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Churches and Religious Tax Exemption

It used to be that when one thought of church, thoughts would automatically turn to God and salvation. Now days it seems that whenever people think of church the only thoughts that seem to come to mind is tax exemption and how to make money. Gone it seems are the small churches where the pastor knew every member of his congregation and drove a car that sometimes barely ran, instead all that seems to make the news are the mega-churches, ones that could double as a mall and the pastors have houses that could sleep a football team and cars that cost more then what most their congregation makes in a year. There was even one pastor that claimed that God wanted him to have a private jet worth about 68 million dollars. Each of these things is written off as a tax deduction for the church though no congregation member other then the pastor and their families use these things. How is all this possible and when did this all happen, why are there still members struggling when the churches collect tithes that the members are told will help out the needy? It is simple really; through tax exemption. The very first example of tax exemption for a church can be traced to the Roman Empire after the Emperor Constantine supposedly converted to Christianity. When this happened, he gave the Christian church an utterly complete exemption status from all the forms of taxation. Not only was the church exempt but also all church property that was used for any religious purpose in England during medieval times. This was based on the idea that since the church relieved a few of the functions of the government it was entitled to a few benefits in return. It became an official in 1894, but it had been unofficial since the founding of our country, with 9 of the original 13 colonies having some sort of tax relief given to churches. Not only are the churches exempt from paying taxes but donations to churches can be and are tax-deductible. Why though is this status so important to the religious organizations? Many of the proponents for tax exemption say that this makes sure that the government stays out of church affairs and finances, and this upholds the law of division of church and state. Many go on to say that all churches deserve tax breaks because of the social services that are provided though the church. If it has been working for 200 years, why would we want to change it? The opponents of tax exemption argue that this is a violation of the separation of church and state and that exemptions are privileges not a constitutional guarantee. Its not hard to argue against the opponents when they are given breaks worth billions each year. This argument is not something new either, three presidents James Madison, James Garfield, and Ulysses S. Grant had opposition to the exemption status with Grant submitting a petition over 900 feet long with 35,000 signatures in 1875 to Congress. In it Grant asked that all ecclesiastical and church property to be no longer eligible for tax exemption, and that in 1850 these properties that paid no taxes either locally or state equaled to roughly $83 million, 1860 saw that amount doubled, 1875 $1 billion, and by 1900 over $3 billion. Now this is in the mid to late 19th and early 20th century, can you imagine how much that would be now with inflation? Lyndon Johnson who was then a senator made and amendment to the Internal Revenue Code that states: To be tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, an organization must be organized and operated exclusively for exempt purposes set forth in section 501(c)(3), and none of its earnings may inure to any private shareholder or individual. In addition, it may not be an action organization, i.e., it may not attempt to influence legislation as a substantial part of its activities and it may not participate in any campaign activity for or against political candidates. Organizations described in section 501(c)(3) are commonly referred to as charitable organizations. Organizations described in section 501(c)(3), other than testing for public safety organizations, are eligible to receive tax-deductible contributions in accordance with Code section 170. The organization must not be organized or operated for the benefit of private interests, and no part of a section 501(c)(3) organization’s net earnings may inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. If the organization engages in an excess benefit transaction with a person having substantial influence over the organization, an excise tax may be imposed on the person and any organization managers agreeing to the transaction. Section 501(c)(3) organizations are restricted in how much political and legislative (lobbying) activities they may conduct. (“Exemption Requirements Section 501(c)(3) Organizations | Internal Revenue Service,” 2018) The bad thing though is that the IRS rarely goes about investigating churches if they did would there be so many mega churches with pastors asking for private jets such as the case of televangelist Jesse Duplantis, along with his wife founded Covenant Church in Destrehan La located just outside of New Orleans, asked his congregation to help him get another private jet, of which he has four, worth $54 million! Each of his planes had been paid for in the past by the cash all sent in from his followers. His excuse was that he didn’t see the Great Redeemer riding around on a donkey to spread the word of God. His reasoning comes from the prosperity gospel, which roughly says that God will show favor by rewarding faithful with riches on earth.[i] Another such “man of God” Creflo Dollar started a campaign called “Project G65”. This aircraft is state of the art and has waiting list that consists of the worlds richest people and a time length of up to 3 years. His reasoning, that he needed the most luxurious of the private jets on the market to spread the “Gospel of Jesus Christ.” Now understand these jets aren’t just a few million dollars, a single G650 will set the buyer back $65 million. This is just the base line model and does not some of the bells and whistles that can add hundreds of thousands more to the price tag. Interiors can have any number of interiors that can be custom tailored to the buyer’s preferences. Yet another prosperity gospel patron is Kenneth Copeland who appeared on television with Duplantis to announce that his “ministry” bought a Gulfstream V. While there was no mention of the actual price for a new one in their broadcast, according to Gulfstream.com under pre-owned, a used GV starts at $10,250,000. This is before the added upgrades that were told to his followers would be to the tune of another $2.5 million, plus the new hanger, special maintenance equipment, and the need to lengthen the runway. (Wootsen Jr, 2017) Imagine the people that could be helped with the money that was spent on just one of those jets and upgrades. How many houses could be fixed, mouths fed, children clothed and given proper school supplies, how many people could receive medical attention? Instead these people want private jets, and not a single tax paid on them because it can be considered a tax write off or exemption. And it is just not the private jets that their “donations” help to pay for, a pastor in North Carolina named Steven Furtick, built a 16,000 sqft $1.7 million-dollar home. The reasoning he told his congregation is that the house is a “gift from God.” This is on top of what he is paid by the church to be a pastor there, though his congregation refuses to say how much he is paid for his “services.” Why is this, if there is nothing to hide from the money coming in then why not say how much you make from your “job” that you do not have to pay taxes for? One of the most famous cases of tax exemption gone awry is with the Church of Scientology. A survey done by the ARIS (American Religious Identification Survey) estimated that there were only around 25,000 people in America that would consider themselves Scientologist, even though many Scientology websites say their numbers are in the millions. In a documentary that was released on HBO titled Going Clear discussed their tax exemption status that was granted from the IRS in 1993. [ii] According to one blog called The Scientology Money Project, there is about $1.75 billion on the books and of that $1.5 billion is in real estate, mainly at the headquarters in California and Florida, even though other properties are in Seattle, New York, and London. (Matthews, 2015) Blog author Jeffery Augustine has given estimates of around $200 million annually that the church collects, and from conversations with former members and officials who have left, say that about $125 million of that comes from “auditing” that it offers its members. That leaves the rest coming from donations, so around $375 million is made from its members! (“Scientology Money Project,” n.d.) But where does all that money go too, many think that most of it ends up paying for legal defenses and salaries of upper members. The question of tax-exempt status for religious institutions also comes in to play when there are bogus religions that are made just for the sole purpose of tax evasion through tax exemption. One such case was a brothel that was a church on the outside, but in side was nothing but prostitution. When detectives gathered all the evidence it was said that the “members’ were simply preforming sex acts and accepted donations for these acts. How might this have happened? Well quite simply, it fell under the term “Neo Tantric”, which is considered a healing therapy. While they were busted and rightly so, what if it had not come out that it was a brothel? These people could have been raking in the money. (Coleman, n.d.) There are other actual churches, such as one in Wisconsin, that has hotels, parking lots that require pay, communion wafer bakeries, and farms that are all considered tax exempt. This coms to a total of about $4.2 billion dollars in exempt religious properties in just that state. In the case of the brothel, this is costing tax-payer money to uncover all these shady tax-exempt religions. Some of these organizations are among the richest of world organizations, in 1971 real-estate and personal property owned by just American churches was about $110 billion. 1989 in New York City this was $3 billion, and a 1986 survey showed that the income from religious organizations alone for that year totaled $100 billion. This is well over 5x the amount of the largest of the major corporations in the US. This was just in 1986, imagine what the amount is over 20 years later. So, if this is all revenue that churches bring in annually how much is the government loosing out on? University of Tampa assistant professor of sociology Ryan Cragum along with 2 student assistants looked at the US tax laws for religious institutions on lands, donations, business dealings, capital gains and “parsonage allowances,” which permit clergy to deduct housing costs. From this examination they deduced that the government is losing $71 billion each year, with states loosing $26.2 billion by not requiring them to pay property taxes. Add to this the federal tax exemption laws with a look at their home state of Florida they found that the capital gain tax is around $41 million, and the US could claim $1.2 billion in exemptions from the parsonage allowance alone. (“If churches paid taxes, would it be enough to pay for all the food stamps for every person on welfare? – Ethics Alerts,” 2014) One of the major claims is that if religious institutions were taxed would it be enough to to pay food stamps for all the people on welfare? Professor Cragum and his associates estimate that the annual subsidy the government gives religion is $71 billion this comes from; federal income tax, state income tax, property tax, investment tax, parsonage subsidy, and something called a Faith-Based initiatives subsidy. Now looking at the SNAP program (The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) which was formerly known as Food Stamps has an actual diagram of all its monthly costs, and if you add these all up the total cost is roughly $76 billion that would pay all the food stamps for the people on welfare. Basically, if religious institutions were taxed on all its holdings, investments, donations etc., the government would only have to pay out $5 billion instead of the $76 billion. This is just one program that could benefit from taxation of churches, and if churches are all classified as NPO or non-profit organizations why shouldn’t they pay the same taxes as other NPO’s? Many argue that if churches were taxed then charitable contributions would drop, maybe, maybe not but government revenue would rise tremendously. Take for instance all the institutions in New Your City alone that are located on Fifth Avenue, imagine if those were taxed, and if the churches or synagogues, or mosques couldn’t pay them then they could be sold off to people who could pay them. This would bring the city quiet a chuck of change in tax revenue just on that one street. The reasons for taxing churches can be broken down into 10 reasons: other entities shoulder the burden of the omitted tax, these exemptions can indirectly force faith on everyone, it can restrict other progressive social elements, it violates church and state by forcing the IRS to determine what is in fact a religion, churches no longer exist solely provide for the disadvantaged citizens; the government does, most churches are not solely non-profit, it creates economic cost, in the case of Scientology it is an inventive for abuse, if ironed out taxation of churches could be done properly, and finally the main reason for church tax-exemption is no longer needed; meaning the primary reason that churches have not been taxed is because they have been interpreted from a legal standpoint to be non-profit and this no longer applies. (Anderson, 2015) Taking all this information into consideration one can see why the idea of taxing churches is starting to grow steam. If in just one year $71 billion can be made and with a deficit in the trillions maybe be should start looking at places where money can be made and stop squeezing every hard-working person to death on income taxes each year. Let each state have the annual taxes from their churches, then let the federal taxes come out each year. Children could get fed, homeless could be clothed and housed, roads better taken care of, the list is almost endless. Instead of all these mega- corporation churches getting richer let them do what churches of the past did; help the communities they say every Sunday that they are there for. Bibliography About ARIS – ARIS. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://commons.trincoll.edu/aris/about-aris/ Beres, D. (2018, November 10). How to make $71 billion a year: Tax the churches. Retrieved from https://bigthink.com/21st-century-spirituality/how-to-make-71-billion-a-year-tax-the-churches Blair, K. S. (2009, February 14). PRAYING FOR A TAX BREAK: CHURCHES, POLITICAL SPEECH, AND THE LOSS OF SECTION 501(C)(3) TAX EXEMPT STATUS. Retrieved from https://churchesandtaxes.procon.org/sourcefiles/praying-for-a-tax-break-churches-political-speech-and-the-loss-of-section-501c3-tax-exempt-status.pdf Hopkins, B. R. (2012, March 14). Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/book/10.1002/9781118386378 How many Scientologists are there in the world? – Quora. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/How-many-Scientologists-are-there-in-the-world Establishment of Religion. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://law.justia.com/constitution/us/amendment-01/02-establishment-of-religion.html Jacobs, M. (2015, March 31). ‘Going Clear’ Was the Most-Watched HBO Doc In 9 Years. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/31/going-clear-ratings_n_6979596.html Oppenheimer, M. (2015, June 28). Now’s the Time to End Tax Exemptions for Religious Institutions. Retrieved from http://time.com/3939143/nows-the-time-to-end-tax-exemptions-for-religious-institutions/ Quick Facts About Nonprofits | NCCS. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://nccs.urban.org/data-statistics/quick-facts-about-nonprofits Rinder, M. (2014, November 10). 10 Million Scientologists? Where Are They? Retrieved from https://www.mikerindersblog.org/10-million-scientologists-where-are-they/ The Scientology Money Project. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://scientologymoneyproject.com/ Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) | Food and Nutrition Service. (2018, December 7). Retrieved from https://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap Wood, R. W. (2015, September 22). Why Churches Are the Gold Standard of Tax-Exempt Organizations. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertwood/2015/09/22/lets-tax-churches/#4c4dc690322b References Anderson, D. (2015, October 5). Top 10 Reasons Churches Should Not Be Tax Exempt. Retrieved from https://www.listland.com/top-10-reasons-churches-should-not-be-tax-exempt/ Background of the Issue – Churches and Taxes – ProCon.org. (2016, August 5). Retrieved from https://churchesandtaxes.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=006554 Coleman, R. L. (n.d.). Police: Arizona Church is a Brothel. Retrieved from https://www.christianpost.com/news/police-arizona-church-is-a-brothel-55400/ Davies, A. (2013, June 27). You Can’t Cut the Line for A G650, the $65 Million Private Jet Billionaires Are Lining Up to Buy. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com.au/how-to-buy-a-65-million-gulfstream-g650-2013-6 Exemption Requirements Section 501(c)(3) Organizations | Internal Revenue Service. (2018, November 28). Retrieved from https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/charitable-organizations/exemption-requirements-section-501c3-organizations Greig, A. (2013, October 28). Megachurch pastor tells his congregation his mansion is gift from God. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2478378/Megachurch-pastor-tells-congregation-newly-built-16-000-square-foot-house-gift-God.html Gulfstream Aerospace – Aircraft – G650. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gulfstream.com/aircraft/gulfstream-g650 If churches paid taxes, would it be enough to pay for all the food stamps for every person on welfare? – Ethics Alerts. (2014, April 30). Retrieved from https://www.projectcensored.org/churches-paid-taxes-enough-pay-food-stamps-every-person-welfare/ Gulfstream Aerospace – Pre-Owned Aircraft. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.gulfstream.com/preowned/ Wootsen Jr, C. R. (2017, May 29). Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2018/05/29/a-televangelist-wants-his-followers-to-pay-for-a-54-million-private-jet-its-his-fourth-plane/?noredirect=on
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Assignment DescriptionComprehensive Analysis of a Fortune 500 CompanyFor this Individual Project you will analyze publicly available information about a Fortune 500 Company and develop an assessment of the corporate strategy and its ability to increase competitive advantage.This assignment requires you to obtain and analyze information at the company, industry and market levels using various databases and reports found in the AIU library, in addition to at least eight (8) professional or academic peer-reviewed articles.Click here for a tutorial on finding company information in the library.Click here for a tutorial on finding industry information in the library. Your analysis should include an in-depth review of the Company’s most recent SEC Form-10k Annual Report and Form DEF-14A Proxy Statement. These SEC filings can be found at the SEC Edgar Database located at the URL http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/companysearch… . Pay particular attention to the Management Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) sections of the SEC Form 10-K and the DEF-14A Proxy statement. Direct competitors are identified in the “Comparator Group” section of the DEF-14A Proxy Statement. ) These SEC filings also contain information relative to external and industry analysis that will be helpful in your assessment of the Company’s strategy and competitive position.A thorough analysis requires evaluation of various external stakeholders:CompetitorsIndustryVendorsCustomersGovernmental entitiesCommunitiesInternal stakeholders that should be considered in the analysis include:ShareholdersBoard of DirectorsManagementEmployeesA comprehensive SWOT analysis should be performed relative to the Company’s ability to improve its competitive advantage.The comprehensive analysis should include both qualitative and quantitative elements, leveraging information available in SEC Filings, business databases, and peer-reviewed articles.Your work should demonstrate your ability to:Evaluate business situations using critical thinking skillsConstruct quantitative and qualitative research to analyze business casesExamine the opportunities provided by technology for businessesPropose effective communication techniquesApply the standard of APA style to all research and writing tasksYou will prepare a report presenting the findings of your comprehensive analysis examining the Company’s corporate strategy and its ability to increase competitive advantage. The written report will have a body length of 10-12 pages excluding title, abstract, references and appendices. Quotation limits should be Not more than 10% of the body of the paper can be quotations, all of which must be properly attributed in APA format.
Due in two days

Change Management.

To prepare:Review this week’s Learning Resources on managing teams and change.Explore the methods project managers use to expedite change in Chapter 5 of the course text Project Management for Healthcare Information Technology.Consider how project managers use conflict resolution, communication, and team-building to facilitate change brought about by new projects.Think about a personal experience in which change was handled ineffectively. What could have been done differently?THENPost a description of a personal experience in which change was ineffectively managed. Explain which management methods could have been applied to more successfully to facilitate the change.Helpful resources:Biafore, B. (2010). Microsoft Project 2010: The missing manual. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly. Chapter 2, “Planning a Project” (pp. 39–57)Coplan, S., & Masuda, D. (2011). Project management for healthcare information technology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Chapter 5, “Change Management” (pp. 193–237)Project Management Institute. (2013). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK guide) (5th ed.). Newtown Square, PA: Author. Chapter 3, “Project Management Processes” (pp. 47–61)
Change Management

Gender Studies homework help

Gender Studies homework help. This is paper that is requiring the student to investigate the Strategy implementation and monitoring for a company. The paper also provides additional information to use in the writing of the assignment paper. Below is the assignment overview to read:,Strategy implementation and monitoring for a company,STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING, Assignment Overview,In the Module 4 Case, we will investigate the control systems at the Coca-Cola Company.,Case Assignment,Visit the website of the Coca-Cola Company: http://www.coca-colacompany.com/, and go to the Investors page. Look around at this page (there is a lot of excellent information here), and search for information related to the organization’s structure and controls. Then, locate the company’s most recent Annual Reports and 10-K filings. After completing some research at Coke’s website, in the library, and on the internet, please address the following:,Firstly, describe the organizational structure at the Coca-Cola Company (what form of structure does the company have?). Include any information you can find regarding the company’s Board of Directors and the company’s committees., Secondly, describe the organization’s culture. How well does the company’s Values statement align with its culture?, Thirdly, do some research at the Coca-Cola Company website and in the library (be sure to look at trade magazines and newspapers as well) and find as much information concerning the company’s control systems as you can (budgets, inventory control, annual objectives, functional strategies, policies and procedures, personnel evaluation systems, or other). Describe these controls, and also discuss how they assist in keeping Coca-Cola’s strategies on-track., In the Module 3 Case, you identified a grand strategy (or grand strategies) that the company should follow. Do the ,company’s organizational structure,, culture, and control systems align well with this strategy? Explain.,Assignment Expectations,Your Case Assignment should be a minimum of 5 pages in length.,You are required to use APA formatting and you are required to cite and reference your sources.  There should be a minimum of three (3) reputable sources cited and referenced in your paper (your sources must be different from the sources provided you in the Background materials).,Please make sure you review the assignment rubric prior to writing your assignment.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Gender Studies homework help

Team Communication, Unit 5 – Individual Project help

custom writing service Team Communication, Unit 5 – Individual Project help.

Unit 5 – Individual Project Collapse Assignment Overview & “Go To” LinksAssignment OverviewType: Individual ProjectUnit: Team Communication and Problem SolvingDue Date: Wed, 6/21/17Grading Type: NumericPoints Possible: 250Points Earned: 0Deliverable Length: Final power point presentation 10-15 slides (excluding title and reference slides) and speaker notesView objectives for this assignmentGo To:Assignment DetailsScenarioLearning MaterialsReading AssignmentMy Work:Online Deliverables: SubmissionsLooking for tutoring? Go to SmarthinkingCollapse All | Expand AllAssignment Details Assignment DescriptionThe intention of the Key Assignment is for you to apply the concepts of this course as it relates to advice on building an effective team.You will assume the role of “management consultant” (one who is hired from outside the organization—to remain objective—to analyze, strategize, investigate, and make suggestions on how to improve return on investment [ROI], production, efficiency, or make a team more effective [that is the one you will undertake]). You will use the slides that you already created in the P3 and P4 IPs to create a seamless, professional PowerPoint presentation that is to be presented to the organization’s management with the intention of giving critical analysis and strategy to make the improvements in the team.Combine the presentation you developed from Phase 3 and Phase 4 into a single team development presentation. Using all of your materials from phase 3 and 4 (assignments), review all of the comments and recommendations provided from your instructor and peers to help you finalize your presentation. Include all of the following items in your final submission:Make revisions to your power point presentation based on their suggestionsMake sure all information gaps are covered and explained in detailMake sure the language and wording are consistent and clear in the presentationMake sure the slides are in sequence and easy to follow for your audienceMake sure that the format and design of your slides are consistent throughout the presentationIdentify presentation topics that can be combined into a single slide for transparencyExclude any materials that are overlapping or repeated to shorten contentYou must include a minimum of 8 scholarly references.Please submit your assignment.For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials.
Team Communication, Unit 5 – Individual Project help

bonus question!

bonus question!.

Respond to the questions and attach the written response as a file. Due at the end of Week 15 for up to 50 bonus points. See the rubric for grading in the upper right hand side of the screen in the drop down menu.Post must be 250 words minimum-350 words maximum.Post word count at the end of your post.No headings or titlesDemonstrate your knowledge of the assigned websiteAll material must be in your own words.No direct quotes over 1.5 sentences.Two direct quotes maximum.Upload as a file. This will be checked for plagiarismShow me you viewed the entire excerpt from the diary.Your responses to each of the questions answered should be different.Offer different illustrations and examples as your respond to each question.Mary Chesnut’s diaryCrisis at Fort Sumter with backgroundhttp://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/april-12th-diary-entry-of.html Guidelines:Use only this primary sourceDo not use your text or outside sources. Do not a paper on accomplishments of women or all women and the war. You are to analyze this document as an illustration on how the war impacted women.1) What is the historical context or setting of the document? Include the specific date or time period of the source2) How did the coming of the war impact the women discussed in the document? How did it change their lives? Did you notice a different role played by women compared to the men in the document?3) How did reading this primary source aid your understanding of how the start of the war impacted women? Do you think reading a source written by women offers a different perspective on events?Use specifics from the document to answer the questions.Source : Mary Chesnut’s diary The link gives background on Mary Chesnut and the excerpt from her diary. Fort Sumter National MonumentPoints50
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NJIT Role of Control in Influencing the Performance of Athletes Anointed Bibliography

NJIT Role of Control in Influencing the Performance of Athletes Anointed Bibliography.

General Instructions: This assignment requires you to build on your chosen topic for Term Paper Part A by researching the topic further and selecting at least four primary research articles to compile an annotated bibliography. The assignment includes writing each articles’ reference in APA format, summarize the introduction, state the importance of the paper, general overview of the method, summary of the results, summary of the conclusions, and the annotation. Doing this assignment shows that you (a) read each source, (b) thought critically about how each fits within your term paper topic, (c) the overall quality of the studies. This also makes it easier to see how articles fit together, which makes integrating them simpler. An annotated bibliography should include summaries of:

NJIT Role of Control in Influencing the Performance of Athletes Anointed Bibliography