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Civil Liberties/Civil Rights Discussion Board

Civil Liberties/Civil Rights Discussion Board. I need help with a Political Science question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Assignment:Part 1:
How does the U.S. Constitution protect the civil rights and civil liberties of Americans?
When can or should the majority limit the civil liberties, such as free speech, of an unpopular/minority/fringe individual or group? Why?
In addition to the use of your course materials (below), your response must include direct references, including citations, to at least two of the four presenters in the following TED radio hour, “The Right to Speak”:
– https://www.npr.org/programs/ted-radio-hour/632611360/the-right-to-speak?showDate=2018-07-27 (Links to an external site.)
Part 2:
Give a contemporary political example illustrating the current state of civil liberties or civil rights in the United States. Be sure to explain, specifically, the relevance of your example to civil liberties or civil rights as depicted in this course. Use your e-text and cite your sources.
Part 3:
Reply, thoughtfully, to the postings of at least two of your colleagues.
Source Material:

TED radio hour, “The Right to Speak”: https://www.npr.org/programs/ted-radio-hour/632611360/the-right-to-speak?showDate=2018-07-27 (Links to an external site.)
Open to Debate e-text

Chapter Three Civil Liberties
Chapter Four Civil Rights

Power-point lecture outlines (in the Canvas Modules):

Chapter Three Civil Liberties
Chapter Four Civil Rights

Video Lectures, also in the Course Content Folders (many students find these to be particularly helpful):

Chapter Three Civil Liberties (esp. parts 2-4b)
Chapter Four Civil Rights

American Government Examined e-reader:

Chapter Ten: Mill
Chapter Four: Anthony, ERA, or King

Tips for Success:

I will be looking for direct references to assigned readings and podcasts (author and page # citations are adequate). Again, this is an assignment in which I am looking for your ability to display your knowledge of course materials!
- I recommend composing your content in an offline text editor and then copying and pasting in post. That way you will have an offline copy of all of your hard work!- You are required to reply to two of your peers in this forum; reply first to those students who have not had a lot of replies. In your replies, provide some thoughtful feedback on their ideas. Are you all basing your decisions on the same type of reasoning? Might you be able to point someone to some resources from the course that they would find helpful?

Grading Rubric:

Part 1:
10 points

Part 2:
4 points

Part 3:
4 points

Writing Mechanics:
2 points

Total possible:
20 points

Civil Liberties/Civil Rights Discussion Board

Distinction between Everyday and Reflexive Knowledge Compare and Contrast Essay. In sociology of education, it is always believed that lay knowledge or everyday knowledge is the type of information that is within the public domain. This type of knowledge allows people to interpret their surrounding since it provides a frame of reference or direction. This knowledge is usually acquired through the process of socialisation because societal members obtain it as they grow. In other words, an individual must not necessarily go to school to equip himself with lay knowledge. An individual is bequeathed with the sense of reality and order regarding the events of society through lay knowledge. Lay knowledge gives an individual the opportunity to foretell, familiarise, and comprehend the complex world. Unlike other forms of knowledge, lay knowledge is simply made of commonsense and social recipes meaning that an individual ought to follow what the society dictates. It is compared to recipes because it provides the type of knowledge that an individual must possess in order to fit in society perfectly. Some scholars call it cookbook because an individual cannot survive without this type of fundamental knowledge. In human life, some events and behaviours do not have ready answers meaning that an individual ought to invoke some form of knowledge to offer adequate answers as to why things are the way they are. In other words, an individual accumulates wisdom through experts and experience, which would later help him or her to interpret events (Blackledge and Hunt 12). Reflexive knowledge, on the other hand, refers to formal communicative knowledge that is acquired through schooling. This form of knowledge is manifested when people engage in some form of an argument, debate or discussion. It allows an individual to analyse an event using certain theories, concepts, and models. In this regard, an individual is expected to assess a situation carefully, examine an event or behaviour, explain the occurrence of phenomena, forge a hypothesis, draw some conclusions, and develop various options to explain an event or a social action. Reflexive knowledge is closely based on reason meaning that it supports rational discourse. This is compared to everyday knowledge, which is based on the dexterities of the community. Lay knowledge draws its examples and experiences from experts in the community whereas reflexive knowledge is based on reason meaning that it has to obey the rules of rationality. Therefore, such knowledge cannot be approved unless they are scientifically proven. Lay knowledge varies from one individual to the other. Moreover, everyday knowledge may differ based on the culture. However, reflexive knowledge must always be uniform meaning that it has to be acceptable in a much bigger community. For knowledge to be considered reflexive, it must be endorsed globally meaning that the statement needs to be applicable in all societies in the world. For instance, a theory that works in the United States should always be valid in Europe, as well as Africa. In this regard, the method used to gather information in any society should be recognised worldwide. Any attempt to criticise reflexive knowledge should be defeated through meaning that the statement should be logical. In other words, the alternative body of knowledge given should be inferior to the reflexive knowledge. Any rational discourse should be ready for questioning and criticism hence reflexive knowledge ought to be factual in order to pass the test. Lay knowledge is never subjected to academic or scientific review, which means that it might not be accepted in some societies. This implies that not all people are allowed to communicate and think rationally since they might not have the capacity to do so. However, individuals are allowed to join institutions of high learning to acquire the power to communicate their ideas freely. In this regard, it is evident that lay knowledge is restricted to a small group of individuals while reflexive knowledge is available to very many people, who have the freedom of challenging it. For further clarification, knowledge should be transformed from religious, theological, and traditional knowledge to scientific knowledge for it to be accepted as reflexive. In this case, an individual moves ahead to prove that the knowledge he or she possesses is not simply traditional, but instead it can be applied in various societies (McKenzie 92). This is done through various processes, such as substantiation, authentication, prevarication. Why the Curricula of Educational Institutions are Largely Based on Reflexive Knowledge As earlier noted, lay knowledge or commonsense is available in every society meaning that each society has its own established standards that govern human interactions and interrelations. This form of knowledge is only meant to help an individual in normal life, but not in the professional world. At the global level, an individual should be able to reason in a way that would accommodate the views of the majority. Lay knowledge is only applicable to a small group hence it cannot be relied upon when interacting with people from other societies. The main role of education is to extend the lay knowledge to incorporate reflexive knowledge. This conversion does not take place automatically meaning that a curricula needs to be developed. Many people in society tend to believe that their lay knowledge is accurate, which no always the case. Such individuals adopt reflexive reasoning when they are faced with serious problems that cannot be explained using lay knowledge. Whenever an individual aspires to offer a verbal expression, reflexive knowledge is always invoked. Therefore, learning is the best way of bridging the gap between lay knowledge and reflexive knowledge. In the modern society, a number of institutions have included reflexive knowledge in their curriculums. However, even lay knowledge is still valid because it works in the vocational training. When included in curricula, reflexive knowledge allows students to develop their faculties since they would be able to exercise reason. In this regard, its inclusion enables personal development on the side of the student. Education in its purest form is a process that allows individuals to transcend the hurdles of their secluded behaviours. This would definitely give them an opportunity to be part of the social world in which they have the right to exercise their social privileges and everyday jobs. Moreover, educational knowledge or reflexive knowledge is believed to be superior because it exceeds a pr-reflexive or implicit means of knowing. Students going through the reflexive curriculum would be in a position to engage unreceptively and expansively with what they claim to know. For instance, an individual who can speak a language precisely without reflexive knowledge might not understand the rules governing that particular language (Gewirtz and Cribb 66). Research shows that many people have the ability of engaging tangentially and contemplatively with the everyday knowledge. This ability is referred to as accounting practice. Moreover, logic demands that people give detailed explanations of their knowledge to facilitate a better understanding. Since individuals have the ability to engage in reflective reasoning yet they have no techniques on how to do it, the education system ought to include reflexive knowledge in its curricula. Formal education has the capability o developing reflexive knowledge fully. Moreover, formal education must be treated in the same way as science meaning that the idea of doubt ought to be provided. This is better facilitated through reflexive education because it shares a lot with scientific knowledge. Research shows that scientific knowledge can easily deal with failures. In the scientific world, ineffective theories and models are always scrapped and are replaced with better one, something that can never happen regarding everyday knowledge or lay knowledge. Reflexive knowledge allows young scholars to balance the successes of the theory with its failures. In case it is established that the weaknesses of the theory exceed its strengths, the theory is always discarded, modified, or incorporated into another theory. This would actually improve the knowledge of students. In fact, this explains why reflexive knowledge is included in the curriculums of various institutions of high learning. Relationship between Education Knowledge and Language A close relationship between educational knowledge (reflexive) and language exists. In fact, sociologists attach a significant meaning to language in relation to reflexive knowledge. Language is one of the aspects of culture, which is learned through the process of socialisation and is passed from generation to the other. In this regard, language is intertwined with the behaviour of an individual in social life. In whatever the social actors perform, language is always a determining factor mainly because it is a medium of social practice. Language enables an individual to comprehend the reason or the inner sense, which makes a distinction between social life and natural events. Through communication, an individual would easily classify what another person says or does. Since a close relationship between thought, reality and language exist, an individual is able to comprehend various types of knowledge, including educational (reflexive) knowledge. Research shows that language has the capacity of influencing thought in terms of reality. Moreover, language represents an elucidation of reality. Individuals are in position to perceive a reality since language sets up a sequence of cognitive groups that act as framework for distinguishing reality. The cognitive groups that language sets guide the cognitive activities of individuals, which would further direct the way that individuals conceptualise reality. This is achieved through arranging reality in a way that would be understood better. In this regard, it is true that language influences the idea that is related to truth. Different codes of language establish various sets of cognitive groups, as indicated above. These cognitive groups offer different options of interpreting a phenomenon or reality. For this to happen, a number of language resources must be present in order to express the meaning of a reality. However, each resource has an implication in terms of usage meaning that careful selection process must be undertake. Language has a number of meanings implying that the context at which it is being used must be understood in order to apply it appropriately. In this regard, language is an aspect that should be used strictly based on culture. Works Cited Blackledge, David, and Barry Hunt. Sociological interpretations of education. London: Routledge, 1985. Print. Gewirtz, Sharon, and Alan Cribb. Understanding Education: A Sociological Perspective. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. Print. McKenzie, Janet. Changing Education: A Sociology of Education Since 1944. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall, 2001. Print. Distinction between Everyday and Reflexive Knowledge Compare and Contrast Essay
MUSM 3100 Iowa Increased Support for The Campus Museum Studies Letter.

Your Task: Write a letter to the University for continued and/or increased support for the campus museums and special collections.Be sure to address the following points when you make your case:Give a brief description of what a museum is and its defining features.Provide specific examples of how campus museums and special collections work to serve the University and the surrounding community;The Covid-19 pandemic has changed museums in many ways. Talk about the challenges and opportunities currently facing museums. What does the future of museums look like? What does this mean for our campus museums?If campus museums are allowed to continue and a position/job was offered to you, what role would be the best fit for you? and explain the main responsibilities of the position and why it appeals to you. **I choose Collections manager/Archivist***Please use texts and links I have provided to reference in support of responses, double spaced, 12 pt font, no more than 3 pages!!https://www.aam-us.org/2020/11/25/for-post-pandemi…
MUSM 3100 Iowa Increased Support for The Campus Museum Studies Letter

Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help. 1.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Sony Corporation corrected multiple mistakes in creating Blu-ray it made with the BetamaxAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 2.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ During the Industrial Revolution, jobs were carried out in small organizations rather than large shops.ÿÿÿÿ Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 3.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Primary Shareholders include employees, suppliers, governments, and local communities, which are groups the organization depends for its survival.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 4.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Getting work done through others is management.ÿÿÿÿÿ Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 5.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Resource scarcity is the increase of critical resources in an organization?s external environment Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 6.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ There are less than five steps in the strategy-making process.ÿÿ Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 7.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Society conforming to accepted principles of what is right and wrong is ethical behavior. Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 8.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Valuable and rare are components for sustainable competitive advantage.Answer: ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 9.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ The Right to advise others who are not subordinates in the chain of command is Line AuthorityAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 10.ÿÿ Efficiency is accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectivesAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 11.ÿÿ Socially Responsible companies are guaranteed to be successfulAnswer:ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 12.ÿÿ Vision and mission are two key management pieces for Top ManagersAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 13.ÿÿ The most compelling benefit of planning is that it has been proven to work for both companies and individuals.Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 14.ÿÿ Sustainable Competitive Advantage means all resources must be rare, valuable, and nonsubstitutable, & perfectly imitable.Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 15.ÿÿ First-level managers implement and create single-use plans, standing plans & operational plansAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 16.ÿÿ During discontinuous change, companies should not find ways to anticipate and survive technological changeAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 17.ÿÿ Tariffs are imposed on Ford vehicles imported from a European plantAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 18.ÿÿ Free trade agreements create new business opportunities without competition increasingAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 19.ÿÿ Empowering employees is a good way of increasing productivity and employees? feeling competentAnswer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 20.ÿÿ Quantitative factors have no absolute numeral associated; rather a value can be assigned when compared to others Answer: ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Multiple Choice ? Choose an appropriate response by placing the answer?s letter in the blank.ÿ There is only one correct answer for each question.ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 2 Point Each21.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿA management function that determines organizational goals & a means for achieving them a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Pairingb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Planningc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Preparingd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Prepping 22.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿCharacteristics of External Environments consist one of the followinga.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Environmental Normsb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Environmental Simplicityc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Resource Scarcityd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Certainty23.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿIntensified effort, persistence, and direction are all benefits fora.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Partneringb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Packingc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Prayingd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Planning24.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿGordon?s Foods Supply (GFS) is considered what to Mr. Burgera.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Secondary Stakeholderb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Primary Shareholderc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Primary Stakeholderd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Secondary Shareholder25.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿA S.W.O.T. is made up of these except onea.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Strengthsb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Weaknessesc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Opportunitiesd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Terrors26.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿThe technology industry has which type of environmental changea.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Dynamicb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Steadyc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Stabled.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Consistent27.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿContributed the theories of strategy and identifying & attacking opponent?s weaknessesa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Catob.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Machiavellic.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Sun Tzud.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Venetians28.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿWhich is not a component of specific environments?a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Customersb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Competitive advantagec.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Competitiond.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Advocacy Group29.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿDiamonds contain what pieces of sustainable competitive advantagea.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Valuableb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Rarec.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Substitutabled.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ A & B30.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿInspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goalsa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Leadingb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Controlling c.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Followingd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Asking31.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿDue to excessive environmental factors, Microsoft Corps.? environmental complexity is what a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Simpleb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Confusingc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Saturatedd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Complex32.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿVisually indicates what tasks must be completed at which times in order to complete a projecta.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Flip Chartb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Gantt Chartc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Chart of Accountsd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Henry Chart33.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿOrganizations are socially responsible for a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Economics Responsibilityb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Legal Responsibilityc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Ethical Responsibilityd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ All of the Above34.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿDegree to which a job gives workers the opportunity to decide how & when to accomplish a joba.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Skill Varietyb.ÿÿÿÿÿ Task Identityc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Autonomyd.ÿÿÿÿÿ Feedback35.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿWhat is not a reason for conducting a Virtual Organization? a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Allow individual costsb.ÿÿÿÿÿ Fast and flexiblec.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Require excessive managerial skillsd.ÿÿÿÿÿ Facilitate combining efforts36.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿMiddle managers are responsible for:a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Resourcesb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Coordinationc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Strategy Implementationd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ All of the above37.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿPeople who have a stake or claim in some aspect of a company?s operations, markets, and industrya.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Shareholderb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Stakeholderc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Cardholderd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Sharkholder38.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿTo accomplish goals, an action plan listsa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Who, What, How, Whereb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ How, Who, What, Whenc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ How, Who, When, Whyd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Who, When, Why, What39.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿWhich is not a step in rational decision makinga.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Define the problemb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Weight the criteriac.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Disregard all alternativesd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Compute the optional decision40.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿWhich CEO believes a pizza should should feed a the ideal sized work groupa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Alan Mulleyb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Steve Cookc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Jeff Bezosd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Marissa Mayer41.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿCollection of activities that transform inputs into outputs valued by customersa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Organizational Productb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Organizational Playerc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Organizational Problemd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Organizational Process42.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿThe acronym NAFTA stands for a.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ North Atlantic Free Trade Actb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ No American Fixed Tariff Actc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ North American Free Trade Actd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ North American Free Transaction Act43.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿWhich of the following items completed the technology cyclea.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Apple MacBookb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Sony Walkmanc.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Goodyear Tiresd.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Con-air Hairdryer44.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿA collection of networked firms in which the intellectual & physical property of a firm is replicated to be used by other an organization or person for a businessa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Franchiseb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Strategic Alliancec.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Wholly Owned Affiliated.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Partnership45.ÿÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿEntertainment Sports Programming Network & American Broadcasting Channel are considered what by The Walt Disney Corporationa.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Franchiseb.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Strategic Alliancec.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ Wholly Owned Affiliated.ÿÿÿÿÿÿ PartnershipMatching ? The Words on the Left to the corresponding definition on the RightThere is only one correct answer for each questionÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ 1 Point Each46.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿCompetitive Advantage 47.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿSMART Goals 48.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿEnvironmental Change 49.ÿ ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿPurpose Statement 50.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿResource Scarcity 51.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿOrganizing 52.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿSecondary Stakeholders 53.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ Controlling 54.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿJob Design 55.ÿ ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿMax Weber a.ÿÿÿ Deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what, & who will work for whom b.ÿÿÿ Monitoring progress toward goal achievement & taking corrective action when there isn?t progress c.ÿÿÿ Bureaucracy ? The exercise of control on the basis of knowledge d.ÿÿÿ A company?s environment?s change can be stable or dynamic e.ÿÿÿ Critical Resources in an organization?s external environment f.ÿÿÿÿ Specific, Timely, Realistic, Attainable, & Measurable make up whatg.ÿÿÿ Parks, neighborhoods, and churches are what to Davenport University h.ÿÿÿ ?Offer incredible value and quality products? is a company?s what i.ÿÿÿÿ Providing greater value for customers than competitors j.ÿÿÿÿ Number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in doing their jobsDrama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help

Value Neutrality for a counselor Coursework

Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Reference List Introduction As far as counseling is concerned, it should be known that it is human nature to have different opinions. This is based on the fact that there have been different positions that have been taken based on the issue of value neutrality. In this case, there are people who argue that counselors should not express their values or even criticize clients (Fretz, 2001, p. 46). Mostly, this is as far as their behavior is concerned. On the other hand, there are other professionals who argue that expressing moral judgment is acceptable and therefore appropriate. Clients always come to see counselors with different problems and the issue of value neutrality always determines the outcome of counseling on such individuals. When a client is criticized for his behavior, he/she might think that he is being judged which is not good. Other clients will not have a problem when counselors express their moral judgment because they might take it positively (Blackburn, 2001, p. 23). This implies that both instances can have different implications when looked at from an ethical decision making perspective and point of view. Discussion It is acceptable for a counselor to remain value neutral about various issues. These issues can revolve around child abuse, abortion, domestic violence, adultery, suicide and others. It should be known that we are all obligated to remain neutral on various issues. This means that we should not pass judgment to anybody more so as far as clients are concerned. Clients have different principles that guide them and this means that they will always stand by them no matter what. In this case, it therefore implies that a good counselor should always be self aware as time goes by. The aspect of self awareness should be the focus because clients’ principles will be the turning point (Blackburn, 2001, p. 31). Counselors are supposed to develop effective competencies that will enhance their work as time goes by. This will help in the provision of effective counseling services to different and diverse clients. In a broad perspective, a counselor can remain value neutral about issues because everything begins with the awareness of their own assumptions, values and different biases (Lent, 2008, p. 72). For clients to be satisfied with the services that counselors are offering them there should accommodation of diverse arguments and opinions. As far as this aspect is concerned, counselors should be able to confront their own albeism. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because it can make them hold different expectations of clients that they are going to deal with. When this is not dealt with effectively, it will ultimately hinder different clients’ ability to reach their full potential. Counselors are faced with different and diverse problems that are based on individual client needs (Blackburn, 2001, p. 69). This means that a counselor who is faced with these issues has different options. Most notably, there is brainstorming and referral of cases among counselors that can help to sort out complex issues. Conclusion When somebody is confronted by complex issues, there is always a way by which they can be sorted out. In this case, counselors can approach the dilemma based on the principles that their profession stands for. Decision making plays an important role in solving complex issues in any profession and counselors should be equipped with good skills for long term sustainability (Blackburn, 2001, p. 47). There are various factors that might make a counselor refer a client. Ethical issues and the complexity of the problem that is being dealt with are some of the most notable factors that have always led to referrals. Multiple causes towards a problem might require a lot of brainstorming which will therefore lead to referrals. If referral is not an option, it means that the counselor should come up with a viable solution (Lent, 2008, p. 93). In this case, it will be necessary for the counselor to look at different and available alternatives that will help in problem solving. Reference List Blackburn, S. (2001). Being good: A short introduction to ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology. New York: Brooks Cole. We will write a custom Coursework on Value Neutrality for a counselor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lent, R. (2008). Handbook of Counseling Psychology. New York: Wiley

ECON 222 University of South Carolina European Sovereign Debt Summary

essay helper free ECON 222 University of South Carolina European Sovereign Debt Summary.

I’m working on a macro economics writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

Requirements for your reaction paper: I. The first half should be a concise summary of the article/economic news. It should answer the following questions: 1. What is the primary question/issue/hypothesis that the author wanted to address? 2. Why is the question interesting or important?3. What are the author’s findings or conclusions? II. The second half should be a critique of the article/news. It may consider one or two of the following questions: 1. Are you convinced by the author’s results/arguments? Why or why not? 2. Do you believe they found a causal relationship? Why or why not?3. Did the results obtained justify the interpretation and conclusions?4. Do you think the results could be biased in some way? Explain.You will be asked to write 1 reaction paper to the economic articles posted on Blackboard. The paper is to be typed and no more than 3 pages double- spaced. Please choose one of the following topics to write your reaction paper:Requirements: The paper is to be typed and no more than 3 pages double- spaced
ECON 222 University of South Carolina European Sovereign Debt Summary

Managing Knowledge And Innovation Through Dynamic Capabilities Management Essay

The aim of this chapter is to provide an insight into the interaction of innovation and learning through integrative view of knowledge management and dynamic capabilities approach. Firstly, theoretical foundations of dynamic capabilities perspective and knowledge management are presented. The chapter further explores the existing theoretical linkages between knowledge management and the dynamic capabilities approach, as well as assesses their impact on organizational performance. The existing theoretical foundations are used to provide a generalization, leading to an integrative theoretical model, which should serve as a basis for further empirical verification. Key words: knowledge management, dynamic capabilities, learning, innovation DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES OF A FIRM According to Teece, Pisano and Shuen (1997), a dynamic capability refers to cAlpha ompany’s ability to integrate, build and transform internal and external competencies. They can help an organization to achieve innovative forms of competitive advantage through integration, building and transformation of internal and external competencies, as to respond to changes in the environment. Eisenhardt and Martin (2000) define dynamic capabilities in a similar manner, i.e. in the context of achieving organizational change, aligned to the external pressure: namely, these capabilities are perceived as business processes that use resources – specifically the processes of integration, restructuring, acquisition and release resources – to adapt or create market changes. Dynamic capabilities are especially helpful in explaining the sources sources of competitive advantage in extremely volatile markets (Macher, Mowery, 2009). Dynamic capabilities are determined by organizational and managerial processes, positions and paths. The organizational and managerial processes refer to the routines, i.e. current practices in an organization, such as coordination, integration, learning, transformation, etc. This is especially important, since most organizations engage in repetitive processes, such as production and/or service delivery, which require standardized performance of specialized tasks, in order to achieve adequate performance (Becker, 2002). Routines have developed over time and, at the moment of analysing an organization, they represent successful solutions to common problems. Organizational knowledge, accumulated through learning activities, results in new routines, which can, nevertheless, be shaped by future decisions and development directions. In the dynamic capability perspective, the strategic alternatives available to an organization are referred to as paths. The notion of path dependence indicates that future of an organization depends on its current position (which includes current resources, capabilities, routines, etc.) and potential development paths. Although the future behaviour of an organization is shaped and limited by the current decisions and routines, there is no path that ‘must’ be followed, as to achieve a certain objective. There is a multitude of potential outcomes, which can be reached as a consequence of the same strategic decision, depending on a range of initial positions and the circumstances taking place in the environment. Once the development of a strategic situation in an organization takes place (by following a certain path), the social interactions are becoming ‘frozen’ in the form of “recurrent patterns” (Becker, 2002), representing the routines. They are collective social phenomena, which are very difficult to understand and replicate or transfer, which is in line with the fundamental Resource Based View (RBV) tenets (Barney, 1991; Grant, 1991), although its initial theoretical foundations were built upon the notion of strategic resources. Current competitive advantage can be achieved through routines, i.e. processes that are shaped by company’s positions and paths (Teece, Pisano, Shuen, 1997), but organizational innovation and change should be also explained in the same manner. Namely, by using the notion of an organizational process/routine, researchers are able to discuss the behaviour of an organization in a profound manner, since routines encompass both internal and external drivers of change, as well as drivers leading to the stability (Becker et al, 2005). Eisenhardt and Martin (2000) define dynamic capabilities as an organizational ability to gain, integrate, transform, and release resources, in order to adapt or to create market changes. This, once again, emphasizes the role of dynamic capabilities in activating/coordinating strategic resources as ‘lower level’ constructs within the RBV theory of strategic management. In this theoretical framework, dynamic capabilities are believed to consist of specific strategic and organizational processes (new product development, creating strategic alliances, strategic decisions …), which can create value for an organization. and that dynamic have greater equifinality, homogeneity and interchangeability than the traditional resource-based theory assumes. Equifinality means that similar competence can be reached in different ways and using different resources. Also, they state that the effective forms of dynamic abilities change depending on the degree of market volatility, i.e. when markets are moderately dynamic, dynamic capabilities resemble the traditional concept of routine, and when the markets are highly volatile, dynamic capabilities are simple, experimental, unstable processes that rely on new knowledge formed in the short term. Based on all previously said, it can be concluded that dynamic capabilities are necessary, but not a sufficient contrition for competitive advantage achievement. Similarly, according to Zollo and Winter (2002), in a relatively stable environment, dynamic capabilities are most likely to be unnecessary, while in the condition of rapid market changes, dynamic capabilities are necessary. If changes are not only fast, but also unpredictable, dynamic capabilities should be continually upgraded. They emphasize the structure and stability of dynamic capabilities, and state that dynamic capabilities do not include adjusting to the environment in a creative but unstructured way. Existence of dynamic capabilities is not necessary prerequisite for change adaptation, because the company can also react to changes ad-hoc (Winter, 2003). The value and performance of operative and dynamic capabilities can be assessed through their ”technical” and ”evolutional” appropriateness. Technical appropriates measures how well capability performs its basic functions, while ”evolutionary” appropriateness measures the extent in which capability can assure the survival of the company. Operative capabilities have strong ”technical” appropriateness, while dynamic capabilities have a strong ”evolutionary” dimension which is entrepreneurial (Helfat, 2007; Teece, 2007). ELEMENTS OF DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES Dynamic capabilities refer to the company’s orientation toward constant reshaping, renewing and re-creating resources and capabilities, and the improvement and reconstruction of key competencies in response to market changes in a constant effort to maintain a competitive advantage (Wang and Ahmed, 2007). According to Wang and Ahmed (2004, 2007) the major components of dynamic capabilities are adaptive, absorptive and innovative capability. They support company’s ability to integrate, transform, renew and rebuild their competences and resources, and are common to all companies. Adaptive capability The role of the adaptive capability is to identify and exploit new market opportunities. It manifests through inherent resource possession and flexibility in the use of resources, i.e. strategic flexibility (Wang and Ahmed, 2004, 2007). Adaptive capability includes company’s ability to analyze the market, customers and competitors, allocate resources, and respond to changing market conditions (Oktemgil and Gordon 1997). Hou and Chang’s (2008) sensing capability, which refers to the ability of understanding customer needs and market dynamics better than its competitors, could also be considered as a part of adaptive capabilities. Absorptive capability Absorptive capability enables company to recognize the value of new, external information, absorb it and use it (Cohen and Levinthal, 1999, Hou and Chang, 2008, Wang and Ahmed, 2007). It includes knowledge acquisition, knowledge assimilation, knowledge transformation, and knowledge exploitation (Wang and Ahmed, 2004, 2007). It is capability based on knowledge that supports the functioning of operational and dynamic capabilities (Newey, Zahra, 2009). According to the results of empirical studies, absorptive capability is necessary for firm’s success (George, 2005, Salvato, 2003, Woiceshyn, and Daellenbach, 2005). Absorptive capability depends upon company’s interface with external environment, and transfers of knowledge within organizational units (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Absorptive capability has role in allocation resources for innovative capability (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Innovative capability Innovative capability refers to new products and markets development, and it manifests through development of new products and services, development of new production methods, risk-taking by key executives, market innovation, and firm’s innovative strategic orientation (Hou and Chang, 2008, Wang and Ahmed, 2004, 2007). Similar to Wang and Ahmed’s (2004, 2007) definition of innovative capability is McKelvie and Davidson’s notion of (2009) new product development capability and new process development capability. According to McKelvie and Davidson (2009), the role of new product development capability includes new products and services development, quality of new products and services and the variety of new products and services in relation to company’s largest competitors, while new process development capability includes performance of innovation process and adaptation of new technology to existing processes. Considering main definitions innovative capabilities (Capon, et al. 1992; Miller and Friesen, 1983; Wang and Ahmed, 2004, 2007), McKelvie and Davidson’s new product development capability and new process development capability can be seen as parts of innovative capability. Innovation capability is ”ability to continuously transform knowledge and ideas into new products, processes and systems for the benefit of the firm and its stakeholders” (Lawson and Samson, 2001, 384). Liao, Fey and Chen, (2007) categorize innovative capability into technical and managerial aspects of innovation. Results of conducted empirical researches emphasize the importance of innovative capabilities for company’s evolution and survival, especially with respect to dynamic environment and constant change (Deeds et al., 1999; Delmas, 1999; Petroni, 1997; Tripsas, 1997). KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES From analyzing elements of dynamic capabilities provided by above-mentioned authors, it is obvious that absorptive and innovative capability can be useful in explaining innovation and learning processes in companies. Since, according to Grover and Davenport (2001), research on knowledge management should include analysis of generation, codification, transfer and realization of knowledge, it can be seen that knowledge management perspective can be integrated in dynamic capabilities approach in explaining learning and innovation mechanisms. Even Teece (1998), one of the founders of dynamic capabilities approach, noted that strategy field could provide important insights into some aspects of knowledge management. Knowledge process includes knowledge generation, i.e. processes involved acquisition and development of knowledge, knowledge codification, which refers to the conversion of knowledge into applicable formats, and knowledge transfer from the point of codification to the point of use. Knowledge management process is recursive, expanding, and sometimes even discontinuous (Grover and Davenport, 2001). Knowledge integration is determined by efficiency of integration, scope of integration and flexibility of integration (Grant, 1996). According to Gold, Malhotra and Segars (2001), identification and assessment of company’s capabilities and resources is necessary for understanding success of knowledge management within organizations. There are four areas where managing knowledge is needed: acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation. Acquisition and assimilation refer to potential absorptive capability, while transformation and exploitation refer to realized absorptive capability (Zahra and George, 2002; Gray, 2006; Liao et al. 2003). According to Liao et al. (2003) conducted empirical researches have been based more on realized, than potential absorptive capability. Absorptive capability refers to ability and motivation to obtain and use external knowledge in company’s innovation capability. From that definition, close relationship between knowledge and absorptive capability is evident. Absorptive capability is path dependent, developed cumulatively on existing knowledge (Liao, Fey and Chen, 2007). Considering that knowledge is crucial for achieving continuous innovation, it can be concluded that knowledge and innovation are closely related (Liao, Fey and Chen, 2007). Available external sources of knowledge are important for innovation process, while the ability to exploit external knowledge is a component of innovative capabilities (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Developed dynamic capabilities are necessary for effective knowledge management. Dynamic capabilities are less critical for company’s success if there is already strong protection of competitive advantage through intellectual property. Positive effects of knowledge assets and dynamic capabilities are enlarged if there are new technologies that enable rapid organic growth (Teece, 2000) There are several empirical studies that confirm the influence of absorptive capability on company’s ability to innovate (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Knudsen and Roman, 2004; Liao, Fey and Chen, 2007). Pandza and Thorpe (2009) argue that dynamic capabilities are responsible for the formation of new knowledge formation, which significantly differs from the existing body of knowledge. Although derived from resource based (RBV), the concept of dynamic capabilities is closely related to knowledge-base view (KBV) (Acedo, Barroso, Galan, 2006). Easterby-Smith and Prieto (2008) highlight the differences between dynamic capabilities perspective and knowledge management and explore potential synergies, as well as the area in which these approaches overlap.According to Easterby-Smith and Prieto (2008) dynamic capabilities depend on the evolution of knowledge through exploration and exploitation. Exploration refers to new ideas generation, while exploitation includes using existing methods in new contexts. The benefits of exploitation are based on increasing efficiency, and benefits of exploration are based on increasing innovation. Since it is extremely difficult to be good in both processes at the same time, the aim of the company is to achieve a balance between exploration and exploitation. Dynamic capabilities arise from learning and are able to modify company operating routines. They are developed through mutual evolution of following learning mechanisms: tacit accumulation of past experiences, process of knowledge articulation and processes of knowledge codification. These mechanisms influence operative routines through dynamic capabilities and directly (Zollo and Winter, 2002). Figure 1. Learning, dynamic capabilities and operative routines. Learning mechanism Dynamic capabilities Evolution of operative routines Source: PrilagoÄ‘eno prema Zollo, M.; Winter, S.G. (2002): Deliberate learning and the evolution of dynamic capabilities, 2002., Organization Science, Vol. 13, No. 3, May-June, 340. According to the model proposed by Zahra, Sapienza and Davidsson (2006), tAlpha the combination of resources, capabilities and learning processes determines company’s performance levels, but also its knowledge base, which in turn influences dynamic capabilities of the company. At the same time, company’s dynamic capabilities transform its knowledge base and determine company’s performance levels. Figure 2. Knowlede, learning and dynamic capabilities Learning processes Dynamic capabilities Knowledge Performance Resources and capabilities Source: PrilagoÄ‘eno prema Zahra, S.A.; Sapienza, H.J.; Davidsson, P. (2006): Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda, Journal of Management Studies, 43:3, 926. There are several works that investigate the relationship between dynamic capabilities, knowledge management, innovation and learning. Verona and Ravasi (2003) identify the knowledge-based nature of dynamic capabilities and demonstrate how continuous innovation requires simultaneous presence of knowledge creation, absorption, integration and reconfiguration, which are elements of absorptive capabilities. They conclude that, in order to sustain product innovation, company has to possess dynamic capabilities that allow creation, absorption, integration and reconfiguration of knowledge. Knowledge integration is determined by efficiency of integration, scope of integration and flexibility of integration (Grant, 1996). Knowledge IntegrationFigure 3. Unbundling dynamic capabilities – knowledge based processes Knowledge Reconfiguration CONTINUOUS INNOVATION Knowledge Creation and Absorption Source: Verona, G. and Ravasi, D. (2003), Unbundling dynamic capabilities: an exploratory study of continuous product innovation, Industrial and Corporate Change, 12 (3), 579. Building dynamic capabilities that allow creation, absorption and integration of knowledge is necessary for sustaining product innovation. In order to do that, existing physical and cultural barriers for knowledge integration must be eliminated. Moreover, knowledge creation, knowledge absorption and knowledge integration have to be used in order to facilitate continuous innovation (Verona and Ravasi, 2003). If company wants to sustain continuous innovation it has to create organizational context that manages organizational culture, systems and structure in order to collect dispersed knowledge and stimulate individual and organizational creativity (Verona and Ravasi, 2003). In order to achieve competitive advantage through product innovation, dynamic capabilities must leverage company’s resources, especially human and physical capital, structures, systems and organizational culture, which must coexist, be coherent and be combined in order to stimulate dynamic capabilities (Verona and Ravasi, 2003). According to Verona and Ravasi (2003), dynamic capabilities refer to ”higher order knowledge-related processes”. Chuang (2004) develops resource-based perspective on knowledge management capability in order to explain sources of competitive advantage. He concludes that social and technical knowledge management resource, as well as knowledge management capabilities, has impact on competitive advantage. According to findings of research by Sher and Lee (2004), managing endogenous and exogenous knowledge through IT significantly enhances dynamic capabilities. In other words, for establishing and maintaining dynamic capabilities, effective knowledge flows within company are necessary, but dynamic capabilities can be also enhanced through managing exogenous knowledge, including that of customers, suppliers and competitors. From all previously said, it can be concluded that, in order to enhance dynamic capabilities, firms should give particular attention to knowledge management (Sher and Lee, 2004). Baskerville and Dulipovici (2006) note that abortive capabilities can enhance the knowledge transfer. They link knowledge management to dynamic capabilities perspective, and conclude that with regard to knowledge management, strong dynamic capabilities are key element for developing knowledge capabilities and knowledge asset. Liao, Fei and Chen (2007) develop model that integrates knowledge sharing, which is the core of knowledge management, with elements of dynamic capabilities, i.e. absorptive capability and innovation capability, in order to explain sources of competitive advantage. According to them knowledge sharing, helps company to develop absorptive capability and improves company’s innovation capability. Figure 4. Relationship between knowledge sharing, absorptive and innovation capability Knowledge Sharing Competitive Advantage Innovation Capability Absorptive Capability Source: PrilagoÄ‘eno prema Liao, S., Fei, W.C. and Chen, C.C. (2007), Knowledge sharing, absorptive capability, and innovation capability: an empirical study of Taiwan’s knowledge-intensive firms, Journal of Information Science, 33 (3), 346. Knowledge sharing can be process, activity or behaviour. It includes knowledge donating and collecting, i.e. it is obtained using these two methods. In this study, knowledge sharing is antecedent of innovation and absorptive capabilities (Liao, Fey and Chen, 2007). According to proposed model, knowledge sharing improves company’s innovation capability, and helps develop company’s absorptive capability. Absorptive capability has positive influence on company’s innovation capability, i.e. it improves company’s innovation capability. The link between knowledge sharing and innovation capability is mediated by absorptive capacity (Liao, Fey and Chen, 2007). Cepeda and Vera (2007) use integrated knowledge management and dynamic capability approach to explain knowledge management processes behind development and use of dynamic capabilities. They prove the importance of knowledge management infrastructure for managing company’s knowledge gap during dynamic capabilities development. According to the results of empirical analysis conducted by Chen (2004), explicitness of knowledge and absorptive capability, both have positive influence on knowledge transfer performance.

Management Of Innovation Titan Edge History Essay

Innovation is defined as the process by which new products, services, materials and processes are developed and introduced into the market for commercialization. Thus, Innovation is the successful exploitation of new ideas. There are 4P’s of Innovation which are as follows: Product Innovation- Changes in the products/services offered by the company Process Innovation- Changes the way in which the products are created