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Choosing Your Friends Over Qualified Candidates Riveras Study Discussion

Choosing Your Friends Over Qualified Candidates Riveras Study Discussion.

In your memo, please answer the following questions. 1) In Rivera’s study, what criteria do elite firms use to hire their employees?2) Do the criteria promote meritocracy (reward systems based on one’s ability and achievement) or inequality (reward system based on privilege and discrimination)? Explain your position with evidence from the article.When you include direct quotes or rephrase specific ideas from the article, please indicate the specific page number(s) where you can find the quotes/ideas in parenthesisYour memo will be evaluated based on the following criteria:1) In response to the first question, the memo demonstrates a good understanding of the key ideas in the reading (3pts).2) In response to the second question, the memo states a position (1pt) and offers an explanation of the position (3 pts) using appropriate evidence from the article (2 pts).3) Appropriate heading and file name (1pt).Total: 10 Points
Choosing Your Friends Over Qualified Candidates Riveras Study Discussion

critical thinking.

I’m working on a writing discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Your response to two students: Remember to address the comment to that person’s name in your post. These responses must be at least 200 words each and are due before midnight on Sunday on two different days. You may agree or disagree with the post on which you are commenting. What do you think of the position they posted? Did they present an objective viewpoint?*Remember, when responding to others do not judge. Simply state your position, backed by the evidence you found.Dominique CrispCritical thinking is the analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist, which generally include the rational, skeptical, unbiased analysis, or evaluation of factual evidence.Critical thinking is important because it produces Good decision-making. Decision-making is important because it affects life around you: school, work, family, finances, etc. having an education is the best success you can ever have in life and a goal to accomplish.The key critical thinking skills are analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, self-regulation, open-mindedness, and problem-solving The skills that we need in order to be able to think critically are varied and include observation, analysis, interpretation, reflection, evaluation, inference, explanation, problem-solving, and decision making. Specifically, we need to be able to: Think about a topic or issue in an objective and critical way. A triage nurse analyzes the cases at hand and decides the order by which the patients should be treated. A plumber evaluates the materials that would best suit a particular job. An attorney reviews the evidence and devises a strategy to win a case or to decide whether to settle out of court. these are prime examples of critical thinking. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.Angel De JesusEveryday thinking is the constant process of producing thought on a daily basis. On the other side, critical thinking is the conjunction of skills used for the personal (Boss, 2017, p.6). Critical thinking involves using analytical skills to provide proper support and evaluate your argument or others; Furthermore, it requires understanding while gathering support or evidence for an argument or research (Boss, 2017, p.9). Furthermore, the person has to be open-minded while remaining skeptical towards any side of an argument; thus, being able to make creative solutions for the task at hand (Boss, 2017, p.10). To the point of making actual contingency plans for any future problems that may appear down the line. As a result, critical thinking has developed to become an important skill that is being sought in work (Boss, 2017, p.10). By the first-hand experience, I have witnessed that employers have actually sought critical thinkers. Rather than looking for an employee that follows the same process and is dependent on the manager, they look for employees who actually are open to situations and able to solve them while still being efficient on the clock. Employees that contribute to the success of companies. Meanwhile, philosophy is the reasoning of what is right and wrong or a person’s value. Which it is important since it shows the values or rule that the person follows in his life. On the other side, critical thinking is referred to as philosophy since critical thinking helps us acquire knowledge. Thus, helping us strengthen our knowledge and values. Furthermore, it could be also referred to as philosophy due to its goals.Furthermore, Watson mentions, “The primary subject matter of critical thinking is the proper use and goals of a range of reasoning methods, how they are applied in a variety of social contexts, and errors in reasoning” (Watson, n/d). Thus, resulting in how a person acts in a social context.Word count:316
critical thinking

Since television has born, it has already become the most useful media tools among others over many years. Most of the convention company thinks that featuring a television advertising campaign may reflect their company’s brand or status at a prestige level. The Advantages Television advertisement is a tool that provides high frequency potential where in a day a single advertisement can reach millions of viewers instantly. This is because television is the highest reach of other kinds of media since each house own a television. Furthermore, television also offers advertisers the most extensive coverage compare to other media. The Disadvantages Television advertisement may be a good tool to reach millions of people but the cost for an advertisement is high. High cost probably comes from the production cost because commercials usually need more time, idea and resources to produce it. Therefore, creating a commercial is expensive. 1.0.2 Radio Radio is not as effective as television and it is more difficult to attract more potential consumers because mostly people only focus on listening to the music rather than advertisement. Meanwhile, the most effective way to transmit the message from an advertisement is when a driver stuck in the middle of the traffic. At the same time, many smaller local companies use radio advertising because the cost of creating a radio advertisement are less costly compare to television. The Advantages Mostly radio advertisers help the listener to store the message easily. Method such as repeating the advertisement can successfully helps the listener to remember it. From time to time, the more the listener stay on the radio, the message will goes deeply into the person mindset and soon from short-term to become long-term memory. Adding sound effect in the advertisement may effectively help consumers to well so every time they heard the sound they may recall back to the advertisement. The Disadvantages Radio advertisements have few chances to reach national audience because there is only a short exposure time of transmitting the message. Usually an advertisement is about 15 to 30 seconds. Most of the times listener involved in other activities such as working, paying attention on driving or just using radio as a restaurant or shops background music to provide their customers a nice and comfortable environment. Therefore, most of them will not pay much attention or skip the advertisement part. 1.0.3 Outdoor Advertising Commonly some companies will use billboards to advertise along the side of the highway in Malaysia. Other than that, banners outside a restaurant, on public transportation and even hanging on the pillars under the flyover also an example of outdoor advertising. The Advantages An outdoor advertisement is an effective way to transmit message towards large group of people. For local companies, these advertisement is an efficient way to transmit the message to their local target because usually local audience able to see them everywhere. The location of setting up these advertisements will affect the outcome such as placing nearby a restaurant, inside cities area, hanging on tall buildings, railway station and amusement park. The Disadvantages The major drawback of an outdoor advertising is short exposure of time. When the advertisement is set by the road side, drivers may only have a quick look on it. They cannot get the full message from the advertisement unless they stop their car. 1.0.4 Magazines In old days, advertise in magazines is also a best way to transmit information towards target audience. Advertise in different magazine allow to target to different consumers according to demographic and lifestyles. The Advantages Magazines advertisements often provide high-quality color on the pictures. Colors and images can attract attention because mostly people love to look at colorful things instead all with words. Besides that, the main function of magazines is to allow readers to read it during leisure time. With viewing colors and images, it can benefit in relaxing themselves like reducing stress after a working day yet they may have longer time to go through with advertisement. The Disadvantages Due to high-quality color in every magazine, the cost of production and printing is way higher compare to newspaper. Therefore, the magazine advertisement prices are also expensive because advertiser needs to generate more idea and time to advertise it in different magazine and different target. If some advertisement target to two consumer, it may effectively target to children in child magazines but if the same idea advertise in adult magazine, the outcome will be different and that’s why advertiser need to create another advertisement to focus on their parents. 1.0.5 Newspapers Newspaper has been centuries as a role of transmitting local, nation and global news to the public. Newspaper is a best tool to advertise because the price greatly cheaper compare to others and it is distributed on daily basis. The Advantages Local sellers rely heavily on newspaper advertisement because this is the only tool that targets more on locals. The key factor that advertises in newspaper is that you can list our all your information like promoting sales, business retail hours, and physical store location in a single page yet the price is cheaper than magazine. The Disadvantages Newspapers advertisement also have a shorten lifespan like as outdoor advertising. Normally a person will set the newspaper aside once they finish reading it. Normally a person will not re-read second time on any information unless the object or article able to attract the reader. Therefore, pass by advertisement will remain unnoticeable if it fails to attract the reader. 1.1 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Non-Traditional Media Tools 1.1.1 E-Mail Newsletters E-mail newsletters can be an excellent way to build brand awareness to the public. Newsletters can be subscribed in some branded company web site. The newsletter must be in a form of addressing offers value to the subscribers. Besides that, some company will corporate together so they can share the newsletter by adding in their own advertisement together with their partner’s advertisement. The Advantages E-mail newsletter is near instant delivery compare to printing newspaper and magazine. The company can share and send the e-mail to their customers at any time they want. Meanwhile, the company may also send the newsletter to multiple customers just in few clicks time. Hence, recipient can forward the news easily to their friends and family if the offer given by the company is beneficial. The Disadvantages The actual deliverability to the recipients can be low due to SPAM filters or e-mail address changes. Nowadays, there are many potential hackers in the web. To prevent and protect customer’s privacy, many e-mail browsers using advance filter technology to filter incoming message. So whenever the mail browsers detect something suspicious inside the newsletter, it will automatically direct it into the junk box. 1.1.2 Blogs Some company use web logs to promote their products. A blog advertise can be effective when spreading positive work-of-mouth communications. Meanwhile, using a blog is easier to check the company’s news or process and the content mostly will be updated regularly compare to a weekly or monthly e-mail newsletters. The Advantages Company blogs provide an easy access to company news. By doing so, they encourage their customers to view their blogs frequently because some company will regularly update their latest product, upcoming events and latest promotions. Hence, a company that shows their latest detail will gain loyalty from existing customers. The Disadvantages When a blog that dealing with transaction, small local business company may face difficulties with it. If the company is branded, customers will spend more time on the blogs page to browse what they looking for and they can make payment securely because usually well-know company allow people to feel more reliable and secure. In other words, when a small local business company with a least well-know brand, customer’s confidence level towards the company will not as much as branded company. 1.1.3 Online Advertising Since 1990s, online advertising have increased steadily. Due to the power of internet, marketers think that online advertising is the newest and highly effective method to reach consumers. Types of online advertising are popup, web banner, media feed or video advertisement. The Advantages Online advertising can allow advertisers to reach significantly more people than traditional advertising media in a shorter time. Advertisement can be more targeted than some traditional media because there are variety of people with different age, race and culture surfing the web daily. The Disadvantages Heavy online advertising will cause web users to slowly immune to advertisement. When user are immune to advertisement, the number of people who respond to advertisement will steadily decrease and those advertisements will become not important to everyone anymore. 1.1.4 Online Social Networks Recent years, online social networks have become extremely popular among people. Some company will use social networking site to communicate with consumers. The most well-known social networking site is Facebook, MySpace, Google and Twitter. Instead of communicate with consumers, companies also making product and event announcement. The Advantages Since the network is unlimited, advertising in social networking sites are great for attracting more customers. When a customer is connected to your company, your company profile and information will spread among their family and friends too. The speed on spreading news in social sites is getting faster so the network can soon grow wider and even more when the advertisement has successfully build awareness in public. The Disadvantages Despite of building brand awareness, social sites are not that effective because it need to depend on how a user remembers a company brand. When your company brand is not as famous in the market, people will not aware of your product. Meanwhile, brand awareness is usually created from big advertisement on TV, banners, billboards, newspapers, magazines and other repeated advertisement tools. However, social sites may attack from bad comment when a product dissatisfied the customers and since everyone able to comment on something easily. So, this may pull down the company’s image easily. 1.1.5 Couponing Coupon can be found in newspaper, magazines, or online advertisement. At most company will encourage consumer to cut or print out these entire coupon and collect for certain amount so that you can redeem the offer. Some companies like McDonald will request consumers to print out the coupon from their webpage so they can enjoy the rebate. The Advantages Heavy Couponing user will save up their monthly expenses effectively. When a smart spender collected lots of coupon, they may get the amount of offer goods in lower price. During the period of collecting coupons, collectors may request their friends and family together for help out in collecting it. By doing so, the promotion news will spread to others by word-of-mouth. The Disadvantages Some people will feel embarrassing due to self-respect. They might feel that why I need to spend time to collect the entire coupon and use it to save just a few ringgit which they may afford to pay. It is wasting time to collect it and sometimes some coupon occurs in magazines so consumer will need to purchase the magazine every week to collect it. 1.2 Promotional Mixes Used by Proton Company Advertisement is important to every company. Effectively using advertisement will not just creating awareness to the public but also potentially increase market sales. The Proton Company is using this method to gain profit and increase market share. The company has used five ways to advertise their product such as television, banner, newspaper, social media networks and sales promotion. First of all, many company still believing advertise in television is the most successful way to reach the audience. Since every household own a television, the percentage of people watching television everyday will remain at an upper rate. Proton normally advertises their product during some peak hours like during 6p.m. to 10p.m. Every family will start to watch television during that period because everyone already back to house from working and having dinner with families. By that time, each of them may come across with the advertisement. Protons even pick some festive seasons to promote their product like the recent Chinese New Year. Proton has purposely create a commercial for celebrating Chinese New Year by showing a German engineer driving the Proton Preve safely back to his wife’s hometown. Secondly, Proton is also heavily using banner to advertise. By placing banner in certain heavy traffic, cities such as Kuala Lumpur and even fly over in highways. Catching eye banner normally the best way to transmit message into viewer mind even there is only a short time exposure. The best banner that Proton has created is advising drivers to drive safely on the road. Once the driver read the message, the next day when they pass by again they will check which company is concerning the public safety. By doing so, Proton has already create a brand awareness to the public. Thirdly, in knowing most of the consumers will be reading newspaper in the morning or anytime in a day. Proton’s advertisement sometime will be seen in a newspaper. They usually will used up whole page to advertise their product or service. Normally they will not choose front or second page but they will choose middle part of the newspaper so that can easily capture the reader’s mind with colors and pictures after reading tones of words in the previous page. Besides that, Proton also advertises their service center location so readers may find their service center easily. By grabbing the golden opportunity of using web in this 21st century, advertise in social media networks is as simple as effective. The large audience in the web has brought Proton to find more potential customers to promote their services and products. Simple steps like sharing in Facebook, Twitter and Youtube will efficiently transmit all the information to its audience. No matter they accept it or not, once they view the message already transmit into their mind. Proton owns a Facebook and Youtube page. On Facebook page, they often use to upload recent promotions photos and reply consumers comment. While on Youtube channel, they are posting their products commercial or videos during their recent event. Lastly, sales promotion is a value adding activities designed to boost short term sales and usually include point of sales activities such as in-store and event displays, product trial and distributing leaflets in public. Before launching the new Proton Preve, the company has organized a huge event named Power of 1 at Stadium Bukit Jalil Kuala Lumpur. The purpose of creating that event is to raise the awareness of their Proton brand and to show the public how well their product perform, demonstration is provided on the spot. At the same time, the Preve also shown up but is covering up by stripe form cover so that can maintain at a mysterious stage. Every time after the launch of their products, they will conduct a road show too by issuing brochure to allow consumer to know more about the product. Therefore based on all of these promotion strategies from Proton, the chances to convince a viewer to buy the product is largely depend on the buyer expectation on the product, level of brand loyalty or brands reputation and how great is the quality of the product. Even though sometimes it might not convince a viewer but at least they’re aware of your brand, product and services. So when times goes on follow by the enhancement of a company product, the chances to convince a buyer will also increase. In conclusion, Proton Company should continue to advertise their upcoming product so it may show the growth and improvement of the company. With these reason, the chances of people to buy their product is higher. 1.3 Effectiveness of Advertisement There are two concepts that ensure the times of advertise to reach target audience is the effective reach and effective frequency. Effective reach is the percentage of an audience that must be exposed to a particular message to achieve a specific objective. While the effective frequency refers to the number of times a target audience must be exposed to a message to achieve a particular objective. (Clow, 2011) Effective frequency and effective reach are crucial as when too few exposures will cause the advertiser fail to gain its intended objectives. Whereas if too much exposures will occur in the way of wasting resources. The most effective in advertising is achieving the intended objective successfully without experiencing wastage or marginal return from extra advertisement. Effective reach can be used under situation like a company wants to increase brand recognition. Then the advertisers will emphasis on the visual presentation on the product or the company logo. In this way may allow a person to recognize easily on the brand name together with the company’s logo. The main objective of using this method is to nearer a gap in a person’s knowledge with the brands. Therefore, if an advertiser wants to increase reach then they have to advertise to a large group of target audience and keep mentioning the brand’s name and logo as a selling point. Media tools that can cause this happen effectively are by advertising in television, outdoor advertising, magazines, internet, and direct mail. On the other hand, the objective of effective frequency is to increase brand recall. Usually repetition in advertising method is needed so that consumer can remember well of the brand in their mind or memory. Besides that, repetition can increase the times that particular brands will automatically popup in your mind. The more time the audience sees or heard about the advertisement is more easily to remember than he or she heard once in a life time. Examples of media tools that can be used are by television, radio, newspapers and Youtube advertisement that’s play first before showing the actual video content.
Shakespeare Question.

I’m working on a shakespeare writing question and need support to help me learn.

Write a 5-page essay (typed, double spaced, MLA format) closely analyzing 1-2 of the plays we have studied, watched, and discussed the second half of the semester: Much Ado about Nothing, Othello, andYou should choose at least four scenes from the film(s) that relate to your paper topic. (If you write about one film, then choose four scenes from it; if you write about two films, then choose two scenes from each film, and make these scenes correspond to each other—for instance, Desdemona standing up to her father in choosing to marry Othello is a parallel scene that corresponds to Hermia standing up to her father in choosing to marry Lysander). In addition to your observations about the film versions of those scenes, you also want to return to Shakespeare’s texts and read those scenes carefully, as they were written by Shakespeare.The goal is to write a focused, thesis-driven essay that features your close readings of, and citations and quotations from, the play(s) and film(s). In coming up with your evidence for your essay, draw from your notes about the film(s), draw from your notes from class discussions, and now also draw from this additional component of closely reading the scenes from Shakespeare’s play. The body of your essay should be your written, detailed analysis of at least four scenes. Include in-text citations and quotations from the play(s) and timemarkers from the film(s). Where relevant, you may also include a screen captures from the film(s) that illustrates your argument if you wish.We are not going to make this a research paper because a more important goal is for us to finish the course with a strong understanding of Shakespeare’s complexity. For the equivalent of the “research” component, I am asking you to return to the written text of Shakespeare’s play(s) and to read and analyze closely. You’ll find the texts of all three plays on our Canvas page under “Files.” Right now, our class discussions have sometimes tended to come away with simplistic or inaccurate historical claims about “life back then.” Please be aware that these are not viable literary arguments. You want to ground your arguments in the evidence presented in the written text(s) and in the performance(s).The chart on the following page may be helpful as you plan out your of your ideas/notes for EN 355 Short Paper #2.undefinedWhat is the focus that emerged from your notes that you will turn into your thesis for Short Paper #2? Write it in sentence form (as a detailed thesis statement) if possible.Production #1 ________________________(play title, year)Production #2 ____________________________(play title, year)Scene #1 (from production #1) that you will analyze that best relates to your focus(write a brief sentence-length reminder of what is happening in the scene; then list all of your notes that relate to this scene)What passage (act, scene, line numbers) does this correspond to in Shakespeare’s text? What do you observe when closely reading this scene?Scene #3 (from the production #2) that you will analyze that best relates to your focus(write a brief sentence-length reminder of what is happening in the scene; then list all of your notes that relate to this scene)What passage (act, scene, line numbers) does this correspond to in Shakespeare’s text? What do you observe when closely reading this scene?Scene #2 (from production #1) that you will analyze that best relates to your focus(write a brief sentence-length reminder of what is happening in the scene; then list all of your notes that relate to this scene)What passage (act, scene, line numbers) does this correspond to in Shakespeare’s text? What do you observe when closely reading this scene?Scene #4 (from production #2) that you will analyze that best relates to your focus(write a brief sentence-length reminder of what is happening in the scene; then list all of your notes that relate to this scene)What passage (act, scene, line numbers) does this correspond to in Shakespeare’s text? What do you observe when closely reading this scene?
Shakespeare Question

Topic 1 DQ 1 Comment 6

Topic 1 DQ 1 Comment 6. I need an explanation for this Health & Medical question to help me study.

Please comment this
Spirituality, regardless of religion, is a very personal topic for most people. It can even be uncomfortable to discuss. However, because it is so personal, that speaks to the importance of spirituality in human life. The push, in healthcare, toward providing more holistic care and incorporating alternative care practices into patient care demonstrates the healthcare community’s acknowledgement of the value spirituality brings to people’s health and wellbeing. Additionally, this is why we inquire about religion and spirtuality upon admission, because spirituality impacts health. There have been many studies that reveal spirituality has a significant positive impact on health and wellbeing. Brian Udermann, PhD, reviewed twenty published studies that all confirmed having a strong spiritual commitment consistently coincided with lower blood pressures, among several other positive health effects (Udermann, 2000).
Topic 1 DQ 1 Comment 6

United states federal government quizzes

essay writing service free United states federal government quizzes.

i need a tutor who is very confident in their federal government knowledg and also who is communicative I have 7 quizzes each quiz contains 40 questions and you only get one try this is a big reason why i need aa tutor who knows everything about federal governmentThis quizzes are a great portion of my grade so it is very important to me. it will determine if i pass or please be confident to make a very good grade.the questions are 40multiple choice questions and you are only given if you think you can google ur way out… it wont workso if you are a tutor who is confident in their federal government and think you will get all good grades please help methank you!
United states federal government quizzes

Colorado Technical University Decisions Based on Ethics & Morals Essay

Colorado Technical University Decisions Based on Ethics & Morals Essay.

Current legal and health care issues (use of medical marijuana, genomics, abortion, etc.) may create ethical and moral issues for the health care organization. Choose and identify an issue that may create ethical and moral issues for a faith-based organization.

Examine the mission, vision, values and ethics of a faith-based health care organization and analyze the principles of the health care organization to propose how this organization may stand on a current legal and health care issue (please identify the issue you have chosen).
Find at least 2 articles from the library that discuss the controversy of this issue that may be used to support the organization’s stance on this issue.
Prepare a 3-4-page position statement or white paper not including title page and reference page that states the position of the health care organization for this issue.

Colorado Technical University Decisions Based on Ethics & Morals Essay

Louisiana Purchase of 1803: Background, Negotiation and Outcomes

The Louisiana Purchase Negotiation Introduction The negotiation behind the most valuable land sale in United States history proved to be one of the speediest and greatest land deals the U.S. ever managed. France sold the Louisiana territory to the U.S. for fifty million francs ($11,250,000 dollars) and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs ($3,750,000 dollars) for a total of sixty-eight million francs ($15,000,000 dollars) (Harris 15). The Louisiana territory was approximately 828,000,000 square miles of land, including two Canadian provinces and fifteen current U.S. states. Essentially, the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 doubled the size of the United States, and gave it control of one of the most important trade ports at the time. This purchase is an excellent example of how leverage can greatly affect the outcome of a deal. This paper will discuss the background, the negotiation, and the outcomes of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Background The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 refers to the purchase of a large tract of land from France’s Napoleon Bonaparte, by the United States. The purchase accounts for about one third of the current United States, and includes major states such as Nebraska, Missouri, Arkansas, and Minnesota. France controlled the territory from 1699 until it was ceded in 1762 to Spain. In 1800, Napoleon regained ownership of Louisiana from Spain with the hope of re-establishing an empire in North America. France’s Napoleon Bonaparte was a force to be reckoned with, notorious for his many military victories and his great ability to inspire loyalty, even in times where hope seemed lost. His fight against both Russia and the Russian winter is one of those times. His army, having trekked through Russia’s massive prairies in the summer and fall of the previous year, was now struggling to continue in the winter. Even worse for France, slave rebellions and other uprisings were eroding French occupations of the ‘New World’, the North American continent (Tarver 53). Faced with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom and other ongoing conflicts, Napoleon was prompted to sell the territory to the United States to fund his military. The U.S. originally sought only to purchase the port city of New Orleans and the adjacent coastal lands, but quickly accepted the bargain. France had begun experiencing doubt that Napoleon’s numerous war efforts were worth the trouble; they would later go on to exile him, and at the time of the Purchase, Napoleon’s relationship with France was strained, but not yet unsalvageable. Negotiation Concepts/Methods Logistical Issues The logistics of delivering offers and counteroffers back and forth between continents through mail certainly complicated things. Communication at the time was limited almost exclusively to letters, as faster and more efficient modes of communication, such as the telegraph, would not even be conceived until the 1830s. Although the United States Postal Services was technically operational, the first postmaster general had been appointed roughly 14 years beforehand, and the small expanse of the United States had little reason to bother with upgrading (“The United States…”). As such, the United States Post Office was a tiny, often improvised upon piece of the United States government in the year 1803 (“The United States…”). However, despite the tiny and underused mail delivery system in place at the time, in relative terms the deal took place quickly, taking less than a year to complete. For a deal that doubled the size of the United States, this was lightspeed (“Louisiana Purchase”). When you consider the delay between the countries’ mail systems, this timeframe is even more impressive. Email takes tenths of a second. The telegraph took approximately four minutes to cross continents (“Telegraph…). A letter, in 1803, one way, would have taken roughly two weeks to cross the Atlantic (“Highway History”). Additionally, the person receiving the letter in the 1800s paid for the mail, not the sender. This greatly slowed the person who was delivering the mail as every single letter had to be collected on up until the 1860’s, far past this particular deal. This sale was completed in less than a year. Later in this paper greater detail is used to explain the specifics of why Napoleon needs a quick infusion of cash, but for this page, one only needs to know that he did try to fight the Russians in the winter, his army was already losing people to cold instead of the actual conflict, and he was quickly becoming France’s least favorite general. Money would solve two out of three of those problems, and Napoleon was willing to sell more than one and a half times the total land area of France to get it. Napoleon could not wait. News of this had reached the U.S., and this quickly turned into another way to twist Napoleon’s arm in a situation that was already difficult for him to navigate. The length of time between letters became another factor in the negotiation, as the U.S. knew he could not wait weeks and weeks to send offers and counteroffers back and forth, eventually caving on one of the most used trading ports of the time, and room for another 15 states, for incredibly cheap. The U.S. had stumbled into a perfect exploding offer: sell this land to the U.S. or starve in Russia. Relative Leverage Between the Countries After losing the French and Indian war and signing the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French not only lost Canada, but everything to the east of the Mississippi river to the British. This fact and the fact the distance from France and their Western Territories only grows further is a pivotal leverage point in the negotiation. Another point is the slave revolution St. Domingue, or modern-day Haiti, wherein Napoleon wanted the cash flow back for France. General Charles Leclerc of France wanted to re-establish slavery in Saint Domingue in 1802 but was thwarted by the leader of the Haitian revolution Toussaint Louverture. France pulled back in 1803 after losing a whopping two-thirds of their troops. This is because before the revolution France had an enormous cash flow coming from St. Domingue for slavery, but this was stopped in 1795 by the constitution of the French Republic. So, France was not only affected by their loss of troops but by a total loss of cash flow that was needed hence the efforts of sending General Leclerc. Changing Economic and Political Environments The Louisiana purchase was completed within a wide array of economic and political environments. The land ranging across 15 modern day states was controlled by Spain until 1802, when it was returned to French control. This brought concern to the United States, as Spain was a weakened power in the early 1800’s while France, led by Napoleon, was much more threatening. Napoleon had threatened to block American access to the important port of New Orleans, which New American settlements depended on to get their goods to market. The blocking of this access was of such importance to American interests that Thomas Jefferson considered an alliance with the British in the war against France just to guarantee they would not lose access. While considering alliances with Britain, Jefferson also sent diplomats to France, in hopes to bargain for continued trade access along the Mississippi. Among the diplomats dispatched to negotiate on behalf of Jefferson was James Monroe. Monroe was empowered to purchase New Orleans and West Florida from two to ten million dollars. During this time, France had shown difficulty in their ability to maintain territory in what is now considered modern day Haiti. This in addition to the fact that France was economically unstable due to its war with Great Britain provided Thomas Jefferson the perfect opportunity to purchase New Orleans and parts of the Floridas. However, Napoleon’s offer was much more generous than expected. Desperately in need of money to fund his overextended military and knowing well he would be unable to force Americans out of French ruled land in North America, Napoleon offered all of Louisiana to the U.S. for 15 million dollars. Napoleon’s asking price worked out to be about four cents an acre. The deal; however, was not met without controversy. While American development was dependent on Western Expansion, it raised concerns that threatened the disunion of the United States. Several New England Federalists began talks of seceding from the United States, as the Louisiana purchase significantly reduced their political power. Jefferson was also criticized for not following his own strict interpretation, as critics stated the constitution did not permit the federal government to purchase new land. The Role of Third Parties The purchase of the Louisiana territory would not have been possible without the involvement of many individuals (parties) who pushed for and/or influenced the deal based on their own motives and interests, and in some situations, formed coalitions. Further, if France was not embattled in numerous conflicts straining their financial resources the sell would not have occurred. Upon regaining ownership of the territory from Spain in 1800, it was Napoleon’s vision to establish an empire in North America. But, Spain procrastinated until late 1802 in executing the treaty to transfer Louisiana to France. Spain’s refusal to surrender Florida to France meant Louisiana would be left indefensible, and the war between France and the United Kingdom appeared imminent. Faced with the prospect of renewed warfare with the U.K., and as France was still engaged in the Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) slave uprisings, Napoleon was prompted to sell the territory to the United States to fund his military. Out of anger towards Spain and seeing opportunity to sell something that was perceived to be useless and not truly his yet, Napoleon decided to sell the entire territory to the U.S. (Herring 101). American Robert Livingston, a founding father of the United States, was also a lawyer, politician, and diplomat from New York. In 1801, as a reward for supporting Thomas Jefferson’s presidential campaign, President Jefferson appointed him as the U.S. Minister to France. He was sent to Paris to assume this position. It was Livingston who realized that Napoleon was having difficulties in funding his conquests and saw the potential for this to work in the United States’ favor to advance interests regarding New Orleans and Mississippi river rights. Livingston used his social skills and prestigious connections in France to make himself available to Emperor Napoleon. He befriended the Emperor’s right-hand man, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, and reconnected with France’s finance minister Francois de Barbé-Marbois, whom he had met in in Philadelphia when Barbé-Marbois was there serving as a French diplomat and general consul in charge of the French affairs to the United States. It was Livingston’s connections that led to the deal (Lawson 103). During this same period, French nobleman Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, began to help negotiate with France at the request of President Jefferson. Du Pont was living in the U.S. and had close ties to Jefferson, as well as prominent politicians in France. He engaged in “behind the scenes” diplomacy with Napoleon on Jefferson’s behalf while visiting France and floated the idea of the much larger Louisiana Purchase as a means to defuse potential conflict between the United States and Napoleon over North America (Duke 77-80). Desperate to avoid possible war with France, Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris to serve as special envoy assisting Livingston with the Louisiana Purchase negotiations. When Monroe arrived in Paris he informed Livingston the U.S. only intended to purchase New Orleans. However, Livingston told him Napoleon wanted to sell the whole territory for $100 million francs (about $20 million dollars) (Burgan 36). Monroe was not authorized to make the deal, but time was of the essence and they didn’t have time to contact the U.S. for guidance. They were concerned Napoleon would withdraw the deal so, with no authority for their actions and limited information Livingston and Monroe entered negotiations with Barbé-Marbois (Lawson 110-120). It took a couple weeks, but in April 1803 the trio agreed to the $80 million francs ($15 million dollars) purchase price and on April 30, 1803 sealed the deal. On July 4, 1803, President Jefferson announced the treaty to the American people (Ketcham 320-2). The Louisiana Purchase was also controversial, as it was questionable whether the Constitution gave the president any authority to make the deal (Lawson 20-22). To some Americans the purchase was viewed as a tremendous abuse of presidential power. However, Congress realized the significance and advised and consented to ratification of the treaty on October 20, 1803. Conclusion The significance of the Louisiana Purchase was enormous. The acquisition of land made westward expansion feasible. The deal also guaranteed the Mississippi River would become a major channel for American commerce, which boosted America’s economic development. The U.S. benefited greatly using the leverage that presented itself through Napoleon’s need of funds to support his conquests. France did not have a strong enough military or the funding to hold back the western frontier from the American pioneers, or to maintain control of the land so far away from France and separated by the vast Atlantic Ocean. Napoleon’s bitterness with Spain and his desire to consolidate his resources so he could focus on conquering England provided even more leverage in favor of the United States. Further, Livingston and Monroe did an exceptional job at realizing the significance of the purchase and seized the moment. In considering what may have been handled more effectively, there are some issues. One major point, official boundaries of the Louisiana territory were not clearly determined at the time of the sell. As a result, there were boundary disputes after the sell between the U.S. and Spain. If the boundaries had been officially determined prior and included in the official treaty the conflicts could possibly have been avoided. Overall, the Louisiana Purchase was undeniably an incredible deal for the United States, doubling its size. States that now occupy the land, included in part or whole of the Louisiana Purchase, are: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. What wasn’t known then, as France’s land was mainly unexplored wilderness, is the abundance of fertile soils and other valuable natural resources included with the purchase which were not factored into the cost of the purchase. Shortly after the treaty was signed, President Jefferson sent out Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. Their discoveries enabled the U.S. government to grasp the full value of what had been acquired. Further, the purchase removed France’s colonizing presence from the area and gave the U.S. the port of New Orleans and the trading artery of the Mississippi River. Moreover, the Louisiana purchase led to the eventual acquisition of the Oregon Territory, expanding the United States to the Pacific Ocean (Harris 132). Works Cited Burgan, Michael. The Louisiana Purchase. Capstone, 2002. Duke, Marc. The du Ponts: Portrait of a Dynasty. Saturday Review Press, 1976. Harris, Joseph A. “How the Louisiana Purchase Changed the World.”, Smithsonian Institution, 1 Apr. 2003. “Highway History.” U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration, Federal Highway Administration Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Newtown CT: American Political Biography Press, 2003. Lawson, Gary