Church of the Sagrada Familia | Architecture Analysis. Apertures of Ascension: Style and Design in the Sagrada Familia by Antoni Gaudi The church of the Sagrada Familia, perhaps more than any of Gaudi’s earlier works, expresses his belief that a ‘mystic symbolism inhabits the form of architecture.’ (Schmutzler 1962, 212). The church was a lifetime commission and remained uncompleted upon his death in 1926 – a reflection of the ambition and scale of the project. It has been described as the most important ecclesiastic building since the late eighteenth century (Schmultzer 1962, 227) with its most poignant features being the rich decoration and towers with their Expressionist shape and form. On the approach the eye is caught by the spindle-shaped towers ascending to differing heights. They were designed to represent the twelve Apostles, the Evangelists, Mary, with the tallest representing Jesus. One is immediately aware of the importance of verticality in Gaudi’s design – both in the exterior and interior. The towers are yet to be completed, with work currently underway on constructing the tower of Jesus. However, the finished towers are strikingly tapered, standing proud against the skyline. Gaudi was a great believer in the importance of spiritual meaning in architecture and this is reflected in the placing of a symbol of each apostle on the highest point of each tower – on the meeting place between the sky and the extent of the structure. The towers are decorated with “Hosanna”, “Excelsis”, and “Sanctus”, and the doors of the Passion façade reproduce words from the Bible in different languages. Yet the placing of the symbols in such a prominent position is paramount here as it suggests that a language of symbols, without words, is the ultimate form of communication between man and God. In the model of the Sagrada Familia (see below) we see the tower of Jesus bearing the symbol of the cross – itself pointed and finite: Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_familia This image of the structure tapering to a single point, with all its supporting towers, illustrates Gaudi’s belief in the human effort to have faith in the single, omnipotent presence of God. This sense is conveyed upon entering the church when one becomes fully aware of the monumental scale of the structure and the diversity of forms which are incorporated into the design. Gaudi wanted to disassociate himself from the Gothic features of existing cathedrals, such as Chartres, where flying buttresses and external buttresses are an expected feature. The interior arches are thus not common in western architectural tradition and use non-circular shapes, called ‘parabolic’ or ‘catenary.’ (Huerta 2006: 324). The arches of the interior and the towers of the exterior both seek the same lines of ascension. Furthermore, there is a twofold sense of the infinite in both the interior and exterior design: firstly, the fact that the plans – for both inside and outside – have still not yet been executed illustrates how Gaudi’s ideas transcended the timeframe in which he had to work – and might even exceed the 100th anniversary of his death. Secondly, it is evident that Gaudi wanted the finished Sagrada Familia to be a structure of indefinite permanence – this can be seen in his use of weight bearing columns instead of flying buttresses. He refused to use the gothic buttresses, stating that they were akin to the ‘crutches of a cripple.’ http://www.gaudiclub.com/ingles/i_vida/i_sagr2.asp. Furthermore, the fact that his buttresses were inside the building was imperative to him, as they avoided being subjected to the elements, which would have accelerated their deterioration and threatened the building’s permanence. There is perhaps even a symbolic meaning to this inclusion of the buttresses: it might suggest that spiritual strength in a human being – as well as a building – is internal and people should look within themselves for the way to communicate with God and not to others, or the material world. The Sangara Familia appears from the outside as a slender, insurmountable form, with the towers having an organic texture, like that of a honeycomb or wattle. This might be Gaudi suggesting that the natural world is imbued with spiritual importance – with features such as the honeycomb – having an intrinsic place within God’s design. As it has been said of Gaudi’s work, ‘artifice is made to resemble nature and nature to resemble artifice; contradictions are harmonized; planes, lines and intersections are constrained; the subtle and the hazy are cast in bronze and set in stone; music is injected into the solid, colour into the air, and even soul into mathematics. (Cassou et al 1962, 23). This tendency of Gaudi’s to decorate and design using natural imagery is continued in the interior with a richness of decoration and the inclusion of spiral staircases in the apse and bell towers. In the windows of the apse there are many features which are inspired from nature, and are enhanced by light and shade contrasts. http://www.sagradafamilia.org/eng/index.htm. The subtle play on light in the interior is developed more expressively on the extravagant and diverse exterior facades, where the Nativity spires have colourful textured surfaces made of Gaudi’s technique of using mosaic tiles and broken Venetian glass. Figures of an emancipated Christ are juxtaposed against this rich decoration. Indeed, Gaudi has been described as not just an architect, but as a sculptor too, possessing the ‘ability to imbue structures with sculptural qualities, to conceive of architecture as a large shape that can be experienced tactually.’ (Collins 1962, 10). Yet his techniques differ considerably from one part of the church to the next. In the inner façade of the transept we see geometrically pure, rectangular, rectilinear, or cubic forms (Schmutzler1962:,227), radically different to the prismatic external towers. It is as if he wanted his building to be prophetic, to see beyond the time of which it was born to the more dynamic eras ahead. This is reflected in his diverse style and his intention for the building to be illuminated at night to ‘proclaim the Almighty God.’ (Collins et al 1962, 161). He thus gave the spires openings where searchlights were to be installed, focusing on a huge cross on the central cupola and on the street below, reflecting his wish that the building’s presence could be felt and seen by all those in its vicinity, and for a long time to come. Bibliography Cassou, J., Langui, E., Pevsner, N., 1962, Gateway to the Twentieth Century: Art and Culture in a Changing World. New York: McGraw-Hill Crasemann Collins, C, ( transltr), Christiane Crasemann; Conrads, U., and Sperlich, H.G., 1962, The Architecture of Fantasy: Utopian Building and Planning in Modern Times. New York: Frederick A. Praeger Huerta, S., 2006, ‘Structural Design in the Work of Gaudi.’ Architectural Science Review. Volume: 49. Issue: 4. P. 324 . University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture Schmutzler, R., 1962, Art Nouveau. New York: Harry N. Abrams URL’S Antoni Gaudi Website. Available from: http://www.gaudiclub.com/ingles/i_vida/i_sagr2.asp [Accessed 06/03/07] Online Encyclopaedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_familia [Accessed 06/03/07] Sagrada Familia information pages. Available from: http://www.sagradafamilia.org/eng/index.htm. [Accessed 06/03/07] Church of the Sagrada Familia | Architecture Analysis
Summary of Continuous and Stage CMMI Evaluation Essay. The history of CMMI is based on CMM that originated from a study by the Air Force, which was meant for software subcontractors (Kasse 12). The primary intention was to measure the development of software applied in the maturity of the process. The CMMI model identifies the levels of the process maturity of the organization (Land and Walz 12). These levels include the initial level which entails the starting use of the process, repeatable where the process is repeated, defined and involve the definition of the process and the confirmation of the standard business process, managed which entails the management and the measurement and optimizing level which includes the deliberate process improvement. CMMI as process-improvement model is meant to provide the best practices that address the issue of productivity, performance, and cost besides ensuring that stakeholders are satisfied. What is CMMI CMMI is an acronym for Capability Maturity Model, which is a process development approach whose aim is to assist organizations advance their performance. As a process, it provides organizations with basic elements of efficient processes that are aimed at improving their performance. CMMI helps incorporate traditionally detached organizational roles as it helps improve the targets besides providing direction in quality processes (Kasse 47). The CMMI project was developed with an aim of improving the use of maturity models by way of integrating diverse model framework (diagram 9). Currently, there are two representations; that is, the continuous and the stage, and the deference. Between the two representations, the continuous representation allows users to focus the specific course, which is considered critical for the organizations immediate objectives as well as those objectives that the organization considers being at a higher risk (Land and Walz 32). On the other hand, the staged representation allows straightforward movement from the SW-SMM to CMMI. Therefore, CMMI model varies depending on the area of interest. Usually, there are three major areas of interest, including Acquisition, Services and Development. A Brief Critical Summary of the Continuous and Staged CMMI The critical summary of staged and Continuous Representation requires a proper understanding of each of these representations and being in a position to clearly point out the advantages and the disadvantage of each representation. The stage and the continuous representation are the same in terms of the content. However, they are organized differently (Chrissis and Shrum13). The representation permits the individual organization to practice different development objectives, therefore, presenting model components differently (Dogru and Bicar 39). The capability levels apply to an organization’s process improvement achievement in every Process Area (P.A). The improvement areas are characterized relative to the Process Area Individual (Kasse 67). It is worth noting that in both representations, the substance is nearly identical. This raises the question of why there are two different representations yet the representation of each model was different. The CMM software is staged while the SE-CMM, SECM is continuous (Land and Walz 78). The continuous representation has a maximum flexibility for prioritizing process improvements and aligning them with the business objectives (Siviy and Stoddard 47). The Staged representation on the other hand proves the path and uses the case study and ROI Data, thus, it reduces the guesswork (Dogru and Bicar 27). This is explained by the mechanism of having the Quick Wins being easily defined to increase Buy-In. It also increases the focus on risks specific for each process area. The Staged representation on its part focuses on the organizational improvement (Ahern and Turner 14). The Continuous representation is also known for improving the process area at different rates, which in circumstances may require less upfront investment (Dogru and Bicar 12). The staged representation on its part summarizes the overall results in a maturity level and also provides the familiar benchmarking capability where it uses qualified bidders. The continuous representation on its part upgrades from SE-CMM and SECM, while the staged representation upgrades from SW-CMM. In both cases, the upgrading process is usually easier (Catlin and Jana 20). A Discussion of Criteria of Choice There are values that one should consider while adopting either a continuous or staged system. The formal appraisal should give an organization an idea of the maturity of the processes and help to create a roadmap for improvement. The organization should, therefore, adapt a model that suits their needs and the objectives of the organization. A good model should, therefore, help improve the efforts of the organization and should also creation and achievement of development objectives (Ahern and Turner 45). In addition, it helps the company create a common idiom that facilitates cross-organization operation and communication. Thus, one should consider a model that best integrates the framework of the organization (Land and Walz 89). The model can also help the organization understand the specific performance practices and, therefore, improve its capability and the future practices. How an Organization Might Best Select an Appropriate Model for its Use Both the staged and continuous representations provide the same content. However, each is shown in its unique way. For this reason, an organization should choose a representation is best fit for its business objectives, cultural practices and heritage (Catlin and Jana 35). In certain cases, it may be necessary for a company to adopt a mix and match. Usually it comes with a continuous implementation of the staged process, staged implementation and continuous appraisal. The staged representation represents an excellent path for companies that are transitioning from SW-CMM to CMMI, also an organization that is doing business with government organizations that require maturity level for procurements (Ahern and Turner 72). An organization is not familiar with the dependencies among process areas, which means that the guess-work in the process improvement is reduced by the predefined set of the process area at every maturity level (Catlin and Jana 41). The equivalence staging is meant to allow comparison of the results from both representations. Small companies should also embrace the CMMI and focus on improving their areas of known business analysis. Implementation of the specific process area without overriding aim level makes the use of the model more meaningful for the small business. Therefore, CMMI can be used in areas of an organization that adds much value to the organization and its products by improving activity of services where they are needed most (Land and Walz 21). The Role of System Integration in the CMMI System integration of the CMMI is useful to the organization as it helps the company understands how the CMMI address the Business Objectives. The integration also helps the organization to identify the specific areas of the company that needs improvement. The CMMI integration also helps a company that may have limited budget as it does not require much for the improvement of the CMMI process. The CMMI is also critical as it helps the organization to appreciate the process area relationships. The organization also stands to benefit from quick wins as the procurement process favors an organization with CMMI (Catlin and Jana 52). How Integration Issues are Dealt With at The Selection Level, Product Level, Process Level, and at The System Management Level Affecting Organizations and Humans. At the product level, product integration assembles the product mechanism and ensures that the same performs and delivers the product (Mutafelija and Strongberg 15). The process management takes place at level 3. It has organized training that develops the skills and knowledge of the human beings so that they can perform their individual roles effectively (Chrissis and Shrum71). The project control gives a clear understanding of the progress. This informs the appropriation of the right actions that should be affected should the performance of the project deviate from the path. Process management areas quantitatively manage the project and ensure that it performs its objectives as specified. The project management requires the product and product components to be aligned with the requirements of the project plan (Catlin and Jana 67). Speculation on what a Lead Systems Integrator that CMMI Might look like The question of what a lead system integrator on how CMMI might look like is a difficult one as the issue of determining how deeply the CMMI adoption within an organization is still not clear. However, with the increasing usage, the degree of visibility within the social subsystem increases. With time, the members of the organization should engage in the activities of CMMI. Works Cited Ahern, Dennis and Richards Turne. CMMI Distilled: A Practical Introduction to Integrated Process Improvement. New York: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2008. Print. Catlin, Katherine and Mathews Jana. Leading at the Speed of Growth: Journey from Entrepreneur to CEO. New York: Wiley Publishers, 2001. Print. Chrissis, Mary and Sanday Shrum. CMMI: Guidelines for process integration and product improvement. California: Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003. Print Dogru, Ali and Veli Bicar. Modern Software Engineering Concepts and Practices: Advance Approaches. Washington, GI Global, 2001. Print. Kasse, Tim. Practical Insight into CMMI. New York: Artech House, 2008. Print. Land, Susan and John Walz. Practical Support for CMMI-SW Software Project Documentation uses IEEE Software Engineering. New York: Wily-IEEE Publishers, 2005. Print. Mutafelija, Boris and Harvey Strongberg. Systematic Process Improvement Using ISO 9001:2000 and CMMI. New York: Artech House, 2003. Print. Siviy, Joe and Robert Stoddard. CMMI and Six Sigma: Partners in Process Improvement. New York: Addison-Wesley, 2008. Print. Summary of Continuous and Stage CMMI Evaluation Essay
Leadership vs. Management
Leadership vs. Management. I’m working on a Management exercise and need support.
Write a three to four page paper (not including the title and references pages) that:
Defines leadership and management.
Defends or criticizes the view that leadership and management are different concepts.
Gives specific examples that support your position.
Discusses the implications of your general leadership views.
In addition to the requirements above, your paper:
Must be double-spaced and 12 point font
Must be formatted according to APA style
Must include an introductory paragraph with a thesis statement
Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph
Must reference at least two scholarly resources
Must include a reference page written in APA format
Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.) for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.
Leadership vs. Management
Private and Public Self: A Comparison of Identities
best essay writers Private and Public Self: A Comparison of Identities. Private self is the information regarding to a person which he/she has difficulties to express publicly. Public self is the perspective other people view an individual as portrayed in public information, interaction with others and public action. Generally, public self relies on the public for definition but it’s also the individual’s perspective of the way he/she appears and steps taken when in public. Mostly, public self and private self is revealed in speaking and actions. Private and public speaking is generally feared almost by everybody. Some people will avoid public speaking at all costs. Sometimes, the avoidance may lead to missing a great chance to make an impression which is good and/ or long-lasting, opportunity to sell their product or themselves. Development of authentic speaking has made it easy for the improvement of the way people come across, and reduction of the people’s feeling of fear before and during their presentation. Authentic speaking defers from other approaches since it doesn’t inculcate any other methodology or technique to the individual and the learning involves experience. Authentic speaking gets the individual to meditate on what he or she is thinking before speaking. Once the speaker opens their mouth to speak, he/she should be relaxed, comfortable and in a good mental state. Therefore, thorough preparation and mental awareness of the speaker’s own talk is paramount. In order for the individual to feel better and prepared for the task ahead, he/she should acknowledge the “script” and then rewrite it. This is due to the fact that the task (talk) has a profound impact on how the individual will feel. Physical posture is also necessary in creating confidence in a presenter. The presenter may adopt an upright and proud posture, but not trying to hide from the audience. Mostly, the reason as to why people fear public and private speaking is due to self-consciousness. Self-consciousness refers to an acute sense of self awareness. It is opposed to the philosophical definition of self-awareness since it is a pre-occupation with one’ self, the awareness that an individual being exists. An individual may have an unpleasant feeling of self-consciousness when he/she comes to know that other people are watching or observing him/her. The unpleasant feeling of self-consciousness is occasionally paired with paranoia or shyness. When an individual is self-conscious, he/she becomes aware of his/her own actions no matter how small they are. A person’s ability to perform complex actions can be impaired by such awareness. a person may be shy or introverted if he/she has a chronic tendency towards self-consciousness. Being excessively conscious of a person’s appearance or manner is at times problematic. Shyness and embarrassment, where the result is low self-esteem and lack of pride can be paired with self-consciousness. During high self-consciousness period, people come to the closest understanding themselves objectively, and this has potential to have impact on development of identity. The impact of self-consciousness has varying degree in people since; some are self-involved or constantly self-monitoring while others are quite and totally oblivious about themselves. Private self-consciousness is a norm to examine or introspect one’s inner self and feelings, while public self-consciousness is self-awareness resulting from other people’s views. Both types of self-consciousness are objectively personality traits which are considerably stable over time though there is no correlation between them. Public self-consciousness may lead to social anxiety and self-monitoring. Behavior is affected by various levels of self-consciousness since it is normal for people to act differently if they “lose themselves in crowd”. This can result to an inhibited and regularly destructive behavior. Different people have varying tendencies of self-disclosure. Self-disclosure is the means of communication where a person reveals himself/herself to another. It includes all that an individual choses to disclose to the other person about him/herself, to make him/her known. The information can be evaluative or descriptive and can comprise of aspirations, feelings, thoughts, successes, fears, failures, dreams, goals, as well as one’s favorites and dislikes. As social penetration theory poses, there are two self-disclosure dimensions which are breadth and depth. These dimensions are essential in developing a relationship which is fully intimate (Modell, 1993). Breadth disclosure is the range of topics which two individuals discuss while depth disclosure is the degree to which the revealed information is private or personal. Breadth disclosure is easier to be expressed first in a relationship since it has more accessible features which comprise layers of personality and daily lives such as preferences and occupations. It is considerably difficult to reach depth disclosure since its inner location comprises of painful memories and traits we keep secret from most people. Intimacy relies much upon self-disclosure which is expected to be reciprocal and appropriate. Assessment of self-disclosure can be done through analysis of costs and rewards. During early relational development is where most self-disclosure takes place but more intimate disclosure comes later. As social penetration theory poses, development of a relationship is relative to systematic changes in communication. Generally, relationships start with exchange of superficial information and eventually move to conversations which are more meaningful. It is essential to increase breadth and depth of a conversation if partners need to develop a more intimate relationship. Conversations between partners usually begin with “small talk” which provides little revelation about the speaker’s information. It reaches the intimate level where the breadth and depth of the conversation increases and more personal details are revealed till it reaches the very intimate level where couples share extremely private information. Development of intimacy in relationships can only develop if both parties reciprocate disclosures. If only one partner reveals more intimate details while the other continues to disclose superficial information only, intimacy will not develop. The reciprocity process needs to be gradual and partners should match the intimacy level of the disclosures. Revelation of too personal information too soon causes an imbalance in the relationship and therefore making the other person uncomfortable. The gradual process differs from relationship to relationship and may depend on the communication partner. Reciprocity is the positive response from a person with whom one is sharing information. It can be described by three theories which are: norm of reciprocity, social exchange theory and the social attraction-trust hypothesis. The norm of reciprocity poses that reciprocating disclosure is a social norm and failure to adhere to it makes a person uncomfortable. The social exchange theory states that people try to maintain equality in disclosing themselves since an imbalance in self-disclosure makes them uncomfortable. Social attraction-trust hypothesis states that people disclose themselves to one another since they have the belief that the person who they disclose the information to, likes and trusts them. There are two types of reciprocity which are extended reciprocity and turn-taking reciprocity. The extended reciprocity is where disclosure takes place over a period of time while turn-taking reciprocity is when there is immediate self-disclosure between partners. Disclosure and responsiveness form the key components for intimacy. The range of topics which individuals disclose (breadth) also varies in different cultures. For example, people from the American culture tend to reveal more personal topics like relationships, body, finances and other issues concerning their health and personality than any other cultures. This is not the case when it comes to individuals from the Japanese culture. The Japanese are very conservative and mostly don’t reveal their personal issues to the public. Also, the degree of how personal the topics to be reveled are also varies across different cultures. These include feelings, thoughts and also more impersonal topics like hobbies and interests. Some individuals prefer not to reveal their feelings and private thoughts while holding conversations as they feel that this will make them seem vulnerable or insecure. The negative or positive aspect of the topic to be revealed is also an important factor that also varies in different cultures. For example a person participating in a debate may feel that revealing a real life event that took place and had a negative effect on them may help them prove their point. However, this person may end up hurt as their opponent may not get this and may also end up using the fact to their own advantage. The individuals that tend to reveal more personal issues than others undergo more psychological problems. When establishing a relationship, there is a time period that one takes before they can fully disclose to the other. Individuals from cultures that are more conservative tend to withhold much information until they feel that the relationship has grown and they can trust the other party. Revelation of too much personal information before the relationship has grown is considered inappropriate, some other cultures however, disclosure is done after a very short period of time. The target party, to whom an individual discloses themselves, is also an important factor that is considered in many communities. For example, spouses trust each other hence, they self-disclose almost everything. Some consider the age of the target and what topics are appropriate to disclose to them. According to Alder and Proctor (2007), self-disclosure is important and at the same time it can have unfavorable outcomes. For instance, self-disclosure can help strengthen the relationship between two individuals by improving the trust between the two. It can also increase one’s influence over the other individuals and can also be used as a way of bringing out the good qualities in an individual. At the same time self-disclosure may reflect vulnerability in one’ self and may also make the other party develop a negative attitude towards the relationship leading to its termination. There are various factors to consider before a person decides to self-disclose. Sometimes, disclosure of information can be harmful than helpful. The discloser must weigh if the probable benefits level the risk. Self-disclosure is most useful when used constructively and when revealing relevant information in reasonable amounts to a person who reciprocates with their own disclosures equally. It is also crucial to reveal information that could probably save someone from harm or to help them. References Adler, R.B.,Private and Public Self: A Comparison of Identities
US History: Colonizing the New World
US History: Colonizing the New World.
1. Describe Bacon’s Rebellion. Be sure to include the causes, outcomes, and overall significance of the Rebellion within your response. Response must be at least 200 words and you are required to use the book Out of Many Vol. 1 A History of the American People Custom Edition, taken from: Out of Many: A History of the American PEople, Vol 1 Fifth Edition by: John Mack Faragher, Mari Jo Buhle, Daniel Czitrom, and Susan H. Armitage2. The African slave trade held economic benefits for both the countries of Europe and the colonies of the Americas. However, the effects of the trade on Africa were far from beneficial. What effects did the trade have on Africa, and how did these effects weaken the economic, social, and political structure of that continent? Response must be at least 200 words and you are required to use the book Out of Many Vol. 1 A History of the American People Custom Edition, taken from: Out of Many: A History of the American PEople, Vol 1 Fifth Edition by: John Mack Faragher, Mari Jo Buhle, Daniel Czitrom, and Susan H. Armitage
US History: Colonizing the New World
The project involves studying the IT infrastructure of a relevant information system (IS)/ information technology (IT) used by wipro
The project involves studying the IT infrastructure of a relevant information system (IS)/ information technology (IT) used by wipro.
The project involves studying the IT infrastructure of a relevant information system (IS)/ information technology (IT) used by wiproIt must be STC company7 Analysis of Existing System .Analyze the key problems of the existing system used by the company. Also discuss the Information Systems used within the company for example:Transaction processing systems (TPS)Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SystemsFunctional Area Information SystemsBusiness intelligenceDSS8 Possible Solutions and Suggestions for the companyWhat are your suggestions to help the organization in solving the key problems.9 ConclusionSummarize your reportGuidelines for the assignment:Use font Times New Roman, 12 font sizeUse 1.5 line spacing with adjust to all paragraphs (alignment).Use the footer function to insert page number.Ensure that you follow the APA style in your project and references.The minimum number of required references is 3.Your project report length part 2 should be between 1250 to 1500 words.Follow the solution file for part 1 with attachments
The project involves studying the IT infrastructure of a relevant information system (IS)/ information technology (IT) used by wipro