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China and United States Trade Relations Research Paper

China and United States Trade Relations Research Paper.

The minimum requirement for the project is to show a consequential relationship between at least two variables, or specific types/categories of data, the possibilities for which are indefinite (for example, this could include number of hospital beds to air pollution to foreign direct investments within China and/or between China and other countries, at the city-, provincial-/state- or national-levels). Data used can be over time or during a single year. There are many options for which data sources you use. We have discussed in class sources of data for climate change governance (http://visuals.datadrivenlab.org/climateaction/), and other students have brought up trade indices and so forth pertinent to the course material. You can use any of these alone, in combination with the EPS China database, or just the EPS China database. There are no limits for where you source quantitative data. These are just suggestions. The EPS China Data (Links to an external site.)database is a great place to start because it’s one of the most advanced databases on Chinese statistics of its kind. I provide here instructions on how to use it, please read. FYI: Many students are living off-campus which requires a VPN to access. Of note, a statistical analysis is not required for this project. What is required, however, is a thoughtful look at data you think is interesting, an explanation of what you think it tells us about the current domestic and/or international situation of China, and that of its future. Connect it to some topic discussed in class. What does the data say about economic interdependence with other countries? What other countries is China investing in, where does most of China’s foreign investment come from, and what does this mean for its relationship with those countries? How much is China polluting, how much coal is being used, and what does this say for climate governance? Text analysis of no less than 1,000 words is required, and visualizations are also required. There’s no particular limit to the number of visualizations you can include. There are also no specific topics you are required to tackle, but you can receive full credit if you meet the above guidelines
China and United States Trade Relations Research Paper

What money can’t buy

What money can’t buy. I’m stuck on a Business question and need an explanation.

2 pages
details:
Extra Credit Opportunity
Write a two-page (double-spaced, 12 pt. font) argument paper on a case from Michael J. Sandel’s What money can’t buy book.
If you write a satisfactory response, you will earn a one-step increase of your final grade. For example, if you otherwise earn a B in the course, and you complete a satisfactory response paper, you will receive a B+ in the class.
Your argumentative paper should attempt one of the following on just one case from Sandel’s book:
1. Offer a solution and defend a particular good based in fairness or equality against a market solution.
2. Offer a solution and defend a particular good based in corruption (or positively, integrity) against a market solution.
3. Offer a solution and defend a particular good based in market reasoning against both the fairness and corruption objections.
Or:
4. Come up with your own topic and approve it with me in advance.
Any citations from Sandel or other sources should be cited in a recognizable style of your choice.
I’m sorry, but I will not read drafts of your papers. Nevertheless, if you have any questions, I will try to answer them
What money can’t buy

The Approaches To Operations Management

nursing essay writing service Operations management is an important area in managing a firm. It can be defined as the area of management related to design and operation of business processes in production of goods or services. In a nutshell, it is the transformation of resources into product and/or services as depicted in figure 1. The competitive advantage of a firm is directly impacted by the efficiency of utilization of available resources satisfying customer demand. (Slack et al 1995, Voss, 1995) Operations management serves the function of managing the process of converting ‘inputs’ in terms of materials, labor, and energy into ‘outputs’ in the form of goods and/or services. It is critical to ensure that the strategic direction of the firm is maintained by executing the tactical decisions of resource utilization to ensure that competitive advantage is maintained (Schmenner et al, 1998). A suitable example of efficient operations management is Apple Inc. Apple is a multinational corporation that designs and markets computers and related products and services. The firm manages its operations in a way that it ensures that the demand is met by the supply but at the same time it doesn’t need to stock large quantities of products in warehouses (figure 2) i.e. Apple has a fast inventory turn over rate. (Gamet, 2009) Operations Management encompasses a number of theoretical concepts, suitability and application of which varies within and across the organizations (Figure 3). Key factors include but are not limited to capacity planning, inventory management, supply chain design, performance measures and total quality management. In goods based organizations the concepts of inventory, supply chain, quality and capacity planning are highly critical. Where as, in service based organizations factors relating to human resources, performance and quality management are given prime importance. (Bayraktar et al, 2007) The concept of operational strategies encompasses the plans for ordering raw material, converting them to finished product, storing and selling to the customer. Its implementation is often mismanaged in the fast changing environment in the highly globalized markets at present. The management problems in the area of operations management comprise of quantitative, social, technical issues and their complex mixtures (Liet al, 2000) Quantitative problems may include factors relating to planning, critical path analysis, supply chain management etc. Technical issues may consist of factors relating to automation, optimization, scheduling etc. Social factors may include human resource management, outsourcing etc. It is worth noting that these issues are not isolated and independent of each other but they affect the effectiveness of the overall operations management in the business. Therefore it is essential to manage these problem areas to ensure that the overall operations management is not impacted adversely by these factors. To stay competitive a business needs to evolve so as to ensure that alternative course of actions can be adopted as per the available resources while effectively managing change (Volberda, 1999). The Human resources i.e. people in an organization are extremely important in operations, process and performance management process. The success of an organization is directly proportional to the success and satisfaction of its employees. Therefore from an operational point of view it is important for the business to employ and retain the right people for growth, profitability and sustainable business (Pfeffer, 1998). Analysis of operations process in different types of Organizations To understand how operations differ in different types of organization the case of an Aircraft manufacturer versus an airline operator is considered. The basis of this analysis is competitive priority and marketing strategy. The different types of operations process in these organizations will be identified and their adequacy to meet the customers’ needs assessed to understand the key factors of operations management. The very first and the most basic difference in the organizations chosen in this case study is that the aircraft manufacturer deals in the production of aircrafts and allied services for its customers while the airline operator deals solely in the provision of logistic services. For the purpose of simplicity and ease of understanding, the author has considered only the production of aircraft and provision of logistics to mark a clear distinction between goods based and services based organizations. To maintain competitive advantage both types of companies need to ensure that their operations are managed efficiently for keeping the costs under control and thereby offering the goods and services to their customers at competitive rate while ensuring maximum profitability (Frohlich et al, 2002). The aircraft manufacturer invests heavily in research and design as it needs to ‘do it right the very first time’. Due to the scale of operation, the various functions are distributed globally, thus efficient inventory, capacity and supply chain management are essential. Total quality management and performance are also needed to maintain the competitive and marketing advantage (Chow, 2002). The airline operator on the other hand relies on the aircraft supplied by the manufacturer to provide service to its customers. The operator doesn’t need to maintain an inventory of planes but it has to ensure that it utilizes its capacity to maximum possible for providing competitive fares to its customers. The performance metrics for the airline are different as it has to ensure timely flight operation which again is essential from the marketing strategy point of view (Rae, 2001). The adequacy and suitability of the key theoretical principles and concepts in operations management are discussed in the next section of this case study. Evaluation of Operation Management concepts in different Organizations As discussed in the previous sections of this report, Operation Management is a key function in organizations whether they are product based or service based. In this section we look at the operations management practices in these industries. Product Based Industries We take a look at the operations management practices in a manufacturing company. These practices include utilization of techniques such as Kaizen, Just in Time, Kanban etc for managing operations. Inventory management and capacity planning are of prime importance to ensure that the raw materials and finished goods are maintained at optimum levels. Thus, various functions within the organization interact with the Operation Management function (Slack et al, 2007). The engineering or technical function interacts in the space of understanding process needs and analyzing the new options available. The Product development function deals with understanding of capabilities and constraints as well as managing and introducing products. The marketing function deals with understanding of market requirements. The information technology function deals with provision of systems for design, planning, control and improvement. The Human resource function interacts in understanding the recruitment, development and training needs as well as employee welfare. The Accounting and finance division deals with cashflow and financial analysis of performance and decisions. Thus it can be noted that operations management sits in the centre of the various functions and thus is essential for the sustainability and growth of the organization (as shown in figure 4). Service Based Industries Efficient ‘Operations Management’ is equally important in service industry. As the inputs in service industry are intangible human resources and intellect the operations management challenges are different. Techniques such as ‘Agile development’, collaborative and distributed working are key factors in maintaining the competitive advantage and sustainability. (Johnston, 1999) Like manufacturing, various functions within the organization interact with the Operation Management function. The interactions and interfaces are similar but the relative functions vary due to the nature of industry. The technical function operates in the space of understanding process needs, maintaining intellectual property and analyzing the new options. The Service development function deals with understanding of human resources capabilities and constraints as well as managing and introducing products. The information technology function is of great importance as it forms the backbone of the modern service industry. The relative roles of marketing, human resource and finance function remain the same. Integrated Products and Services This is a new and emerging industry segment, which has been pioneered by industry veterans like Rolls Royce. A fundamental shift is occurring at the firm which is moving away from selling products to the provision of services. Instead of selling engines and then providing maintenance contracts, the company is now offering ‘power by the hour’ contracts. Under this new system, it leases engines to airlines while remaining responsible for their maintenance. In this sector, lower costs are achievable only by applying service experience of the existing products in the design of next generation of products. (Anon, cam.ac.uk, 2011) Impact on competitiveness, innovation and sustainability Effective operations management practises are vital for maintaining competitive advantage, innovating in the market and sustainability of the organization. History is filled with examples of firms that employed novel operations management practises and succeeded in creating a niche of their own in the market space. A prominent example is the ‘Ford Assembly Line’. The assembly line was not the brainchild of Henry Ford but he simply adopted and implemented it in a way that mass production of cars became possible. By implementing the ‘Moving Assembly Line’, Ford was able to bring production costs to an all time low and at the same time fuel the competition so much that many low volume competitors had to close shop (Womack et al, 1990). A more modern example is of Toyota which has revolutionized the manufacturing industry by pioneering and/or implementing systems like Lean, Six-Sigma, Kaizen, Just in Time to name a few. These systems were conceived primarily due to numerous constraints presented to Toyota in its home country, Japan, where land and resources were scarce and expensive (Smith, 2003). Employing these operations management practises has enabled Toyota to become the number one automobile manufacturer in the world, conquering Asian, African, European and American Markets alike. In the Services domain, operations management is playing an equally important role. Due to the differences in the basic nature of end product, the principles and their implementation differs in the domain of operations management. The input in service industry is intellect rather than raw materials. Therefore concepts like inventory management which is a key component in manufacturing operations management does not apply to services. Methodologies like agile development, distributed and collaborative working are of greater importance in service industry (Coram, 2005). International Business Machines (IBM), which is one the world’s oldest services based firms is a pioneer in employing market leading operations management practises in this industry. It makes uses of innovative tools to manage visibility, control and automation needed to deliver quality service, managing compliance and risk, and maximizing return on investments. It also provides software and implementation to firms operating in manufacturing as well as in services space (Johnston, 1999). Conclusion Operations Management is a key business process in any organization, whether it deals in products or in services. The principles or concepts of operations management and their implementation differ in these industries. Manufacturing industries rely on inventory management, capacity planning and production optimization techniques to innovate, maintain competitive advantage and safeguard sustainability. Service industry relies more on efficient utilization of its human resources and technology backbone for its operations management practices. In recent times it has been seen that a clear distinction between products and service industry is blurring and most businesses now offer a combination of products and services to their customers. This trend is even evident in more traditional manufacturing industries such as Rolls Royce which is moving away from selling products to offering ‘power by hour’ contracts in the form of leases. Thus “integrated products and services” is clearly emerging as a unified entity. Operations management will prove to be an integral business process and a key differentiator between leaders and followers in these changing times. References Slack et al (1995) Operations Management, Pitman Publishing: London. Voss, C.A. (1995) ‘Operations management – from Taylor to Toyota – and Beyond?’, British Journal of Management, Vol.6, Special Issue, S17-S29, December. Schmenner, R.W. and Swink, M.L., On theory in operations management, Journal of Operations Management, Volume 17, Issue 1, December 1998, Pages 97-113, ISSN 0272-6963 Gamet, J., Apple Beats Competitors at Inventory Turn Over, macobserver.com, Mar 2009 Available from: http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/apple_beats_competitors_at_inventory_turn_over/ Accessed: 21st February, 2011 Bayraktar, E., Jothishankar, M.C., Tatoglu,E. Wu, T., “Evolution of operations management: past, present and future”, Management Research News, Vol. 30 Iss: 11, pp.843 – 871, 2007 Li, H. and Li, L. X. (2000), “Integrating systems concepts into manufacturing information systems”, Systems Research and Behavioral Science”, Volume 17, Issue 2, pages 135-147, 2000 Volberda, H. W., “Building the flexible firm: how to remain competitive”, Oxford University Press, 1999 Pfeffer, J., “The human equation: Building profits by putting people first”, Harvard Business Press. 1998 Frohlich, M. T. and Westbrook,R., “Demand chain management in manufacturing and services: web-based integration, drivers and performance”, Journal of Operations Management, Volume 20, Issue 6, November 2002, Pages 729-745, ISSN 0272-6963, Chow, C. and Shields, M. “The importance of national culture in the design of and preference for management controls for multi-national operations”, mit.dspace.org, 2002 Rae, D. “EasyJet: a case of entrepreneurial management?”, Strategic Change, Volume 10, Issue 6, pages 325-336, September/October 2001 Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnson, R., Stratgeic Operations Management, 5th Edition: Harlow: FT, Prentice Hall, 2007 Johnston, R., Service operations management: return to roots, International Journal of Operations

Methodology Is The Set Of Principles Of Research Nursing Essay

It is advised to select the appropriate philosophical perspective during the process of research for choosing the appropriate methodology (Sim and Wright, 2000). The selection of the approach will depend on the three elements of philosophical assumption about the knowledge around the topic, plan of the inquiry and the well crafted process of data collection, analysis and writing (Creswell, 2009). The basic necessity of conducting a comprehensive, thorough and dependable research study is the researcher’s intellectual knowledge and critical thinking (Guba, 1990). In order to adopt an approach which will divulge the knowledge around the topic in many different ways the researcher should not select or favour any approach without first comparing the existing approaches (Hart, 2008). This will build critical thinking which will assist in understanding the theoretical perspective behind the studies and critically review them within the paradigms they are constructed (Hart, 2008). Paradigm – Paradigms are defined as the framework or the representation of the philosophical beliefs which will guide the researcher to undertake the disciplined enquiry and analyze the findings on the basis of their assumptions (Guba, 1990). A paradigm presents a general perspective of the diversified view point of the real world through three philosophical questions based on the ontological, epistemological and methodological outlook. Hence it can be seen as the opening point to determine the inquiry, the opinion behind the process, and finally the measures taken (Guba, 1990). In relation to the topic of this dissertation, it is assumed that a reality exists that can be uncovered (i.e., the benefits vs. risks of prescribing HRT in menopausal women). Therefore, this study is conducted within the post-positivist paradigm. This paradigm was chosen as its philosophy brings out the various aspects surrounding the question bringing more clarity to the subject and will make the research process more generaliseable and reliable. The post-positivist paradigm is an extension of the positivist paradigm. It attempts to rectify the limitations of positivism; hence prediction and control become the aim (Guba, 1990). The critical realist ontology of post-positivist approach is built on the belief that a real world or reality does exist but there are limitations to reach there. These limitations might confound the real picture making the findings less reliable, still the fact that the reality does exist remains (Guba, 1990). Its modified objective epistemological approach presents the opinion that there could be sizable limitations for a human researcher or inquirer to have an objective observation devoid of any human subjectivity. However by being unbiased which Guba (1990; p21) describes “as neutral as possible” and depending on critical reasoning it can be achieved closely (Guba, 1990). Methodologically, the post-positivist approach attempts to address the imbalances by the modified experimental or manipulative approaches which give emphasis to innovation in the research process (Guba, 1990). The three philosophical questions posed by Guba (1990; p18) are addressed in this dissertation as follows: 1) Ontological: what is the nature of the “knowable” or the nature of the “reality”? The nature of the knowable in this study are the benefits of prescribing HRT despite the risk of breast cancer. 2) Epistemological: What is the nature of the relationship between the knower (the researcher) and the known (or knowable)? The relationship between the researcher and the knowable is objective as the researcher will be reviewing data from the existing studies selected by a comprehensive search of various databases. 3) Methodological: Which process shall the inquirer implement for finding the knowledge? Using the post-positivism paradigm, this dissertation aims to highlight the benefits and risks of HRT. Data will be gathered by conducting a comprehensive search of published primary research studies (Aveyard, 2010). After reviewing, selecting and collecting the data, the researcher will analyze and summarise the findings to answer the research question (Aveyard, 2010; Punch, 2006). The findings of this dissertation might assist menopausal women to know what benefits they could expect from HRT treatment, and uncover the reasons why millions of menopausal women undergo HRT treatment in the presence of the foresaid risk (Banks et al, 2003). Literature Review as a research methodology – Conducting primary research could not have answered the research question posed by this dissertation. Therefore, a literature review was undertaken to address the research question. This methodology is appropriate as there is no direct involvement between the researcher and the participant, and there was a time limitation of completing this research study (Aveyard, 2010). There are many relevant research studies which are readily available from different parts of the world. Since these studies already exist the researcher decided to use literature review as the appropriate methodology to undertake this dissertation to answer the research question in the most comprehensive way. According to Aveyard (2010) a literature review with a well defined question and which is carried out with a systematic approach is a research methodology in its own right. Using this methodology allows the results of such a review to be reliable and generalisable. The preliminary research review (chapter 2) uncovered many studies that evaluated the link between HRT and Breast cancer. Hence it became clear that by using the methodology of literature review many relevant studies from an extensive time span, and from different parts of the world would uncover the opinion of the medical fraternity and would help develop an overview of the topic. Advantages of Literature Review which made literature review the appropriate methodology for this dissertation – Hart (2008; p13) defines literature review as “integral to the success of academic research”. One of the advantages of using literature review is that through the preliminary search the research ability of the topic can be ensured even before the dissertation or the study commences (Hart, 2008). At the initial stage a researcher is mostly enthusiastic of a topic of interest which might make them select a topic too broad perhaps out of feasible limitations, but conducting a literature review helps overcome this by narrowing the topic down and giving a practical aspect to it (Hart, 2008). It will help to refine the research process by a systematic approach from the beginning of finalising the research question up to answering if (Hart, 2008; Kumar, 2005). The researcher’s critical thinking and analysis skills also are vital for conducting a literature review (Guba, 1990). There are various studies conducted in various settings hence critical reading and critical thinking aspects of the literature review methodology will help gather knowledge of a topic and make a decision as to which information would be relevant (Hart, 2008). The literature review methodology brings clarity to the research procedure and broadens the existing knowledge base (Kumar, 2005). This will build the theoretical background of the study (Kumar, 2005) and help identify the relationship between the ideas and practice of use of HRT and rationalise the significance of the dilemma associated with the use of HRT (Hart, 2008). This is done by an extensive reading and developing an in depth understanding of the subject (Aveyard and Sharp, 2009). And there is less purpose of applying literature review as a methodology if it doesn’t develop this subject further and aid the medical fraternity and women know more than what is already known (Burns and Groove 2005; Hart,2008). Information in health and social care sector is increasing everyday and literature review would help explore published and un-published primary research studies to give a comprehensive view pertaining to the benefits associated with the use of HRT and the risk of breast cancer (Aveyard, 2010). The cause and effect relationship of HRT its benefits and prevalent risk of breast cancer would be explored using prospective studies like Randomized Controlled Trails (RCT) and cohort, as they are the most accurate method for measuring disease risk (Aschengrau and Seage, 2008). Case control studies too would be used as they are the cost-effective and time-efficient method for research studies (Smith and Ryan 2008). Literature review will further assist the identification of the relevant literature from the vast literature available around the topic of the research question. The researcher will then analyze the studies and extract the relevant information (Averyard, 2010). It will help to build the knowledge beyond what is known and advance the understanding of the use of HRT which will help uncover important determinants associated with its use (Hart, 2008). Combining these determinants of the use of HRT and synthesising them would help bring out a new outlook to the study and draw new interpretations about the benefits associated with the use of HRT with the foresaid risk of breast cancer (Hart, 2008). These aspects of the literature review methodology will help construct a comprehensive study and the analysis of the relevant literature will enable to view the findings of a particular research study within the perspective of the other (Averyard, 2010). It will help to contextualise the findings and interpret them to highlight the benefits of using HRT with the foresaid risk of breast cancer derived which will help to build the existing knowledge of the doctors and the women using them (Kumar, 2005). The researcher will then answer the research question which will facilitate further interpretations for future research studies (Sim and Wright 2000). To sum it up the literature review methodology has been used for it striking features of narrowing the topic, refining the research process, broadening the existing knowledge base, identification of the literature, analysing the studies, synthesising and contextualise the findings and interpreting them so as to answer the research question in the most appropriate method. Limitations of Literature Review There are limitations to the literature review methodology, for example researcher bias in interpreting the findings of studies, or selecting studies for inclusion into the review. Some research may be missed due to the vast literature available. These limitations may be overcome by maintaining transparency of the method of data selection and analysis and a comprehensive search strategy. According to Hart (2008) there are important ethical implications which the researcher needs to be aware of before using someone else’s work. The following steps are important to ensure that the quality and value of this dissertation is maintained. 1) Avoid sloppiness and nepotism (Hart, 2008) – Aveyard (2010) suggests that the references of the literature used are cited properly and that the researcher should not abruptly cite the any reference which makes a point but track the sources which have some originality so as to continue the discussion of the relevant topic. 2) Avoid plagiarism (Hart, 2008) – It is important to acknowledge the author even if a direct quotation is not being made. In case of a direct quotation from a source, quotation marks should be used and the source has to be referenced (Averyard, 2010). 3) Avoid falsification and fabrication (Hart, 2008) – It is important to understand the complete synopsis of the review rather than the superficial link (Aveyard, 2010). Hart (2008) further suggests that it is the responsibility of the researcher to utilize the work of other people in a balanced, legal and fair way. This comprises all the above mentioned steps and also involves abiding by the copyright and Data Protection Act (Hart, 2008). These steps will ascertain ethical standard of the dissertation and avoid any speculation about its efficacy. Critical Appraisal of literature Critically appraising studies involves considering the validity, results and relevance of studies which is important to minimize bias in a literature review (Bandolier site, 2009). Aveyard (2010) defines critical appraisal as a structured process of evaluating studies for their strengths and weakness. Critical appraisal is essential skill in evidence based medicine which can be used by researchers to ensure that the studies are reliable and resourceful, and to assess whether bias inherent in different research designs have distorted the results (Bandolier site, 2009). This is the distinguishing feature between a review and an essay (Aveyard, 2010). It is the process of minute and organized examination of appropriate studies identified to evaluate their validity, importance and quality in context to the research question. It is vital for the researcher to develop this skill and use it appropriately (Bandolier site, 2009). Critical Appraisal tools This dissertation intends to adapt a structured method of appraisal for quantitative literature which has varied tools to critically evaluate the different types of studies which are going to be selected (Aveyard and Sharp, 2009). The studies selected will be RCT, cohort and case-control studies using quantitative methodology (Aveyard, 2010; Pearson et al. 2007). Quantitative research is often attributed with a strong emphasis on scientific rigor. This is linked to excellence with discipline and consistent approach to detail with accuracy (Burns and Grove, 2005). It is also an appropriate method where pre-existing knowledge is present and hence standardized collection methods could be expected (Bowling, 2002). Quantitative research is predominantly used in medical research based on the philosophy of post-positivist, providing sounder base for applying results into practice by its involvement of rigor, validity, objectivity and control (Burns and Grove, 2005). The selection of the right tool plays an important role in extracting the data relevant for the review (Burns and Grove, 2005). Critical appraisal is a reductionist approach as it involves breaking the whole into parts to have a better examination (Burns and Grove, 2005). This process will enable to review the rigor of the studies; their relevance to the dissertation which will help to decide the credence each study has in answering the research question (Averyard, 2010). It is suggested that selected studies are critically appraised with specific tools according to their design in order to help evaluate their usefulness and relevance to the topic (Aveyard and Sharp, 2009). There are a number of critical appraisal tools that could be used here, for example the Center for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM, 2010) RCT tool or the critical review appraisal form developed by McMaster University Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group (McMaster University, 2008), however these have limitations for assessing a range of studies. The Critical appraisal skills program (CASP) by the Solutions for Public Health (SPH, 2010) developed specific appraisal tools for specific studies and these tools presented a viable alternative for critical appraisal in this dissertation. These tools take into consideration the three broad issues validity, reliability and applicability that are important for reviewing quantitative research (SPH, 2010). Validity is termed as measuring data which it is meant to measure. Reliability means consistency and is concerned with the repetition of same result in future (Aveyard and Sharp, 2009). Replication is of prime concern for quantitative research since if a study couldn’t be replicated its validity would be questioned (Bryman, 2008). This will depict that the derived results were not confined only to this study but can be generalised to a heterogeneous target population (Bryman, 2008). This step will increase the creditability and reliability of the study, further strengthen the knowledge and a better literature review can be expected (Burns and Grove, 2005). DATA TO BE EXTRACTED In order to compare and contrast the studies so as to integrate them and interpret the findings, Aveyard (2010) suggest assigning codes and developing themes. The aim of this study is to highlight the benefits associated with the prescription of HRT despite the risk of breast cancer. Hence given the aim of this dissertation the broad themes which arise are benefits associated with the use of HRT and risk of breast cancer associated with the use of HRT. The results are presented in two broad “themes” of benefits associated with the use of HRT and risks of breast cancer risk associated with the use of HRT chosen for their relevance to the research question and its objectives. These themes will be addressed as issues in this dissertation and the following information will be extracted from selected studies: ISSUE -1 – Benefits associated with the use of HRT ISSUE -2 – Breast cancer risk associated with the use of HRT. The codes will be the grading of the reliability of the studies and of the levels of benefits and risk of breast cancer derived from the studies to help ascertain the strength of the findings. PRESENTATION OF STUDIES A table will be used to present the studies with detailed methodological characteristics. This will assist in summarising the information extracted form each study, comparing the studies, deducing the results and also aid evaluation of the strength of the studies (Aveyard, 2010; Hart, 2008). This dissertation is conducted within the post-positivist paradigm using literature review methodology and quantitative research by critically appraising the studies and synthesising the results into relevant and reliable data. The researcher is hopeful to deliver a good review which will link the past research to the present and assimilate the knowledge derived so as to learn from the past and install new ideas for the future.

Central Michigan University Week 1 Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystems Discussion

Central Michigan University Week 1 Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystems Discussion.

DescriptionIntroductory paragraph to topic (refer to the Final Paper guidelines for your topic selection).
Write an introductory paragraph with at least 150 words that clearly explains the topic, the importance of further research, and ethical implications. Thesis statement.
Write a direct and concise thesis statement, which will become the solution to the problem that you will argue or prove in the Week 5 Final Paper. (A thesis statement should be a concise, declarative statement. The thesis statement must appear at the end of the introductory paragraph.) Annotated bibliography.
Develop an annotated bibliography to indicate the quality of the sources you have read.
Summarize in your own words how the source contributes to the solution of the global societal issue for each annotation.
Address fully the purpose, content, evidence, and relation to other sources you found on this topic (your annotation should be one to two paragraphs long—150 words or more.
Include no less than five scholarly sources in the annotated bibliography that will be used to support the major points of the Final Paper.
Demonstrate critical thinking skills by accurately interpreting evidence used to support various positions of the topic.
Central Michigan University Week 1 Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystems Discussion

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