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Chemistry of Soaps and Detergents argumentative essay help online MySQL coursework help

Chemicals in Food Chemicals are added to food for (i) their preservation, (ii) enhancing their appeal, and (iii) adding nutritive value in them. Main categories of food additives are as follows: (i) Food colours (ii) Flavours and sweeteners (iii) Fat emulsifiers and stabilising agents (iv) Flour improvers – antistaling agents and bleaches (v) Antioxidants (vi) Preservatives (vii) Nutritional supplements such as minerals, vitamins and amino acids. Except for chemicals of category (vii), none of the above additives have nutritive value.

These are added either to increase the shelf life of stored food or for cosmetic purposes. In this Section we will discuss only sweeteners and food preservatives. Artificial Sweetening Agents Natural sweeteners, e. g. , sucrose add to calorie intake and therefore many people prefer to use artificial sweeteners. Ortho-sulphobenzimide, also called saccharin, is the first popular artificial sweetening agent. It has been used as a sweetening agent ever since it was discovered in 1879. It is about 550 times as sweet as cane sugar.

It is excreted from the body in urine unchanged. It appears to be entirely inert and harmless when taken. Its use is of great value to diabetic persons and people who need to control intake of calories. Some other commonly marketed artificial sweeteners are given in Table 16. 1. Aspartame 100 Saccharin 550 Sucrolose 600 Alitame 2000 Table Table 16. 1: Artificial Sweeteners Aspartame is the most successful and widely used artificial sweetener. It is roughly 100 times as sweet as cane sugar. It is methyl ester of dipeptide formed from aspartic acid and phenylalanine.

Use of aspartame is limited to cold foods and soft drinks because it is unstable at cooking temperature. Alitame is high potency sweetener, although it is more stable than aspartame, the control of sweetness of food is difficult while using it. Sucrolose is trichloro derivative of sucrose. Its appearance and taste are like sugar. It is stable at cooking temperature. It does not provide calories. Food Food preservatives prevent spoilage of food due to microbial growth. Preservatives The most commonly used preservatives include table salt, sugar, vegetable oils and sodium benzoate, C6H5COONa.

Sodium benzoate is used in limited quantities and is metabolised in the body. Salts of sorbic acid and propanoic acid are also used as preservatives. Cleansing Agents In this Section, we will learn about detergents. Two types of detergents are used as cleansing agents. These are soaps and synthetic detergents. These improve cleansing properties of water. These help in removal of fats which bind other materials to the fabric or skin. Soaps Soaps are the detergents used since long. Soaps used for cleaning purpose are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids, e. g. stearic, oleic and palmitic acids. Soaps containing sodium salts are formed by heating fat (i. e. , glyceryl ester of fatty acid) with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. This reaction is known as saponification. In this reaction, esters of fatty acids are hydrolysed and the soap obtained remains in colloidal form. It is precipitated from the solution by adding sodium chloride. The solution left after removing the soap contains glycerol, which can be recovered by fractional distillation. Only sodium and potassium soaps are soluble in water and are used for cleaning purposes.

Generally potassium soaps are soft to the skin than sodium soaps. These can be prepared by using potassium hydroxide solution in place of sodium hydroxide. Types of soaps Basically all soaps are made by boiling fats or oils with suitable soluble hydroxide. Variations are made by using different raw materials. Toilet soaps are prepared by using better grades of fats and oils and care is taken to remove excess alkali. Colour and perfumes are added to make these more attractive. Soaps that float in water are made by beating tiny air bubbles before their hardening.

Transparent soaps are made by dissolving the soap in ethanol and then evaporating the excess solvent. In medicated soaps, substances of medicinal value are added. In some soaps, deodorants are added. Shaving soaps contain glycerol to prevent rapid drying. A gum called, rosin is added while making them. It forms sodium rosinate which lathers well. Laundry soaps contain fillers like sodium rosinate, sodium silicate, borax and sodium carbonate. Soap chips are made by running a thin sheet of melted soap onto a cool cylinder and scraping off the soaps in small broken pieces.

Soap granules are dried miniature soap bubbles. Soap powders and scouring soaps contain some soap, a scouring agent (abrasive) such as powdered pumice or finely divided sand, and builders like sodium carbonate and trisodium phosphate. Builders make the soaps act more rapidly. The cleansing action of soap has been discussed in Unit 5. Why do soaps not work in hard water? Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions. These ions form insoluble calcium and magnesium soaps respectively when sodium or potassium soaps are dissolved in hard water.

These insoluble soaps separate as scum in water and are useless as cleansing agent. In fact these are hinderance to good washing, because the precipitate adheres onto the fibre of the cloth as gummy mass. Hair washed with hard water looks dull because of this sticky precipitate. Dye does not absorb evenly on cloth washed with soap using hard water, because of this gummy mass. Synthetic Detergents Synthetic detergents are cleansing agents which have all the properties of soaps, but which actually do not contain any soap. These can be used both in soft and hard water as they give foam even in hard water.

Some of the detergents give foam even in ice cold water. Synthetic detergents are mainly classified into three categories: (i) Anionic detergents (ii) Cationic detergents and (iii) Non-ionic detergents (i) Anionic Detergents: Anionic detergents are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Alkyl hydrogensulphates formed by treating long chain alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid are neutralised with alkali to form anionic detergents. Similarly alkyl benzene sulphonates are obtained by neutralising alkyl benzene sulphonic acids with alkali.

In anionic detergents, the anionic part of the molecule is involved in the cleansing action. Sodium salts of alkylbenzenesulphonates are an important class of anionic detergents. They are mostly used for household work. Anionic detergents are also used in toothpastes. (ii) Cationic Detergents: Cationic detergents are quarternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates, chlorides or bromides as anions. Cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain and a positive charge on nitrogen atom. Hence, these are called cationic detergents.

Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is a popular cationic Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide detergent and is used in hair conditioners. Cationic detergents have germicidal properties and are expensive, therefore, these are of limited use. (iii) Non-ionic Detergents: Non-ionic detergents do not contain any ion in their constitution. One such detergent is formed when stearic acid reacts with polyethyleneglycol. Liquid dishwashing detergents are non-ionic type. Mechanism of cleansing action of this type of detergents is the same as that of soaps. These also remove grease and oil by micelle formation.

Main problem that appears in the use of detergents is that if their hydrocarbon chain is highly branched, then bacteria cannot degrade this easily. Slow degradation of detergents leads to their accumulation. Effluents containing such detergents reach the rivers, ponds, etc. These persist in water even after sewage treatment and cause foaming in rivers, ponds and streams and their water gets polluted. These days the branching of the hydrocarbon chain is controlled and kept to the minimum. Unbranched chains can be biodegraded more easily and hence pollution is prevented.

Pharmacy Tour

Pharmacy Tour.

Use Humor and heart touching feeling to this paper.**** 1. Visited CVS- Customer Center. 2. Some of the videos we watched were Member Onboarding how easy it was and app is user friendly, Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis- how the nurse helps you personally just like a humble family member, Acute to Chronic (Minute Clinic), Rick’s Specialty Story- this was very heart touching and felt like if I ever get sick and am alone in life I can definitely count of CVS to get me through hardships of my disabilities and how nurses help me day in and day out, Real Time Benefits, and Epic. 3. We also saw the new machine added to Mail Order this summer is the Horizontal Dispensing Unit, which replaced the old machine called ADU. HDU replaced ADU (Automatic Dispensing Unit). Bottles were getting stuck in the ADU machine because not all bottles are perfectly round, some are kind of square. This led to inefficiencies. The HDU allows for any shape bottle and is at least 5 times more efficient. 4. *****Change the wording of the following as this may cause the plagiarism:****8 Gives a valuable opportunity to develop a good sense of the role pharmacists play in the community and on the health care team. Showing how pharmacists help patients in a real world setting, how pharmacists working with patients have improved health care and decreased costs to the overall system through counseling reminding them of various refills and basically acting like a robotic mind for them to make their lives easier. • Demonstrate how you are one of the most accessible health care providers in your area and country • Demonstrate your work with Medicare Part D beneficiaries and how our services have protected seniors. Pharmacists are one of the few health care professionals without recognition as health care providers who help improve lives.

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