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Cisco case study

Cisco case study. Introduction Cisco Systems of San Jose, California, is a company that develops networking devices such as switches, routers, network management software, and dial- up access servers. By the mid 1990s, realising that growth depended on our ability to scale manufacturing, distribution and other supply chain processes quickly, Cisco managers decided to reinvent its business model and turn itself into a Web-enabled company. ‘An ecosystem’ which in fact transformed the entire supply chain into an extended enterprise system based on internet technology was created in order to links customers, prospects, partners, suppliers and employees in a multi-party, multi-location electronic network. This article is trying to analyse how Cisco can successfully implemented ‘ecosystem’ by considering what approaches they used to manage their whole supply chain. In order to achieve this objective, an overview of e-business and e-supply chain will be fist presented to identify why it is important and worth implementing in Cisco. In the second section, the ‘ecosystem’ will be evaluated in terms of upstream supply chain, downstream supply chain and internal human resources in Cisco. Thirdly, e-supply chain, as a whole, will be discussed. At last, a conclusion will be made to summarise the issues which will be discussed in the second and third section. An Overview of E-business and E-supply chain E-Business can be defined by Chaffey (2002, pg 8) as “all electronically mediated information exchanges, both within an organisation and with external stakeholders supporting the range of business processes.” It links internal employees with external customers, suppliers through technology like Internet, intranets, and extranets. He further states that there are two general advantages that motivate organisations to implement e-business, which are: Increase potential revenue results from broader reach of customers and encourage loyalty and repeat purchases. Realise cost efficiency, which is derived by providing service electronically. E-commerce, conceived as a subset of e-business, can be categorised as buy-side e-commerce which are equivalent to upstream supply chain and sell-side e-commerce which equate to downstream supply chain. According to Rehan (2006), A ‘supply chain’ is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished products to customers. An effective supply chain management can improve efficiency throughout e-business. As a result from the case, Cisco estimated that in financial year 2000, a total of US$695 million would be saved by adopting this interconnected supply chain. These solid figures prove the potential benefits e-business can bring into Cisco are enormous. Broadly speaking, it is argued that there are at least two primary ways in which the application of e-business technologies can improve the efficiency of a supply chain (Slyke and Bélanger, 2003). First is known as disintermediation, which organisation eliminates the communication and coordination costs associated by eliminating links in the supply chain. The second way is by lowering the cost of communication and coordination among the various members of supply chain. In this case, Cisco adopted the second way by using information technology to communicate, which enable faster, more accurate, and lower cost information exchanges with its trading partners. The way to lower the cost of communication and coordination in Cisco will be analysed below in terms of upstream, downstream and internal human resources issues. Upstream issues (Buy-side) Upstream supply chain is the transactions between an organisation and its suppliers and intermediaries (Chaffey, 2002). In this particular case, Cisco outsourced most of the manufacturing and logistics activities as James Crowther, customer business solutions manager said, in order to increase production capacity enough to meet demand. According to Bocij (2003), outsourcing is a business activity subcontracting a process, ‘ product design or manufacturing, to a third-party company. Cisco’s suppliers not only make all of the components and perform 90 per cent of the sub-assembly work, but they also undertake 55 per cent of the final. By outsourcing production of 70 percent of its products, Cisco has quadrupled output without building new plants. Furthermore, through Cisco Manufacturing On-line, Cisco has created an extranet application that increases productivity and efficiency in the manufacturing, supply, and logistics functions among globally networked partners. The accomplishment not only increased the outputs but left Cisco free to concentrate on their real strengths: new product development, looking after customer needs and brand management. Cisco Manufacturing Connection Online (MCO) Since relationships with suppliers are especially critical in the E-conomy, Cisco has created an Extract application that leverages productivity and efficiency in the supply function through MCO, which can be viewed as supply chain portal that seamlessly connects Cisco to its contract manufacturers, distributors, and logistics partners. The core of MCO dealing with their supplier is centralising the process control and as a consequence decentralising actual execution. There is a three-part strategy to scale its upstream supply chain in a cost-effective manner in MCO: Auto test. To resolve the testing problem, Cisco has installed automated test cells on all Cisco-dedicated supplier production lines using Cisco-developed technology to automatically configure test procedures for each specific customer order so that the quality could be controlled and the cost of deploying a test engineer could be saved. However, although Cisco outsourced much of the physical test, the company retained the intelligence behind the testing. Direct Fulfillment. Cisco launched a global direct fulfillment model under which most of the company’s manufacturing partners can now ship directly to customers. This will reduced the distribution cost between Cisco and supply chain partners. Dynamic replenishment. By direct linking to the suppliers, Cisco could gain real-time access to supplier information so that delivery lead-times, errors and inventory will be cut and the productivity of its employees involved in purchasing will be improved. The purchasing teams can focus on more strategic activities such as partnership and business development. The implication of increasing outsourcing of core activities is that companies will move towards the virtual organisation which leads to a more responsive and flexible company with great market orientation (Chaffey,2002). As Pete Rukavina, Cisco’s director of global supply chain management, addressed: “For every Cisco manufacturing employee there are six virtual manufacturing employees who use Cisco processes, are measured against Cisco metrics, and are located around the world.” Virtual manufacturing is not only a Cisco thing. “Hewlett Packard, IBM, Silicon Graphics, and others have sold plants to contract producers such as Solectron, SCI Systems, Flextronics, and Celestica- then signed up these manufacturing specialists as suppliers,” Business Week (Port, 1999) reports. Traditionally, a new product introduction had been a process in which engineering, procurement, manufacturing and marketing were performed sequentially in time-consuming steps. Cisco has networked these functions in order to extract real benefits with its partners. A perfect example could be car industry where car plants traditionally would be located nearby the raw material factory so that inputs directly from factory will be produced as a result of cars. However, there has been a trend to outsourcing more and more components such as lights, trim and even engine to third party. Just-in-time of Toyota was created base on the outsourcing strategy. Downstream issues (Sell-side) Downstream supply chain is the transactions between an organisation and its customers and intermediaries (Chaffey, 2002). There were some potential issues which Cisco has faced in the process of selling products in the past: One-third of all faxed orders. Due to the nature of fax, orders will inevitable contain errors sometimes so that it will delay the processing. In addition, 15 per cent of the number of orders required reworking Sundry expenses. Delivering software purchases to its customers on CD by a freight forwarder will generate a cost of delivering. New product introduction. Time-to-market of new products is counted in months or years. Cisco Connection Online is introduced in order to deal with these issues. Cisco Connection Online (CCO) As Crowther explains: “Customer Connection Online is essentially a web portal to information stored in Cisco’s enterprise resource planning [ERP] databases, legacy systems and client/server systems, and acts as a comprehensive resource for our customers, resellers, suppliers and partners.” In fact, it used the Internet as the prime customer contact channel so that customer information and decision-making feeds directly into the supply chain. Chaffey (2002) stated that technology is vital to supply chain management since managing relationships with customers, suppliers and intermediaries is based on the flow of information and the transactions between the parties. Customers rely on CCO to answer questions, diagnose net work problems, and provide solutions and expert assistance worldwide based on four components of CCO: Market-place. It is a virtual shopping center in which customers can purchase items online. It also offers users tools for configure, price, route and submit orders. This function can be used to solved the first problem mentioned above which is lots of errors contained in fax. With the introduction of Market-place, customers rarely make purchasing mistakes by ordering online. Only 2 percentages are required rework. Status Agent. It gives Cisco’s sales force, as well as direct customers and sales partners, immediate access to critical information about the status of customers’ order. The sales force can not only prevent possible billing or shipment problems by accessing order information but also save time such as tracking order status in order to devote to building relationships with customers and seeking new business opportunities. Customer Service. It provides nontechnical assistance on a self-help basis for customer requests. No one is better motivated to help the customer than the customers themselves. The self-service model which Cisco is committed is argued to know as raising the customer satisfactory overall. Technical Assistance and Software Library. It enables customers and business partners to get online answers to technical questions and download software updates and utilities for Cisco hardware, which saved over US$500,000 per year in freight forwarding charges. Specifically, the Web gives Cisco both a vehicle through which customers can find out about products and buy them and an automated support system that can reach a larger audience. Modern marketing philosophy requires that organisation be committed to customer orientation (Jaworskis and kohli, 1993). It is important that introduce a new product earlier than competitors because customers intend to accept the first new item. In the response of the third problem indentified above, Cisco automated the process for gathering product data information, thereby reducing the amount of time required to less than 15 minutes. It is believed that this type of positive impact on time-to-market generated an extra US$388 million in income during 2000. Furthermore, it is recognised that building strong customer relationships is the key driver to sustainable profitability (Chaffey,2002). CRM is therefore considered to be the most important element within e-business context. Essentially, “CRM is an approach to building and sustaining long-term business with customers.” (Chaffey, 2002, pg 330) It is about customer acquisition, customer retention and customer extension. It is recommended that the first step is to retain existing customer because the costs of acquiring new customers are so high that repeat business is essential. The next step is to acquire new customers on a profitable basis. It is argued that by giving customers tools for self-configuration and turning its back office into the customer’s front office could be one of the best ways Cisco do. Internal human resources Cisco’s ecosystem looks inward as well s outward. Whereas CCO addresses the needs of Cisco customers, partners, suppliers, and employees, Cisco Employee Connection (CEC) is limited to information and services that address the unique needs of individual Cisco employees (Hartman, et al., 2000). As Hartman indentified, in order to improve employee satisfaction and scale its workforce without incurring unnecessary overhead, Cisco reengineered all its internal and external employee services. Applying the CEC, the following benefits can be provided. Ubiquitous communications. Every one of Cisco’s employees around theworld is connected through the Cisco network. Streamlined business. The interactive tools reduce the time thatemployees spend handling repetitive tasks and streamline routinebusiness process. Integrated business systems. The CEC home page serves as thelaunching pad, all of information sharing the same navigational tools and a common user interface. E-supply chain (Both upstream and downstream issue) In today’s digital economy, flexibility, adaptation and responsiveness are critical to success. Akyuz and Rehan (2007) considered the Internet as the greatest ICT (information and communication technology) tool, and ‘integration’ is the key to efficiency and success. The company Cisco has opened up its internal information systems to suppliers and other supply chain partners, giving the employees the same access rights to information as Cisco employees, and as a result enabling the Cisco ecosystem to act as a distributed knowledge management network. This networked ecosystem that leverages the collective capabilities of all supply chain partners integrates all supply chain activities so that it achieved successful e-supply chain management. The reasons for that can be described as: Firstly the ecosystem standardises and streamlines internal processes. The successful ERP system associated with CEC implementation forces Cisco to standardise, restructure and streamline the ‘internal’ functions. Bendoly and Jacobs (2005) clearly state that ERP systems enable organisational standardisation, including the standardisation among different locations belonging to the same enterprise. Secondly, the ecosystem streamlines external processes by seamless integration with suppliers and customers in terms of MCO and CCO. Materials and inventory position, product availability, price information, purchase orders and changes, vendor receipt/acceptance, Invoice payments and status reporting information are all visibile among partners, including design-related information and sales forecasts Thirdly, Cisco has formed strategic alliances and long-term partnerships with suppliers and customers, basing on mutual trust and win-win strategy. Lack of mutual trust and unwillingness to share information among the partners appear to be the greatest obstacles in the way of e-collaboration. Comparing the Cisco ecosystem with SIMON (Shell Inventory Managed Order Network) which applied by Shell Chemicals, SIMON enables the transfer of responsibility for inventory management from customer to supplier (Chaffey, 2002). In other words, there is no need for customer to place an offer since vital inventory will be on customer. Customers pay only for what they consume. The SIMON is so successful in the downstream process that it was then applied to the upstream processes which are acquiring raw materials from supplier. Both Ecosystem and SIMON works in some extent due to the mutual trust and a belief that there are significant benefits to be realized on both side. The shared information between all parties in the supply chain is also critical to succeed. However, e-business does not always lead to organisation success. For instance, Webvan, a top internet grocer based in the US, went bankrupt in 2001, because of poorly implemented e-business and over depending on technology and missed out the customers and inter-organisation management. To sum up, the ability to engage in collaborative planning and making joint decisions with both suppliers and customers are critical components of forming e-supply chain. Moreover, Campbell and Sankaran (2005) argued that lack of integration between members of a supply chain results in operational inefficiencies that compromise the performance of the supply chain. Conclusion More than its innovative use of technology, Cisco has developed an Ecosystem that makes itself as transparent as possible. A well designed and implemented an e-supply chain model can automated all business functions so that seamless link to the entire supply chain via the web, with strong internal as well as external integration. Within up and downstream supply chain issues, both MCO and CCO have been identified in detail in order to describe how well external integration is established. An outsourcing approach Cisco chose is explored in terms of upstream supply chain. In addition, market and customer relationship issues have been further analysed in terms of downstream supply chain. In the view of internal integration, CEC has been developed to improve employee satisfaction and scale the workforce. In addition, benefits of apply CEC have been illustrated. Last but not least, both upstream and downstream issues have been evaluated in the respect of whole supply chain management. The reasons for successful implementation of e-supply chain management have been discovered with the comparison of the Shell Chemical case and Webvan grocer case. Themistocleous et al. (2004) comments that future competition will not be company against company but rather supply chain against supply chain. An ‘integrated supply chain network’ , which defined by Viswanadham and Gaonkar (2006) as a group of independent companies, often located in different countries, forming a strategic alliance with the common goal of designing, manufacturing and delivering right-quality products to customer groups faster than other alliance groups and vertically integrated firms great, will be a core strategic capability as competitive advantage. In order to succeed the Cisco way, some recommendation will be given based on the discussion above: Win the word with e-commerce. Use the net to revolutionise both internal and external operations. Listen constantly to all parties include customers, suppliers and partners. Resist complacency that can accompany. Generally speaking, supply chain management are important for the purpose of successful implementing e-business into all kinds of industry, which will arguably result in benefit such as cost saves, time saving, improve communication, better control, and create competitive advantage. Cisco case study
The aim of this project is to a literature review to emphasize the occurrence of inadequate assessment of pain in cancer patients and to identify the significant role of the nurse in the modern multi-professional team in delivering pain treatments for cancer patients. Pain is one of the most prevalent and distressing symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. Almost 70% of patients with cancer experiences pain at a point through the progression of their diseases. Even though most patients achieve adequate pain control, patients with more complex pain syndromes continues to fail to obtain adequate pain management, Fainsinger et al (2010) Design The Literatures searches was carried out on a major data base through journal and researched publications relating to the subject the role of the nurse in effective cancer pain assessment. However, 5 main articles were critically analysed using the Critical Analysis Framework. Findings 176 of papers of potential interest were identified through database searching and 4 additional records identified from other books and publications. Out of these 180 literatures, 79 were found to be duplication. The quality of these literatures were each critically analysed and evaluated using the framework for critical Appraisal research tool. Using these criteria, I identify 25 literatures search as not directly appropriately related to the topic cancer pain but rather authors writing about various issues on cancer diseases. 20 results were eliminated as they were also directly linked with children or the palliative care. Finally, 8 core articles were carefully selected as the core articles for this project as they provide recommendations through consensus to provide a useful cancer-related evidenced base pain guide for practice. Conclusion Further research and education need to be carried out in supporting clinicians particularly, the nurses who are in constant contact with cancer patients. These training and support will enhance the effectiveness of implementing cancer pain assessments and treatments to patients thereby increasing service quality and controls the output of front line workers. CHAPTER ONE The Need To Improve Nursing Practice Development in medical research and treatments has enhanced the survival rate of cancer patient by at least five years in a number of cancer type. Conversely, pain syndromes from chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery or interventional procedures persist to have a large effect on cancer patients’ survivors’ quality of life. This makes it obvious that nurses are uniquely placed in healthcare and have a duty of care in pain assessment for cancer patients and to make sure that pain management strategies are initiated to improve patient’s life, Chapman (2011). The need to change clinical practice demands healthcare practitioners to regularly develop and enhance their knowledge and skills to make sure they are abreast with best practices. Nursing research consequently focuses on knowledge that is useful in the practice by creating knowledge that influence best clinical practice Burns
Grand Canyon University Dialysis Patients Capstone.

In collaboration with the approved course preceptor, students will identify a specific evidence-based topic for the capstone project change proposal. Students should consider the clinical environment in which they are currently employed or have recently worked. The capstone project topic can be a clinical practice problem, an organizational issue, a leadership or quality improvement initiative, or an unmet educational need specific to a patient population or community. The student may also choose to work with an interprofessional collaborative team.Students should select a topic that aligns to their area of interest as well as the clinical practice setting in which practice hours are completed.Write a 500-750 word description of your proposed capstone project topic. Include the following:The problem or issue, intervention, quality initiative, educational need, or collaborative interprofessional team project that will be the focus of the change proposal.The setting or context in which the problem or issue, intervention, quality initiative, educational need, or collaborative interprofessional team project can be observed.A description (providing a high level of detail) regarding the problem or issue, intervention, quality initiative, educational need, or collaborative interprofessional team project.Effect of the problem or issue, intervention, quality initiative, educational need, or collaborative interprofessional team project.Significance of the topic and its implications for nursing practice.A proposed solution to the identified project topic with an explanation of how it will affect nursing practice.You are required to cite to a minimum of eight peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice. Plan your time accordingly to complete this assignment.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
Grand Canyon University Dialysis Patients Capstone

Clayton State University Furniture Order Entry Application Lab Report.

In this assignment, you will customize the look of your CapestraApp project to fit the organization’s visual identity (branding, typography, and colors). It is important to maintain consistency; use an external CSS file so it will be easy to update. Focus on the colors, font, and sizes as part of your formatting. As the designer of this application, it falls to you to make all decisions regarding typography, colors, shapes, and so on. Once completed, you will present your first release of the application to the organizational stakeholders. See the course Tools and Resources page for information about using Audio and Video—Kaltura, and for using PowerPoint.This is a collection of assignments completed over the past weeks i can upload all screenshots from those if needed. Resources17. JavaFX, part 6. Customizing With CSS.Capestra sample demo. | Transcript Capestra Furniture SRS [DOCX].Week 10 Sample Code [ZIP].Assignment InstructionsComplete the following steps for this assignment:1. Customize the CapestraApp using an external CSS file:Format the screens, form labels, input fields, and buttons using UI best practices for consistency and professional appearance.2. Record a demo of your finished CapestraApp using either Kaltura or PowerPoint.3. Integrate the recorded demo of the finished CapestraApp into a PowerPoint file that highlights the UI best practices applied to the CapestraApp:Use appropriate language for both technical and nontechnical stakeholders.Name your presentation file, following this pattern: Austin_Week10.pptx.4. Create a .zip file containing your CapestraApp project:Before zipping your project, right-click the project and “clean” it. This greatly reduces the file size and speeds up the program’s performance.Then close NetBeans.5. Add the PowerPoint presentation file with your demo recording to your .zip file.6. Submit your cleaned CapestraApp project in an appropriately constructed and correctly named .zip file.Rename your .zip file, following this pattern: RequirementsCommunication: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, respectful, and consistent with expectations for professional practice. Original work and critical thinking are required regarding your assessment and scholarly writing. Your writing must be free of errors that detract from the overall message.Media presentation: Minimum of 12 slides including recorded demo, 5–8 minutes, with notes or a transcript to ensure accessibility to everyone. Upload all parts of the presentation.Content: You will use the media presentation to demonstrate that all portions of your Capestra order system function correctly when presented with “good” data and demonstrate that your Capestra system deals with “bad” data correctly.Resources: At least three scholarly resources other than the course text or assigned journal articles. Include citations at the end of the presentation.APA guidelines: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and format. When appropriate, use APA-formatted headings. For help, see Evidence and APA, or use the links in the left-hand navigation menu.Font and font size: 24–28 points for headings and no smaller than 18 points for bullet-point text. For PowerPoint tips, refer to the PowerPoint library guide linked in Resources.
Clayton State University Furniture Order Entry Application Lab Report

Factors Are Most Commonly Linked To Youth Offending Psychology Essay

The objective of this paper is to critically evaluate the risk factors associated with youth offending and assess the offender management tools in place to reduce re-offending. High levels of crime have been a matter of concern for many years, especially in relation to juvenile offending. Finding ways to prevent children and young people becoming involved in criminal and anti-social behaviour has become a policy priority. It is the aim of this paper to investigate the risk factors that contribute to youth offending and evaluate whether that risk is being reduced in order to minimise the probability of recidivism. Also subject to analysis will be offender management tools and government policy, to evaluate whether children and young people are being safeguarded from risk and ultimately criminal behaviour. To ensure a comprehensive and detailed study, the following objectives have been set and upon completion will ultimately provide understanding and insight into ‘What risk factors are most commonly linked to youth offending and what is being done to minimise this risk in order to reduce re-offending?’ In order to answer this question the research will – Examine in depth the multitude of risk factors that lead to the initial crime Research risk factors that are associated to youth re-offending in the criminal justice system and analysing the differing theories in this area. Research risk factors that are associated to youth re-offending outside of the criminal justice system and analysing the differing theories in this area. Analyse the risk and offender management tools put in place to reduce re-offending and the associated policy changes over the past decade. Literature review To enable objectives 1 – 4 to be met, the following section will review the literature of risk factors in relation to youth offending and recidivism. When researching the terms risk and youth it is apparent that they have become synonymous (Green et al., 2000). Research in this area see’s the perception of young people being seen as either ‘at risk’ or as ‘posing a risk’ (Armstrong, 2004, 2006). Kazdin and colleagues (1997) note that a risk factor predicts an increased probability of later offending. Risk factors can be described as factors which ‘either individually or in combination render children’s failure to thrive more likely’. (Howard et al, 1999). It is apparent that the concept of risk is much debated and clearly a cause for concern. With this in mind, the following literature review will outline the key themes, concepts and debates which will be further analysed in the latter part of this research. Due to the extensive literature in this review, headings have been used which in turn have their own subheadings. School Risk Factors It is argued that many predictors of delinquency and criminality can be found within schools, these include early anti social behaviour, educational failure and low commitment to school. (Home Office 2008). Aggressive behaviour and bullying Woodward and colleagues found that young males who demonstrate aggressive behaviour when they start school are at a greater risk of becoming involved in crime and antisocial behaviour later in life (Woodward and McVie 2001). There is a link between early and persistent anti-social behaviour by boys, (more than in girls) findings show an increased risk of illegal drug taking, violent behaviour and overall delinquency (Loeber and Hay 1996). The risk of later delinquency is said to be amplified when aggressive behaviour in the early years of primary education is combined with hyperactivity, isolation or withdrawal. (Kellam and Brown 1982) Farrington defines bullying as ‘the repeated oppression of a less powerful person by a more powerful one’. Bullying is a common problem within schools and indicates the risk of continued behaviour in later life, consequently leading to violent behaviour. (Farrington 1993a). An example of this was found in a Norwegian longitudinal study which found that 60% of recognised school bullies had had a criminal conviction by the age of 24; the researchers also discovered that bullies are four times more likely to be repeat offenders in comparison to non bullies. (Olweus, 1991). Lack of commitment to school and truancy It has been argued that children who feel alienated from school are at an increased risk of committing crime or participating in antisocial behaviour. (Graham 1988). An example of this is the findings from an American study in the context of drug misuse; it suggests that children who lack commitment towards school are at greater risk of becoming involved in anti-social behaviour and adolescence. (Gottfredson, 1988; Johnston, 1991). Truancy is a measurable and researched indicator of student alienation which has a strong association with juvenile offending. In the Cambridge Study it was found that between 44% and 48% of truants in secondary education were offenders, compared with 14% to 16% of non truants. (West, 1982). This distinction was found to be continued into adulthood. (Farrington, 1996a). It appears that the link between truancy and delinquency is not straightforward, when thinking in terms of cause and effect it is easy to assume that truancy leads to delinquency, but it is likely that delinquency leads to truancy as well. (Graham, 1988). However, surveys have found that truants rarely offend during school hours. (Ekblom, 1979). Low intelligence In a study conducted in Sweden it was found that the pre-school boys in their sample who scored less than 88 in an IQ test were most likely to become frequent adult offenders compared with those with an average score of 101 for non-offenders. The authors also note that the results remained the same even after controlling for social class. (Stattin and Klackenberg-Larsson, 1993). Similar findings were established in the Cambridge Study, in a non-verbal intelligence test the boys (age 8 and 10 years) who scored less than 90 were found to be twice as likely to be convicted as juveniles than others in the sample. (Farrington, 1992a). The author also found that the results were the same even after controlling for variables such as large family size and low family income. (Farrington, 1990). The Cambridge study also uncovered that their low attainment and poor IQ scores at school was an indicator as to their involvement in crime. Farrington (1996) concludes that the offending behaviour could be due to an impaired ability to foresee the consequences of their actions and a lack of empathy for their victims. Family Risk Factors Parental competence and discipline Childhood delinquency has been linked with a combination of factors in association with upbringing and parenting styles. A study of teenage mothers was conducted with a data set consisting of findings from four longitudinal studies. It was found that teenage mothers were most likely to lack parenting skills, and that an increased probability of the child to perform badly at school was present that ultimately resulted in delinquency (Morash and Rucker, 1989). Children who experience poor supervision by their parents are commonly linked with criminality, findings show that ‘early onset’ offending is also an important factor which has a strong association with a longer persistence of crime and recidivism. (Farrington 1986a and 1986b). Increased risk of criminality in adolescents is also a concern in children whose parents are highly inconsistent, cruel, harsh, passive or neglecting. (West and Farrington 1973; Newson and Newson 1989). In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 55% of the sample boys had been convicted of offences by the age of 32 following observations of poor supervision at the age of 8, compared with a third of the overall sample. In the same study it was also found that poor parenting and harsh discipline at age 8 was coupled with an increased risk of involvement in crimes of a violent nature by the age of 21. (Farrington, 1978). Other studies have linked the experience of abuse as a child with the increased risk of future violent offending behaviour. There is evidence to suggest that merely ‘experiencing’ the abuse and/or neglect is linked to the adoption of offending behaviour as a teenager (Benoit and Kennedy, 1992; Stein and Lewis, 1992, Widom and Ames, 1994). It has been documented in other studies that the experience of the maltreatment encountered by the victim will most likely result in the exhibition of the same kind of behaviour in the future. An example of this is that those with a history of physical abuse will be more likely to progress to violent offending in comparison with other types of criminal activity. (Dutton and Hart ,1992). Likewise, several studies have provided evidence that those individuals who have experienced sexual abuse are more likely to become sexually violent (Bagley et al 1994, Dutton and Hart 1992; Ford and Linney, 1995, Prendergast, 1991). Further to this Rasmussen and colleagues reported that a young person is unlikely to commit crimes of sexual abuse unless they have been previously exposed to some sort of sexual trauma themselves. Watkins and Bentovim (1992) give their explanation that young male victims of sexual abuse attempt to exert control over their personal victimisation experiences by becoming sexual abusers themselves (i.e. re-enactment). Family Conflict It is easy to assume that certain family structures have an increased risk of producing a delinquent child, for example lone parents but there is evidence to suggest that two parent families can also be the product of risk. These include parental supervision and discipline as mentioned above, family income which is mentioned later, conflict surrounding the breakdown of a parental relationship and the quality of the relationship between a child and his/her parents. (Uttering et al, 1993; Farrington 1996). An example of this is found in a US study which finds that offending was not only familiar among males raised in ‘broken homes’ without affectionate mothers, but was also found to be present in ‘intact’ families that had been subject to conflict between both parents. Offending was found to be less frequent among males who had been raised in intact families where conflict was absent and in single parent families where affectionate relationships were formed with their mothers. (McCord, 1982). In the Cambridge study it was found that conflict between two parents had an increased risk of later delinquency for boys, as did parental separation or divorce before the age of 10. (Farrington, 1992a). The National Survey of Health and Development also found a strong correlation between parental divorce, separation and later delinquency. (Wadsworth, 1979). Crime runs in the family Risk of delinquency is increased if one or both parents have had an involvement in crime, this is also the case if any siblings have, or still are delinquent. (Farrington, 1995). The Cambridge study found that of boys with convicted fathers, 60% went on to be convicted themselves. Farrington reported that 5% of the South London families examined in the study were responsible for half the data on family member convictions. (Farrington et al, 1996). Low income and poor housing The Thousand Families study conducted by Fleeting (1988) followed participants in a birth cohort up to the age of 33 in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was found that rates of criminal and anti social behaviour rose in accordance with levels of deprivation. It was discovered that within those from the most high risk and deprived backgrounds, 60% of participants were found to have a criminal record by the age of 33. It is identified by the authors that there exists a linking mechanism between crime and deprivation due to the degree of family dysfunction and stress that is often present in deprived families, the authors also draw attention to the individual temperament of the child as playing a significant part in determining future behaviour. (Fleeting, 1988). In a study of 500 delinquents and 500 non-delinquents carried out in the 1950s, it was concluded that poverty was not a direct cause of delinquency but does have an indirect effect on the ability of parenting. The author suggests that in order to reduce the risk of offending, reducing child poverty is a crucial element. (Sampson and Laub, 1994). The Cambridge study of working class boys found that a combination of different interrelated factors such as large family size, family income and poor housing conditions consistently showed an increased risk of criminal convictions, self reported offending and both adult and juvenile offending (Farrington 1992b; 1992c). Community Risk Factors Disadvantaged Neighbourhood Children who are brought up with poor living conditions in economically deprived areas and with high unemployment rates are at an increased risk of becoming involved in criminal activity including violent behaviour. (Farrington 1991; Bursik and Webb, 1982). Park and Burgess studied the city of Chicago and its characteristics such as, social change and distribution of people within it. The authors refer to ‘concentric zone theory’. This theory divided the city into five zones. Particular focus was placed upon zone two which was the zone in transition from business to residence. It was argued that the expansion of the business sector continually meant that residents were displaced and this led to the living area being the most undesirable. This was characterised by poverty, cheap theatres, deteriorating housing stock, new immigrants in the area and a breakdown in usual methods of social control. Park and Burgess hypothesised that it was within this zone that crime and delinquency would thrive. (Park and Burgess, 1925). It was also found that a large percentage of offenders belonged to a relatively small proportion of neighbourhoods. (Shaw and McKay, 1969). A comparison study was carried out in the United Kingdom; a sample of 10 year old children in the Isle of Wight was compared with children living in inner London. It was found that the latter had a much higher rate of conduct disorders. It was concluded that living in a disadvantaged area was an indirect risk and that other contributing factors were present including, parental conflict, family breakdown, criminal parents and having a large family. (Rutter et al, 1975a and 1975b). It was also found by Sampson and colleagues (1977) that living in areas with high levels deprivation and violence had a strong association with criminality and delinquency. This was mediated by the seeming lack of social cohesion and informal social control in those neighbourhoods. Individual and Personal Risk Factors Hyperactivity Hyperactivity and impulsivity are both considered as risk factors towards criminal behaviour. Hyperactivity can often be recognised in toddlers and pre-school children and is associated with restlessness, impulsive behaviour and difficulty maintaining concentration (often referred to as ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). Research suggests that this disorder is constantly linked with anti-social behaviour in childhood which often persists into adulthood. (Rutter et al, 1998). A study conducted in the United States compared a group of 9 to 17 year old boys with hyperactivity problems with a control group of the same gender and age. It was concluded that those who presented hyperactive behaviour were most likely to pursue serious criminal activity. (Satterfield and Schell, 1997). Delinquent Peers It is found that delinquent acts are carried out in small groups opposed to individually (Reiss, 1988) and peer influences on anti-social behaviour appear to be the most common during adolescence. (Thornberry and Krohn, 1997). In the Cambridge Study, association with delinquent peers at the age of 14 was said to be associated independently with an increased risk of committing crime as a young adult, these findings also stayed consistent after controlling for other possible variables. (Farrington, 1986b). The above review of literature has uncovered and highlighted a multitude of key risk factors that lead to crime and in some cases persistent offending. A conclusion is far from being drawn, however it is clear that no single risk factor acts a main contributor to anti-social behaviour, it is a combination of factors that increase a young person’s probability of committing criminal behaviour. Methodology This methodology will outline the methods and approaches that will be used to enable data to be collected and analysed. Secondary Research The majority of this research will be conducted using secondary research. There are many advantages of using secondary data; these include the ability to access a wide variety of information quickly and effectively. Many of the existing studies will have used a variety of sampling methods and in most cases this can result in samples being close to representative. The use of secondary data will allow the analysis of a wide collection of studies with a large degree of geographical spread and subject participation. There will be the opportunity to evaluate existing longitudinal studies which will allow examination of the differing trends and behaviours over time, which is something this research is unable to do due to time constraints. (Bryman, 2008) When accessing existing research and data from a variety of different sources the researcher must evaluate the authenticity and credibility to confirm whether or not they are ‘real’ and worthy of use, this is especially important when looking at newspaper articles and internet websites. Also for consideration is if the studies presented are representative in terms of whether they are typical or if sampling or selection methods or participation raises issue to the validity and generalisation of the results. Finally the meaning of the texts used will be analysed, ensuring the language and context by which it is written is fully understood. (Bryman, 2008) When gathering literature in support of this study it is apparent that some of the most influential research, theories and concepts are drawn from longitudinal studies. However, caution will be exorcised surrounding issues of validity this is due to a number of studies having reported a lack of participant participation in the latter years due to lack of co-operation or being unable to locate participants. This method of data collection can be very reliable if a large enough sample is used and participant numbers stay consistent throughout the data collection periods. (Denscombe, 2003). Primary Research Primary research will be used to formulate a case study that will subsequently provide evidentiary support to all objectives. Snowball sampling will be used to form primary data. This method uses a non probability sample in which initial contact will be made with a source relevant to the research area and then use this to establish contacts with others. The initial contact will be using a family member. The advantage of this technique is that it enables contact with a variety of sources and knowledge bases. However, this form of research can produce good qualitative material but can be deemed poor in terms of generating reliable data that can be generalised. (Bryman, 2008) The research will use interviews to enable the formulation of a case study. The interview technique will be semi-structured. This method has been chosen as this will enable research to be gained without pigeon holing the responses of those interviewed. The semi structured interview will involve a series of questions which will act as an interview guide however the sequence can be varied if needed. The questions will be more general in their frame of reference from that typically found in a structured interview. An advantage of this technique is that there will be some latitude to ask further questions in response to what are seen as significant replies. Disadvantages to be aware of when using interviews is that they are time consuming therefore a small sample may only be used due to time constraints and also interviews can be subject to interviewer and respondent bias. The quality of the information can be largely dependent upon the interpretation of the information obtained. (Bryman, 2008). The qualitative data received from the interviews will be analysed and used to formulate a case study. The primary research will formulate a case study of a ‘Progress2Work’ (P2W) service in Salford. The P2W assists those with a history of drug misuse to engage with the world of work and, through training, support and other interventions, secure and maintain suitable and sustainable employment. Due to time constraints and lack of resources a large scale case study will not be conducted, however alongside detailed secondary research a primary case study will provide significant findings if conducted well. The basic case study will be conducted with a family member and will entail a detailed and intensive analysis of a single case. As Stake (1995) observes, case study research is concerned with the complexity and particular nature of the case in question. When looking at case study literature, questions are raised as to the external validity or generalisation of case study research, how can a single case be representative? This criticism is fully accepted; however the research to be conducted will be for intensive analysis and examination which will engage with theoretical reasoning. Ethical implications To ensure that the research does not breach any ethical issues in relation to secondary data the researcher will certify that all research is referenced appropriately and the use of words are ones own so not to plagiarise. When conducting a primary data collection Pope (1992) outlines several general principles that should be observed: 1. Do no harm to participants. 2. Practice only with competence. 3. Do not exploit. 4. Treat people with respect for their dignity as human beings. 5. Protect confidentiality 6. Act, except in the most extreme circumstance, only after obtaining informed consent. Doing no harm One should ensure that all reasonable efforts have been made to identify the hidden and unexpected harm that might befall as a result of assessment and/or action leading from assessment. This includes psychological harm as well as physical harm, and the risk that interventions leading from assessment might make circumstances worse. (Bryman, 1998). The initial practitioner involved is a family member; this has ethical implications that will need to be considered. The primary research will ensure the full support of the ‘progress2work’ management team before obtaining information from my contact so to ensure all information provided for research has no negative consequences. It is important that neither the participants nor researchers are harmed in any way throughout this study. To ensure this, one will make certain that all permissions are granted before conducting research and that all interviews are carried out in a safe environment. Practicing with competence Practitioners must recognise the limits to their own professional knowledge and expertise, as well as the limitations of any tools or instruments and the boundaries in interpretation of any results. Where experience and knowledge are lacking, practitioners have a responsibility to make use of all the resources at their disposal to increase their knowledge and enhance their training in order to improve the quality of the service they provide. (Bryman, 1998) Non-exploitation Those conducting assessments have a duty to maintain standards of conduct in their work co-operate with other agencies where appropriate and develop non-exploitative relationships with the people being assessed. Assessment can seem intrusive and personal and it is not acceptable to use extensive procedures unless the information they provide is absolutely necessary and the reason for its collection is made clear. (Bryman, 1998) Treating people with respect Respect for the human rights and dignity of, and the differences in, others is paramount. Participants must be made aware of their right to privacy and this will be kept to a minimum. (Bryman, 1998) Confidentiality In light of government plans for agencies involved with children to increase information sharing and for adoption of Common Assessment procedures, parties providing information for assessment purposes should be fully informed about which information is confidential. It is, therefore, important to: • identify the sorts of information which will be treated as confidential • be aware of legislation that governs confidentiality • make sure that all involved clearly understand the boundaries between what is and is not confidential • develop effective mechanisms for handling documents to ensure confidentiality • develop procedures to guard against the accidental disclosing of information Informed consent When conducting assessments it is vital that all participants are willing and regularly informed. Adopting the principles of informed consent is one way of ensuring that this is happening. Informed consent can be defined as happening where: 1. An individual has the capacity (understanding) to consent. 2. They have been told fully, in language they understand, what the assessment process involves. 3. They have given their consent freely without duress or undue pressure. 4. Their consent is appropriately documented. Once the interview has been conducted with all the appropriated permissions in place, the researcher will seek confirmation that all content can be used and will allow the participants to make any changes to the transcribed interview to ensure that the content is correct and does not breach any security or work place confidentiality. (Denscombe, 2003). Chapter?

Harvard University The Reformation and The Las Supper Essays

essay helper free Harvard University The Reformation and The Las Supper Essays.

I’m working on a humanities report and need an explanation to help me study.

Two different assignments listed below:
1.Test 3 covers two periods of history–the Renaissance and the Baroque.  One of the pivotal events of the Renaissance was the Reformation.  The Reformation impacted both the policies of the church and society in general.  For this assignment, I would like for you to research the Reformation.  Answer the following questions: 1. What events/issues in the church led up to the Reformation? 2. What changes were made as a result of the Reformation? 3. How did the Reformation impact art and, even more directly, music? 4. What was Martin Luther’s role in the Reformation?   To receive full credit you must address each of these questions.
2.One of the most iconic artworks from the Renaissance is Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper.  This subject matter inspired many artists and artworks during the Renaissance and throughout history.  For this assignment, I want you to focus on three versions of The Last Supper: da Vinci’s, Tintoretto’s, and Salvador Dali’s.  On the website, you can find short videos on the first two of these.  Simply type in da Vinci’s The Last Supper and Tintoretto’s The Last Supper.  Tell me two similarities between the three versions of the painting and two (or more) differences, using the information in the videos and/or your own observations.   How does each painting fit with its era of history–da Vinci with the Renaissance, Tintoretto with the Baroque, and Dali with the modern era?
Harvard University The Reformation and The Las Supper Essays

University of California Elite Rule of the Ancient States Assessing Mesopotamia and Maya Essay

University of California Elite Rule of the Ancient States Assessing Mesopotamia and Maya Essay.

Early states were led or ruled by a very small elite minority within society. Examine how
these elites managed and manipulated economic, coercive, and ideological/social sources
of power to gain political authority. For this paper, compare and contrast EITHER:
A. Mesopotamian and Mayan civilization
B. Egyptian and Aztec civilization
…with respect to the presence and use of each of the sources of power. Particular states
may have emphasized some sources over others. Why do you think they did so? Make
sure to include discussions of each source of power: economic, coercive,
ideological/social, and how they were used to gain political authority.
Answer the question completely in a well developed 4-6 page essay, double-spaced,
Times New Roman font and 1 inch margins. Follow the format guide found on
GauchoSpace. You will need to combine lectures, films, the GauchoSpace readings, and
3 OUTSIDE SCHOLARLY SOURCES to adequately address the questions. You
should CITE these 3 outside sources and the Fagan and Durani textbook regularly within
the text and prepare a bibliography of references cited. The World Prehistory textbook
should serve as an excellent introduction and guide to the issues involved in the
questions. The 3 outside sources should be taken from scholarly books and/or
journal articles that you find in the library (web pages do NOT count as one of the
four minimum sources and in particular do NOT cite Wikipedia). If you are uncertain
how to find sources, you should take advantage of our excellent library and librarians, as
well as web resources like JSTOR, which provides a huge searchable database for journal
articles. Read the prompt carefully and be sure that your paper addresses all of the issues raised in
• Brief (1 paragraph) description of what you will be accomplishing in this paper.
Be sure to include a thesis statement that explains your argument about why the different states developed similar or contrasting strategies deploying the sources
of power. Also include a brief statement of how archaeologists have approached
this question.
• Brief description of each of the Sources of Power (Coercive, Economic,
• Compare and contrast how elites in each civilization deployed these sources of
power to exercise political authority. Why did they use similar or contrasting
strategies? This can be organized either by civilization or source of power.
• How have archaeologists used different kinds of evidence to address this?
• Brief summary of findings.
o What are the implications about how elites created and maintained
political authority in each civilization?
University of California Elite Rule of the Ancient States Assessing Mesopotamia and Maya Essay

GC The Adolescent Brain Young Adulthood & the Midlife Crisis Discussion

GC The Adolescent Brain Young Adulthood & the Midlife Crisis Discussion.

I’m working on a psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

For each question, respond with at least 10 sentences, answer all parts of the question, and include information from the textbook with in-text citations. Submit answers in the text box. Start by copying and pasting all of the questions into the text box. Each question is worth 20 points.1. Summarize the information in Chapter 6 on the adolescent brain. Describe the major brain changes that take place during adolescence.2. Describe the Hazan and Shaver study of attachment in young adulthood (Chapter 7). 3. Summarize the information offered in Chapter 8 regarding the midlife crisis. 4. Rowe and Kahn defined 3 criteria of successful aging that are useful for research and behavioral interventions (Chapter 9). What are the 3 criteria? Define selective optimization with compensation. Offer 3 examples. 5. Summarize Kubler-Ross Five Stages of Grief. What are some criticisms of this theory? Include information from Chapter 10.
GC The Adolescent Brain Young Adulthood & the Midlife Crisis Discussion

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