since it is essential in inculcating common objective. Failure in communication can result when clear purpose is not conveyed or when the message is distorted along the channel of communication followed. Communication setting can also bar clear conveyance of information as a result of unclear chain of command. Some of the barriers of effective communication may include assumptions by the sender who ignores parts of the information to be relayed, preconception among the receivers and biases in delivery. It is therefore imperative for the organization to develop communication culture as part of the organization behavior (Ashraf, 2012). Such culture clearly stipulates the chain of command of communication, communication channel and generally the type of language to be used in any delivery of information, which must strictly be official. Everyone including the management must communicate well with all people within the organization irrespective of being subordinates. This will instill respect and accurate execution of the command as clearly outlined. Clear communication also plays a major role in the satisfaction of customer demands and to provide all the information needed by the customer for decision making Work Motivation Full compliance to the organizational culture and behavior is also influenced by the level of motivation among the staff and the entire workforce. Motivation brings the intrinsic urge to perform at work place, and is connected to the psychological and emotional well-being. The level of motivation among the staff within the organization therefore, activates behavior or an urge that is directed at a goal (Ashraf, 2012).This means that for the organizations culture and behavior to be adhered to at all times, the management need to develop a highly motivated staff that understands and fully embraces the values of the organization. To achieve the work motivation that has direct impact on productivity, several factors can be adopted as part of organization culture to encourage competition among the employees towards production. Some of the factors include; Job Enrichment: Jobs need to be designed to offer opportunities for responsibility growth, achievement, and recognition for good performance. This involves providing challenging responsibilities that fully engages the employees through greater utilization of skills and offers opportunity for personal development. Flexi time: This concept is meant to allow employees to occasionally control their work schedule, such that they decide which work to start with (Ashraf, 2012). This system makes employees more responsible and accountable, and eliminates the general feeling that they are micromanaged to perform. Empowerment: This involves giving employees authority in their area of operation to make decisions and be able to resolve their work related problems without approval from the management. Employees stock ownership plan: this method has become a key tool in attracting, retaining, and motivating workforce in business organizations. The system allows employees to own the company’s stock to be part of the stockholders and as part of their benefit package. This motivates employees work harder and protects the organization since their service directly impacts the performance of the company. Low employees’ productivity means lower value of the stock prices. This strategy was adopted by Equity Bank, which is currently the fastest growing bank in the sub-Saharan Africa, thus should be adopted by market leaders like Barclays bank. Job Satisfaction and Reward Management Organization behavior should be one that promotes job satisfaction, which is the employees’ overall attitude towards their jobs. It is the fulfillment an employee develops after evaluation of a job or job experience. Job satisfaction can be derived from a number of features such as the amount of pay, promotion opportunities, the work itself, supervision, conducive work environment, and relationship with co- workers. Every organization should therefore create a standard organizational behavior that includes employee promotion on merit, professional supervision, and standard remuneration of employees based on productivity and job group. Although different people may derive satisfaction from different features, the most common elements are as mentioned above and a wider approach to improve job design, work organization and general quality of life. In addition to job satisfaction, effective reward management needs to be developed that fairly recognizes employees’ efforts to reinforce productivity or adherence to organizational values and behavior standards. Usually, in case peoples’ good behavior are effectively recognized or rewarded through any means, the desired behavior is usually repeated. Organizations such as Barclays in this regard need to consider designing a standards reward system that is sustainable to the business and make it an organizational culture and behavior promotion tool. Leadership This involves controlling and directing individuals, groups and subordinates within the firm. It includes hiring, training, guiding, and assessment of processes in order to achieve the best performance from employees. Organizations that succeed in their operations usually maximize on the talents and energies of their employees (Ashraf, 2012). This is because such firms develop competitive advantage against their rivals as a result of maximum production. Due to the fact that employees are vital resource to the achievement of the organizational goals, managers should be careful on how they interact and handle their subordinates. This means that managers who are knowledgeable and skilled in organizational behaviors are likely to effectively and efficiently manage their teams and influence them to fully support the company’s goals. Different leadership styles such as autocratic, consultative and free will may be adopted depending on the situation (Locke, 2009). Organizational behavior in relation to the leadership style adopted in all the management levels is very important to the success of the organization. The management structure adopted by Barclays bank is usually the vertical line where top management that comprise CEO and the board of directors issue directives that are implemented at the middle and lower level. However, before the decision is communicated downwards, consultation at the tactic level of management takes place, involving the finance department which is responsible for the strategy development process, driving business performance and financial control across Barclays Africa. Other management functions include human resource, operations, consumer banking, risk management, corporate banking, treasury services and card business departments. This also includes the personnel in each of the departments. It is important for organizations to note that decisions made collectively are often easier to implement than forced decisions. Whereas different leadership styles can be adopted in different situations, organizations mindfully need to create a leadership culture that has clear distinction of roles and clear definition of responsibility to enable efficient flow of duties. Leadership must be concerned and emphasize on people’s issues just as the organizational issues (Locke, 2009). Employees are very important resource that must be valued if the organization is to succeed, thus their complaints must be addressed well without ant victimization from the leadership. Organizations must therefore adopt leadership behavior that respects the employees, treats them fairly in order to improve their attitude towards work and the firm in general. Theoretical Framework Organizational behavior refers to the study of groups and individual dynamics within an organization, as well as the nature of the organizations. The interaction between human resource and the organization and the interaction amongst employees themselves usually bring several factors into play and in turn define the organizational behavior. Presently, different people with diverse cultural values and backgrounds work together in different institutions. Organizational behavior in this respect seeks to bring an understanding and emphasize the acceptable behavior in organizations in orders to develop competencies and standards in which people likely to behave. These finding are therefore, to assist in controlling behaviors that go against the regulations and objectives of the organizations. Equally, it is significant to note that in an organization, the social system comprises all the people, considering how they relate to the rest of the world. Normally, the behavior of one person has impact on the behavior of others either directly or indirectly. Culture refers to the conventional behavior of a society that comprises knowledge, beliefs, customs, and practices and people depend on culture since it guarantees them understanding, stability, security, and the ability to react to a given situation. It shapes human behavior, even if not fully embraced. In an organization set up, people fear change in culture and behavior for fear instability, and loss of security. The operation of organization is usually based on the management’s philosophy, vision and mission, values and goals that guide employees. These consequently define the organizations culture or behavior, which is composed of the formal and informal organizations, and borrowed from the social environment. The organizations culture determines the type of leadership adopted, communication channels and chain, and group and individual dynamics within the organization. Existence of such working environment, culture, and behavior becomes a motivating factor to the workforce, leading into high performance, individual and group satisfaction, and personal growth and development. The combination of these elements constructs the framework that guides the operation of the organization. Research Methodology The choice of research methodology to determine the organizational behavior adopted by Barclays bank was depended on the objectivity, reliability and sustainability of the method based on the environment and nature if the industry. To clearly meet the purpose, three methods were used alternatively to determine the employees’ feelings concerning the organizations culture and the customers’ feelings on whether the organizations behavior is suitable in the service industry. Online questionnaire was used to collect data from 25 employees in different ranks within the organization equally distributed from the middle management to the cleaners through clerks. This was after securing their email addresses, having that time constraints could not allow them to adequately respond to interview questions. Face to face interview was also used to specifically interview 15 randomly selected walk-in customers from across socio-economic class and age bracket with an intention to gauge if they were satisfied with the reception and service they received from the bank staff. Their feelings on the general arrangement within the banking hall and personal grooming of the staff were also sought. Finally, observation was used to monitor staff response to customer’s enquiries and the speed of service. This observation was done during my routine visit to the bank to carry out transactions. The structured online questionnaires were filled by the respondents at their convenient times. Prior to the collection of data, authorization was sought from the bank management, who in turn briefed the security agencies for the days the data were collected. This arrangement was done silently without notifying the staff members to ensure that the data collected in not skewed when employees try to conceal their right attitude and behavior. It is also important to note that more information about the profile and background of Barclays bank was sought from the banks website. This gave a clear understanding of the banks operations and the actual values, vision, mission, culture and the organizational behavior that the bank stand for, to be used gage the level of compliance by the employees. Results and Findings According to the online questionnaire survey that was filled by 25 randomly selected Barclays bank employees from across the socio-economic class and age bracket, most respondents especially the non-management staff who responded to the questions as indicated in the appendix section of this paper disapproved the organizations culture and behavior, while most of those in management positions approved the organization behavior. One of the reasons for disapproval is that management was authoritative in decision instead of being consultative and felt that their views are not accommodated in the running of the system. The interview that involved 15 customers sought to know their view on Barclays banks organizational behavior. The analysis found that 90% or the customers interviewed were satisfied by the arrangement of counters and service points inside the banking hall. Similarly, an overwhelming majority of 14 customers were of the opinion that the official dressing as part of their behavior was commendable and should continue, while only 1 felt the type of dress was not concern. The observations made also confirmed the values of the bank as they are in the mission statement. The declaration that customer comes first in their list of priority was evident, especially in relation to how customers were ushered in and allowed to sit while awaiting to be served. Are Organizations Behavior principles applied in Barclays Bank? The principle of effective reward management is partially applied in the bank based on the findings. Most junior staff complained that the difference in salary bracket between the management, the clerks, and other staff members such as cleaners was very big. It showed that management teams are paid much higher than the rest, thus the feeling that effective reward system be adopted. One area reward that if fully implemented is on earning of bonuses at the end of the year and the yearly increments according to the collective bargain agreement. This is however dependent on individual performance as indicated by the balance score card assessment sheet. Employee recognition based on particular achievements is done within the banks, both formally and informally. As indicated in the principle above, reward is a tool that reinforces good behavior. According to the management, several staff members are given recognition cards for being best communication agents, best time managers, and best in minimizing the wastage of papers. This reward system needs to continue since it encourages other to work harder to earn bonuses at the end of the year after meeting their yearly targets and receiving nomination cards that improve profile for future promotions. One the standard sustainable reward behavior is adopted; all sectors are covered without discrimination. This research found out that measuring job satisfaction has been a challenging process to most managers. Based on the determinants of job satisfaction such as amount of pay, promotion opportunities, the work itself, supervision, conducive work environment, and relationship with co- workers, several employees, several employees are not satisfied with their jobs, either because of the perception of inequality in the pay structure, the management being too authoritative and the generally routine nature of the jobs that offer little opportunity for personal growth. Customer responsiveness is a principle that is fully applied in the entire Barclays bank. Based on their value that makes customer first, it was evident through the observation that customers were well received, advised, and served within the shortest time possible. Whenever a customer walks into the bank they are advised by the customer care representative on which counter to go to for the desired service. This was also confirmed by the customers themselves who said that they are satisfied with the manner they are handled by the bank staff. Customer responsiveness is also proved by the diversified products offered by the bank that are meant to meet the demands of all customers in all socio-economic groups. The most outstanding product line is the Barclaycard that covers all needs from low interest to low interest cards, as well as those meant for students. Barclays bank personnel composition is composed of top level management that involve the CEO and the Board of directors at the local level, middle management including the branch managers and operation and departmental managers and the lower level staff including clerks and sales representatives. Leadership is in this case is well structured with very clear chain of command from the strategic level to the regional directors and to local subsidiary branches (Business.barclays.co.uk, 2012). This has clearly assisted in separation of responsibilities and entrenched accountability systems within the management. In the recent economic recession, the bank recently adopted restructuring that saw several employees lose their jobs and adoption of the system where junior staffs like the clerks, cashiers are employed on a contract basis in most subsidiaries. This is a human resource policy, accompanied by lower remuneration structures led to mass exodus of staff. Conclusion and Recommendations This research paper looked at the organizational behavior adopted by Barclays PLC, which is a British multinational banking and financial services company with it’s headquarter in London, United Kingdom. Barclays PLC operations in over 50 countries across Europe, Asia, South America, North America and Africa including Kenya, with a total number of customers exceeding 48 million globally and the fourth-largest bank worldwide by asset (Business.barclays.co.uk, 2012). Organizational behavior is concerned with how individuals, employees, and management behave and interact within the organization in a workplace setting. It is an interdisciplinary field that comprises communication, sociology, psychology, and management. The key issues that influence organizational behavior include organizational change, corporate culture within the industry, organizational development, and customer expectations that usually shape the organizational values. Organizational Behavior Principles are also very important since they guide companies in setting their organizational behavior standards. This paper has discussed customer responsiveness, personality and organization, work motivation, job satisfaction and reward management, communication, change management and leadership as major principles of OB. The methodologies employed in this study are online questionnaire filled in by employees, face to face interview of customers and observation methods. The observation methods were instrumental in monitoring how the staff receive, address, and serve customers if within the organizational behavior standards. These methods were selected based on their objectivity, reliability and sustainability of the method based on the environment and nature if the industry. To clearly meet the purpose, the three methods were used alternatively to determine the employees’ feelings concerning the organizations culture and the customers’ feelings on whether the organizations behavior is suitable in the service industry. The study found that most of respondents especially the non-management staff who responded to the questions as indicated in the appendix section of this paper disapproved the organizations culture and behavior, while most of those in management positions approved the organization behavior. Recommendations The success of organizations is dependent upon the organizational behavior principles adopted and applied in the respective subsidiaries. The OB principles that are relevant and should be adopted by organizations include customer responsiveness, personality and organization, work motivation, job satisfaction and reward management, communication, change management and leadership. In order to develop a good organizational behavior, the management needs to understand personality of employees in order to develop a workable interaction model within the organization. Personality involves characteristics, qualities, skills, and competencies of employees, combined with other traits such as grooming and attitude. Personality in most cases is influence by the environment and the social settings. However, there are particular universal characteristics which always emerge in individuals that are acceptable across the board. For example, customer service staff members are expected to be aggressive, humble and respectful, have a listening ability, assertive and welcoming Every organization should therefore create a standard organizational behavior that includes employee promotion on merit, professional supervision, and standard remuneration of employees based on productivity and job group

The majority of social work clients and workers are women. Women are also over-represented among the poor. Nonetheless, social welfare policy does not always meet the needs of women effectively. Based on the reading, discuss the gender lens and its impor

The majority of social work clients and workers are women. Women are also over-represented among the poor. Nonetheless, social welfare policy does not always meet the needs of women effectively. Based on the reading, discuss the gender lens and its impor. I’m studying and need help with a Social Science question to help me learn.

The following Mini Paper is intended to (1) develop an understanding of the basic concepts, principles, and themes of social welfare policies and services, (2) to promote informed classroom learning and participation, and (3) to develop skills in identifying and distilling key ideas and expressing them concisely. The core of the question must be answered demonstrating analysis of the subject matter.
Citation (author, date) must be included when discussing ideas that represent or directly quote a particular article. Add page numbers for direct quotes. Include a reference list at the end of the paper articles cited. APA style preferred.
Each mini-paper should be from 4-5 double-spaced typed pages.

Question:
Sexism, Heterosexism and Social Policy
The majority of social work clients and workers are women. Women are also over-represented among the poor. Nonetheless, social welfare policy does not always meet the needs of women effectively.
Based on the reading, discuss the gender lens and its importance in social policy.
Readings:
Abramovitz, Mimi (2000). The Gendered Welfare State. Ch. 3 in Under Attack, Fighting Back: Women and Welfare in the United States. Monthly Review Press, pp. 86-112. (ER)
Ellen Reese, Stephanie D’Auria, and Sandra Loughrin. (2016). “Gender” in Oxford Handbook of U.S. Social Policy Eds., Daniel Béland, Kimberly J. Morgan, and Christopher Howard, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Please argue why social welfare policy does not meet the needs of women effectively and back up with information from reading.
The majority of social work clients and workers are women. Women are also over-represented among the poor. Nonetheless, social welfare policy does not always meet the needs of women effectively. Based on the reading, discuss the gender lens and its impor