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Child Labour In India And Human Rights Young People Essay

Child Labour In India And Human Rights Young People Essay. Introduction Child labour is undoubtedly a human rights issue. It is not only exploitative but also endangers children’s physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development. It perpetuates poverty because a child labour, deprived of education or healthy physical development, is likely to become an adult with low earning prospects. [1] This is a vicious cycle which apart from ruining the lives of many results in an overall backwardness in the masses. Moreover, conceptualising child labour as a human rights issue gives the victim with the authority to hold violators liable. Human rights generate legal grounds for political activity and expression, because they entail greater moral force than ordinary legal obligations. Children are right holders with the potential to make valuable contributions to their own present and future well being as well as to the social and economic development of the society and thus they should under no circumstances be perceived as passive and vulnerable. Today, traditionally prescribed interventions against child labour which were welfare based like providing a minimum age for work are being replaced by rights-based approach. A rights-based approach to child labour needs to be adopted which puts internationally recognized rights of children to the center while utilizing UDHR, ICCPR and ICESCR as a supportive framework. Child labour is a condition from which the children have a right to be free and it is not merely an option for which regulating standards must be devised. In this paper we shall firstly trace the slow orientation of child labour laws to include human rights perspective internationally, and then evaluate current Indian laws and policies from a human rights perspective A Human rights approach to child labour Initially, scholars were unsure over extending human rights to children. [2] For instance, the 1948 Universal declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) emphasises that “everyone is entitled to all rights and freedoms set forth in the declaration…” but makes no age qualification to the same. So it is unclear whether it extends to children. However, Art.4 of UDHR has been interpreted as prohibiting exploitation of child labour by interpreting “servitude” to include child labour. [3] In addition, Articles 23 and 26 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights seek to guarantee “just and favorable conditions of work” and the “right to education,” both of which are violated constantly and globally through the exercise of the worst forms of child labor. In 1966 the International Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights (ICESCR) and International Covenant on civil and political rights (ICCPR) took significant preliminary steps towards modifying human rights according to age, by defining childhood as a state requiring special protection, with rights distinct to those of adults. [4] Even so it was not until 1989 that the Convention on Rights of Children (CRC) clearly spelt out the rights of the child while giving them a special status apart from the adults. Thus, it should not be surprising that early international legal efforts to address child labour tended to be abolitionist in tone and treated as an aspect of labour market regulation. [5] Next, a prioritization approach was adopted where concentration was on the more abusive forms of child labour. So the ILO adopted Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, 1999, aimed at the immediate elimination of intolerable forms of child labor. The convention requires signatories to work with business groups to identify hazardous [6] forms of child labor and introduce time-bound programs for eliminating them. Conventions 138 and 182 are recognised as core International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions but unfortunately human rights groups have done much to criticise it. They argue that this artificial division of hazardous and non-hazardous forms of child labour is artificial and made only for the benefit of labour regulations. Child labour in any form is very harmful and exploitative for the children. [7] Secondly, child labour, as defined by ILO is work done by children under the age of 12; work by children under the age of 15 that prevents school attendance; and work by children under the age of 18 that is hazardous to their physical or mental health. It is an economic activity or work that interferes with the completion of a child’s education or that is harmful to children in any way. [8] Such an age based classification is incongruous and is behind time. [9] The right to a childhood cannot be replaced by placing such age barriers which imply at least some work could be done by children at even age 12! Where is the best interest of child seen in such laws? Fortunately, a human rights approach to child labour was soon adopted by Convention on Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. Such rules focus not only on the avoidance of harm to children but as well, on regulation of employment relationship in which working children find themselves and beyond that, on rights of children to education and to participate in decisions that affect their lives, including those related to their employment. This holistic view of child labour as only a part of a child’s life is principally what sets human rights approach apart from the labour regulation approach. [10] However, some critique of CRC feel that categorizing child labour as a special category has trivialized their rights and have made them weak and in need of an adult advocate. Conversely, the defenders of CRC argue that it is through this classification that children gain more rights with legally recognized interests which are specific to their stage in life cycle. The slavery convention, 1926 and Supplementary convention on abolition of slavery, the slave trade, institutions and practices similar to slave trade, 1956 entered into force in 1957 prohibits slavery like practice under Art 1. In recent times Child labour has been read as a slave like practice as it involves economic exploitation. Since children are more vulnerable than adults and are dependent on their parents, it can be assumed that when they are economically exploited by their parents or by their consent, the decree of dependency necessary for work to b qualified as slavery like practice will be attained in most cases. In the light of ICCPR (art 8(2)) and Supplementary convention on abolition of slavery, the slave trade, institutions and practices similar to slave trade, 1956, Art.4 of UDHR should be interpreted as prohibiting exploitation of child labour as child labour comes under “servitude”. Child labour also comes under the term “forced or compulsory labour” in Art.8(3) of ICCPR. The obligations of state parties under art 8 are immediate and absolute. Thus state parties have to prevent private parties from violating child labour norms. Art 24, ICCPR obliges the state to protect children from economic exploitation. Convention on rights of child United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate a full range of human rights such as civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights for children. The Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and as a member of a family and community, with rights and responsibilities appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. By recognizing children’s rights in this way, the Convention firmly sets the focus on the whole child. The Convention under Art.32 speaks of economic exploitation of children by making them perform work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. The Convention spells out a child’s right to education [11] , as well as identifying the forms of harm to which children should not be exposed. Other rights given to children include right “to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health” and to abolish traditional practices that are prejudicial to children’s health (Article 24), a right “to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development”; parents have the main responsibility for this, but governments are required “within their means” to assist parents, as well as to provide material assistance and support in case of need(Article 27) and a right “to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child”. Article 22 specifies that refugee children have the same rights as all other children. Article 6 of the convention makes it the obligation of the governments to ensure that children are able to survive and develop “to the maximum extent possible” while Article 11 urges governments to prevent “the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad”. Under Article 19, Governments must take action to protect children against all forms of physical or mental violence, injury, abuse, neglect, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse [12] and must provide special protection and assistance to children who are deprived of their own family environment under article 20. Article 35, requires governments to take action to prevent children from being trafficked while articles Article 36 and 39 requires governments to protect children “against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child’s welfare” and to help children recover from exploitation, neglect or abuse (particularly their physical and psychological recovery and return and reintegration into the communities they come from). Two other provisions in the Convention are also vitally important for working children. Article 3 says government agencies and other institutions taking action concerning a child or children must base their decisions on what is in the children’s “best interests”. Article 12 emphasises that when a child is capable of forming his or her views, these should be given due attention, in accordance with the child’s age and maturity. Other conventions of interest include Optional protocol to the convention on rights of child on sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography and Optional protocol to the convention on rights of child on the involvement of children in armed conflict both adopted in May, 2000. India and its International commitments India has ratified six ILO conventions [13] relating to child labour but have not ratified the core ILO conventions on minimum age for employment (convention 138) and the worst forms of child labour, (convention 182) recognised as the core conventions at the international labour conference which makes it mandatory for the international community to follow certain standards in their crusade against child labour. Nevertheless, India has taken commendable steps to eliminate child labour. The recent right of children to free and compulsory education Act, 2009 and the preceding 86th amendment exemplifies the same. Furthermore, the passing of Juvenile Justice (care and protection) Act, 2006 shows India’s commitment to a human rights approach to child labour. The Act emphasises on looking into the best interests of the child and allows for social reintegration of child victims. In such a scenario India not signing the core labour conventions does not make a difference in the fight against child labour. India is a party to the UN declaration on the Rights of the Child 1959. India is also a signatory to the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children. More, importantly India ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 12 November 1992. [14] Other important international initiatives against child labour include the adoption of the first Forced Labor Convention (ILO, No. 29), 1930, Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action: States that a crime against a child in one place is a crime anywhere, 1996, establishment of 12 June as the World Day Against Child Labor in 2002 by ILO and the first global economic study on the costs and benefits of elimination of child labour. [15] Indian laws on child labour The present regime of laws in India relating to child labour are consistent with the International labour conference resolution of 1979 which calls for combination of prohibitory measures and measures for humanising child labour wherever it cannot be immediately outrun. [16] In 1986 Child labour (Prohibition and regulation) Act was passed, which defines a child as a person who has not completed 14 years of age. The act also states that no child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the occupations set forth in Part A or in the process set forth in Part B, except in the process of family based work or recognised school based activities. Through a notification dated 27 January 1999, the schedule has been substantially enlarged to add 6 more occupations and 33 processes to schedule, bringing the total to 13 occupations and 51 processes respectively. The government has amended the civil service (conduct) rules to prohibit employment of a child below 14 years by a government employee. Similar changes in state service rules have also been made. The framers of the Indian Constitution consciously incorporated relevant provisions in the constitution to secure compulsory primary education as well as labour protection for children. If the provisions of child labour in international conventions such as ILO standards and CRC are compared with Indian standards, it can be said that Indian constitution articulates high standards in some respects The constitution of India, under articles 23,24, 39 ( c) and (f), 45 and 21A guarantees a child free education, and prohibits trafficking and employment of children in factories etc. The articles also protect children against exploitation and abuse. Equality provisions in the constitution authorises affirmative action policies on behalf of the child. The National child labour policy (1987) set up national child labour projects in areas with high concentration of child labour in hazardous industries or occupations, to ensure that children are rescued from work and sent to bridge schools which facilitate mainstreaming. It is now recognised that every child out of school is a potential child labour and most programs working against child labour tries to ensure that every child gets an education and that children do not work in situations where they are exploited and deprived of a future. Similarly, there are other programmes like National authority for elimination of child labour, 1994 (NAECL) and National resource centre on child labour, 1993 (NRCCL). Recently, government of India notified domestic child labour, and child labour in dhabas, hotels, eateries, spas and places of entertainment as hazardous under the child labour (prohibition and regulation) Act, 1986, effective from 10-10-2006. National human rights commission has played an important role in taking up cases of worst forms of child labour like bonded labour. In 1991 in a silk weaving village of Karnataka called Magdi it held an open hearing which greatly sensitised the industry and civil societies. It also gave rise to new NCLP programmes. [17] Judicial reflections Judiciary in India has taken a proactive stand in eradicating child labour. In the case of M.C. Mehta v. State of Tamil Nadu and Ors [18] , this Court considered the causes for failure to implement the constitutional mandate vis-à-vis child labour. It was held that the State Government should see that adult member of family of child labour gets a job. The labour inspector shall have to see that working hours of child are not more than four to six hours a day and it receives education at least for two hours each day. The entire cost of education was to be borne by employer. The same was reiterated in Bandhua Mukti Morcha v.UOI [19] and directions were given to the Government to convene meeting of concerned ministers of State for purpose of formulating policies for elimination of employment of children below 14 years and for providing necessary education, nutrition and medical facilities. It was observed in both the case that it is through education that the vicious cycle of poverty and child labour can be broken. Further, well-planned, poverty-focussed alleviation, development and imposition of trade actions in employment of the children must be undertaken. Total banishment of employment may drive the children and mass them up into destitution and other mischievous environment, making them vagrant, hard criminals and prone to social risks etc. Immediate ban of child labour would be both unrealistic and counter-productive. Ban of employment of children must begin from most hazardous and intolerable activities like slavery, bonded labour, trafficking, prostitution, pornography and dangerous forms of labour and the like. [20] Also, in case of PUCL v. UOI and Ors [21] children below 15 years forced to work as bonded labour was held to be violative of Article 21 and hence the children were to be compensated. The court further observed that such a claim in public law for compensation for contravention of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the protection of which is guaranteed in the Constitution, is an acknowledged remedy for enforcement and protection of such rights. However, Human rights experts criticise the scheme of payment of compensation envisage in Child labour act and further adopted by the Judiciary with gusto. [22] They say that monetary compensation is like washing away ones conscious which still believes that if a child labour is sent to school he must be compensated for the amount which he might have got if he had worked instead. This only confuses the already divided opinion of the society today which still thinks that poor and needy children are better off working. Conclusions India has done well in enacting suitable legislations and policies to combat child labour. Nonetheless, its implementation at grass root level is very much lacking. The child labour laws today are like a scarecrow which does not eliminate child labour but only shifts it geographically to other places, to other occupations like agriculture which may be less paying or it might be still continued clandestinely. [23] The lack of a specialised enforcement officer leads to lesser attention being given to child labour legislations. Furthermore, many of the child labour programmes remain poorly funded. Child labour is a complex problem which cannot be eliminated without first attacking it at the roots. Thus, poverty, unemployment, lack of social security schemes, illiteracy and the attitude of society need to be tackled first before any progress can be made. A starting point can be to treat Child labour as a human rights problem and discouraging its manifestation in any form. If the society as such sees child labour as a social malaise, we will be much closer at achieving success. Lastly, there is a lot of debate over the age from which child labour should be banned. The ILO conventions do not give a definite age, 14 years seems to be the general understanding but CRC defines a child to be below 18 years. Right to education is for children below 14 years and Child labour is prohibited till age of 14 years. This brings the question as to whether children of age 14-18 years are to be denied basic human rights and are to be left vulnerable. Child Labour In India And Human Rights Young People Essay
Powerpoint CRM. I’m stuck on a Management question and need an explanation.

A small enterprise has decided to implement a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. Your task is to introduce a system to the enterprise. Research and prepare a presentation that describes the main features of the system and how that enterprise will benefit from it.
Your presentation should:

Be 7-10 slides in length (not including title and reference slides); each slide should have four to six bullet points.
Include presenter’s notes for each slide to further detail the key text that is included on each slide.
Cite and integrate at least two credible scholarly sources in addition to your textbook. Citations must be integrated into the presentation and all references must be listed on the Reference slide and formatted according to the CSU-Global Guide to Writing & APA (Links to an external site.). The “Best Bet Databases for Information System Management” (Links to an external site.) resource from the CSU-Global Library is a good place to find these sources.

Powerpoint CRM

Income Elasticity of Demand: Analysis of Nestle

Economics is the study of making choices, It examines how people choose the product in satisfying their unlimited wants by considering many factors. Economics is “The study of how society decides what, how and for whom to produce”. (Begg,2003) COMPANY PROFILE Nestlé was founded in 1867 on the shores of Lake Geneva in Vevey, Switzerland and its first product was “Farine Lactée Nestlé”, an infant cereal specially formulated by Henri Nestlé to provide and improve infant nutrition. From its first historic merger with the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in 1905, Nestlé has grown to become the world’s largest and most diversified food Company, and is about twice the size of its nearest competitor in the food and beverages sector. In 2004, Nestlé had around 247,000 employees worldwide, operated 500 factories in approx. 100 countries and offered over 8,000 products to millions of consumers universally. In India Nestle has its headquarters in Gurgaon,Haryana. One of the main brand is Chocolates and Confectionery which is been studied here. DEMAND Demand is the quantity buyers wish to purchase at each conceivable. The demand of the product can vary from consumers to consumers and product to product. Demand is not a particular quantity but it is the price at which the consumers will purchase the product. In case of chocolates the demand can vary if the price increases. The supply of the product is also very much essesntial, The product is to be reached to the consumers in right quantity at the right time with the right price. The demand of goods can be classified into three types: The Price of related goods : This relates to the price and demand for the substitute product , If the Nestle Chocolates are not available in the market the people will start buying the substitute goods such as ice cream, cakes etc. But there is a major role for competitors, if the nestle chocolates are not available consumers can go for Cadbury chocolates also. The price increase in the complementary products such as milk, sugar, choco powder will effect the price of the product . So the price of related good playes a important role in fixing the price of the product. Consumer Income : The income of a person plays a major role in the market, if the person income goes high the demand of the product goes high as the people start buying more chocolates. The person consuming low priced chocolates will buy good quality chocolates this is the situation where the inferior goods demand gets lower. When the income increases the per capita income of the person increases which rather increases the purchasing power of the consumer. Taste : This is one of the major factor which controls the demand of a product, when the income of the consumers are high the people will think of buying good quality chocolates, when there are competitors for nestle like Cadbury, amul etc the consumers depends on taste, the taste and preferences of a product plays a major role in setting the demand of a product. ELASTICITY Elasticity is the sensitivity of change in percentage of one variable with respect to the proportional percentage change in other variable. The Elasticity can be classified in to three : Price Elasticity of Demand – This is explained as the difference between the percentage change in demand by the percentage change in price. Ed = % change in Quantity Demanded % change in Price From the above figure if the price of chocolate is been reduced by 20 pounds from 30 pounds the degree of change in demand increases from 30 kg to 50 kg , the change in price can give a very good result on the products sale ,where as when the price is been increased by 50 pounds the demand falls to 20 kg there is a great loss and the sales and demand of the product has fell down. 20%/10 %=2 , hence it is a highly elastic . Income Elasticity of Demand Income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to the change in the income of the people demanding the product . It is calculated as the ratio of the percent change in quantity demanded to the percent change in income. For example, if, in response to a 10% increase in income, the quantity of chocolate demanded increased by 20%, the income elasticity of demand would be 20%/10% = 2. A negative income elasticity of demand is associated with inferior goods an increase in income will lead to a fall in the quantity demanded and may lead to changes to more luxurious substitutes. A positive income elasticity of demand is associated with normal goods; an increase in income will lead to a rise in the quantity demanded. If income elasticity of demand of a commodity is less than 1, It is necessity good. If the elastisity of demand is greater that 1, It is a luxuary good.A zero income elasticity or inelastic demand occurs when an increase in income is not associated with a change in the quantity deanded of a good. Cross Elasticity of Demand : Measures the responsiveness of the quantity demand of a good to a change in the price of another good. For example, if, in response to a 10% increase in the price of Sugar, the quantity of Chocolates demanded decreased by 20%, the cross elasticity of demand would be -20%/10% = -2. It can be calculated using the following formula = % Change in Quantity deamand of product A % Change in Price of Product B Where the two goods are substitutes the cross elasticity of demand will be positive,so that as the price of one goes up the quantity demanded of the other will increase. For example in response to an increase in the price of cadbury chocolate, the demand for Nestle chocolate will rise. In case of perfecr sustitutes, the cross elastisity of demand is equal to infinity. Where the two goods are complements the cross elasticity of demand will be negative, so that as the price of one goes up the quantity demanded of the other will decrease. For example, in response to an increase in the price of sugar, the demand Chocolates will decrease Where the two goods are independent, the cross elasticity demand will be zero , as the price of one good changes,there will be no change in quantity demanded of the other good (B.Johns,S,Atkinson,.2001) ECONOMICS OF SCALE : Individual fixed Cost – It is the fixed cost incurred by the company for a long term period, it can be the the machinery cost or the materials required for the production of chocolates such as milk, sugar etc , the price of these will be fixed for certain period . The labour cost also will be also fixed . Specialisation – The company will be specialised in some fields or the other . Nestle chocolates can be experts in making bar chocolate while they wont be specialed in making toffees . Purchasing – It is like purchasing the product in huge quantities . If the company gives the suppliers with good price and of good quality, The supplier will buy the product from the the manufacturer, they accept lower prices to secure steady demand. The customers exploit the market power. When the purchase is been made by the suppliers in large qualtity the production will be high and it can help to increase the profit. Research and Development – The Company will have to concentrate on the R and D in order to get new technologies there by they can increase their production and they can research for new kind of chocolates where they can attract more customers. The company will have to invest n R

HLS 460 Colorado Technical University Privacy Impact Assessment Fusion Center Paper

order essay cheap HLS 460 Colorado Technical University Privacy Impact Assessment Fusion Center Paper.

Perhaps the biggest concern with regards to intelligence fusion centers at the federal, state, and local levels is the concern over privacy. Since their inception, fusion center officials have taken a number of steps to embed privacy policies and practices into the management of the program. You are the chief privacy officer (CPO) for the Department of Homeland Security assigned to the DHS privacy office. As the CPO, you are responsible for enforcing fusion center privacy policies, including specifically insuring that the methods and technologies used by the fusion centers for intelligence collection and dissemination do not violate privacy protections and that the fusion center complies with fair information practices in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974. One of your primary responsibilities as the CPO is to conduct a privacy impact assessment of the current policies, practices, and proposals involving the collection and disclosure of personal information by fusion centers. Assignment GuidelinesFor this assignment, you must write an assessment (2-3 pages) of the current policies, practices, and proposals regarding privacy and fusion centers.Using the library, course materials, textbook, and Web resources, research current policies, practices, and proposals regarding privacy and fusion centers.Address the following in 1,000–1,250 words:How do these policies affect the overall mission of the fusion center? Explain.Do the policies effectively protect privacy in accordance with U.S. privacy laws? Explain and fully support your rationale.Be sure to provide specific examples to support your arguments.How would you assess the current process of policy implementation regarding citizen privacy? Explain.How would you improve the current process and system? Give a detailed explanation.Remember to only use scholarly and academic resources to support your arguments.Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
HLS 460 Colorado Technical University Privacy Impact Assessment Fusion Center Paper

Critique 2 classmates essay rough drafts

Critique 2 classmates essay rough drafts.

For this week’s assignment, you’ll need to read and respond to at least two other students’ essays and provide them feedback. These responses must include the Peer Review rubric. Use the rubric to provide constructive feedback, incorporating specific, positive remarks as well as helpful suggestions so your peer can see you genuinely evaluated their rough draft.In addition to the rubric for each student’s paper you will also write an overall conclusion of the paper in at least 3 paragraphs. Write as if you are speaking to the student.Provide an overall conclusion and impression of your peer’s paper. What did your peer do right? What could they improve? This should include recommendations and constructive comments to help your peer improve.This week we will be undergoing the Peer Review process. This process is important because it allows us to gain insight from other perspectives (as well as allow us to give insight). For this week’s discussion, your initial post will consist of your Week 6 Rough draft (which you should submit in Week 6 after you’ve submitted your rough draft to your instructor). You will need to respond to at least two of your fellow student’s rough drafts as well. There are two key things to remember when doing this:YOU WILL SUBMIT TO ME (2) WORD DOCUMENTS WITH YOUR CRITIQUE OF EACH STUDENT PAPER AND (2) RUBRICS FILLED OUT COMPLETELY
Critique 2 classmates essay rough drafts

Case Study of Eyewitness Testimony

Case Study of Eyewitness Testimony. Memory is not reliable; memory can be altered and adjusted. Memory is stored in the brain just like files stored in a cabinet, you store it, save it and then later on retrieve and sometimes even alter and return it. In doing so that changes the original data that was first stored. Over time memory fades and becomes distorted, trauma and other events in life can cause the way we store memory to become faulty. So when focusing on eyewitnesses, sometimes our memory will not relay correct information due to different cues, questioning, and trauma and so forth, which makes eyewitness even harder to rely on. Although memory is highly unreliable and hence affects the validity of eyewitness it is still applied in the criminal justice system. Eyewitness testimonies are highly important in criminal justice systems, they are fundamental in classifying, charging, and convicting perpetrators of crimes. Jurors are significantly inclined to believe and follow eyewitness evidence; this is quite unnerving because the criminal justice system, laboratory studies and field studies supports the conclusion that eyewitnesses regularly make errors. A vast amount of studies have found that eyewitness misidentifications are the most common cause of wrongful convictions and by using forensic DNA testing, they have found that this have accounted for more convictions of innocent persons than all other factors combined (Innocence Project, 2009; Wells, Memon,Case Study of Eyewitness Testimony

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