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Chemistry homework help

Chemistry homework help. Exercise 9-2 Accounting for credit card sales LO C1Levine Company uses the perpetual inventory system and allows customers to use two credit cards in charging purchases. With the Suntrust Bank Card, Levine receives an immediate credit to its account when it deposits sales receipts. Suntrust assesses a 4% service charge for credit card sales. The second credit card that Levine accepts is the Continental Card. Levine sends its accumulated receipts to Continental on a weekly basis and is paid by Continental about a week later. Continental assesses a 2.5% charge on sales for using its card.ÿÿApr.ÿ8Sold merchandise for $8,400 (that had cost $6,000) and accepted the customer’s Suntrust Bank Card. The Suntrust receipts are immediately deposited in Levine’s bank account.ÿ12Sold merchandise for $5,600 (that had cost $3,500) and accepted the customer’s Continental Card. Transferred $5,600 of credit card receipts to Continental, requesting payment.ÿ20Received Continental’s check for the April 12 billing, less the service charge.Prepare journal entries to record the above selected credit card transactions of Levine Company.Exercise 9-3 Direct write-off method LO P1Dexter Company applies the direct write-off method in accounting for uncollectible accounts.ÿÿMarch11Dexter determines that it cannot collect $45,000 of its accounts receivable from its customer Lester Company.ÿ29Lester Company unexpectedly pays its account in full to Dexter Company. Dexter records its recovery of this bad debt.ÿÿPrepare journal entries to record the above selected transactions of Dexter.Exercise 9-4 Percent of sales method; write-off LO P2At year-end (December 31), Chan Company estimates its bad debts as 0.5% of its annual credit sales of $975,000. Chan records its Bad Debts Expense for that estimate. On the following February 1, Chan decides that the $580 account of P. Park is uncollectible and writes it off as a bad debt. On June 5, Park unexpectedly pays the amount previously written off.ÿÿPrepare the journal entries of Chan to record these transactions and events of December 31, February 1, and June 5.Chemistry homework help
Anglia Ruskin University Cambridge & Chelmsford ECERS Scoring Sheet.

I’m working on a social science writing question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

For this assignment you need to be familiar with preschool assessments .For this assignment you will review the preschool assessment ECERS Drdrd 2015 scoring sheet ,and then complete the ecers revised scoring sheet it is 12 pages and then write a reflection. You will need the book Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-R): Revised Edition by thelma harms . I do not have the book. You can put the names and information that listed on the ecers drdp 2015 scoring sheet .Attached is the ECERS Drdrd 2015 scoring sheet ,and the ecers revised scoring sheet Complete ECERS-R score sheet-43 items with comments in all (43×3)o Total score parto Conclusion/refection thoughtConclusion/ ReflectionAfter you have administered ECERS-R rating all 43 items, you will reflect and write a reflection of your experience. Write a brief paragraph in which you discuss:Knowledge: Discuss/Identify/list knowledge (information) you’ve gained pertaining to administering ECERS-R at a program. Be specific. You could say:“The knowledge I have gained pertaining to completing ECERS-R is now…. -I know the fact about it… ……- I used to think….. But I now know……-I have more understanding of ….-I am aware of… -I can better comprehend……. Remember to discuss specific knowledge… if need be you can refer back to ECERS book and also, our textbook.Skills: Discuss/identify/list the skill (ability, capability) you gained pertaining to administering ECERS-R. Be specific. You could say:“I will be able to“I am capable of“I know how to do- I used to do…. But now I realize it is best to do…. Because. …Remember to discuss specific knowledge… if need be you can refer back to ECERS book and also, our textbook.Growth: After discussing/identifying/listing the knowledge and the skills you have gained. Now, provide an explanation as to how information and the skills learned will be used for future growth. You could:Discuss how you will use the knowledge and skills you have developed;And how you will improve or build upon your strengths and weaknesses.Beliefs: How has completing the above assignment influenced your beliefs about Environment/Program/Children Development/etc.?Anything else you would like to share regarding the assignmentBe very specific and detail
Anglia Ruskin University Cambridge & Chelmsford ECERS Scoring Sheet

Engineering homework help. Discussion: Design Thinking Inspiration and IdeationWhile you are doing your coursework for this program, what workspace are you using? Are you currently at your workplace in your office or cubicle, or perhaps working in a home office or a shared space? Regardless of where you do your work for this class, do you find it to be an ideal workspace? Perhaps you need better lighting, a quieter environment, or inspiring and motivating mementos to keep you focused. Perhaps you need an innovative improvement. These are exactly the types of issues that can be solved by design thinking and the application of your own creative skills.This week, you will complete assignments that involve the design-thinking process. By utilizing this creative process, you will gain a deeper insight into the ways that you can bring creativity to your own life at work and at home.Phase 1: Inspiration The first phase of the process, as described by Tim Brown, is inspiration.Take some time to interact with the space where you work. This could be at your job, where you do homework, or your home office. Make sure it is an environment over which you have some control, such as with lighting, sound, furniture placement, etc.Adopt the role of a neutral observer and generate a list of observations of how you use this workspace. Your list should answer the following questions:What about the workspace is already optimized or ideal?Why do these things work well?What about the workspace could be improved?Are there problems or difficulties that you repeatedly experience?What behaviors, functions, and interactions that take place in your workspace seem interesting or notable?Your process should take the form of brainstorming. That is, the initial list does not need to be formal in tone. Rather, you should strive to capture your observations as they occur and generate as many ideas as possible.After completing your list, write a short paragraph describing in greater depth one of the difficult or problematic aspects of your workspace you identified during the brainstorming phase. This will be the workspace challenge that you will continue to work on for Phase 2 of the design thinking process. Remember, you are not coming up with solutions at this time, but only a detailed description of the workspace challenge you have identified.Phase 2: IdeationTo begin Phase 2 of the design thinking process, focus on the workspace challenge you identified in Phase 1 of this Discussion. Considering the workspace challenge you indentified, brainstorm a list of at least 10 innovative ideas that could resolve or help you meet the challenge; if you come up with more than 10 ideas, feel free to post them all. To generate innovative ideas, consider the following guidelines:Do not evaluate your ideas; all are valid and there are no bad ideas.Do not limit your ideas to products. An innovation can also be a new service, process, or organizational change.Reach the maximum amount of possible ideas; do not waste time analyzing.Do not fear extreme ideas; often the best innovations come from ideas that initially seem extreme.Strive to suggest a disruptive innovation if at all possible?a completely new and radical idea.With these thoughts in mind:By Day 3Post your list of workspace observations and your description of one particular problem from Phase 1, and your innovative ideas list from Phase 2Engineering homework help
Histamine Stimulated Small Intestine. The longitudinal smooth muscle of the guinea-pig ileum small intestine contracts in response to acetylcholine. These contractions can be reduced by the application of adenosine and related compounds. The guinea-pig ileum is innervated by the enteric, sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic and enteric fibres release acetylcholine which acts on muscarinic receptors. The action of adenosine and its receptor antagonists can be assessed by comparing electrically induced contractions via electrical field stimulation and histamine induced contractions. Electrical field stimulation contractions cause presynaptic release of acetylcholine to produce contractions where as the histamine induced contractions cause postsynaptic contractile responses. Throughout this study adenosine and its receptor antagonist actions will be investigated and compared using electrical field stimulation and histamine. The contraction of the gut In gastrointestinal smooth muscles, researches show that there are two types of muscarinic receptors types that are present as targets to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Okamoto et al., 2002).Acetylcholine and its derivatives produce contractions by activating muscarinic receptors. The muscarinic receptors types are known as M2 and M3. Binding Studies have portrayed that the number of M2 receptors is greater than that of the M3 receptors however functional studies have shown that M3 muscarinic receptors play a fundamental role in mediating the contractile response (Eglen et al., 1996) and the functional role of M2 exists as unclear (Clague et al., 1985). The M3 receptor is coupled with G proteins, causing activation of phospholipase C and formation of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which are expected to contribute in muscarinic receptor mediated smooth muscle contractions (Unno et al., 2005). They also mediate relaxation due to the release of nitric oxide from neighbouring endothelial cells. M3 receptors in visceral smooth muscle contribute to the smooth muscle stimulating effect of muscarinic agonists. However the muscarinic receptor most abundant in the ileum is the M2 which cause an indirect contraction of the guinea-pig ileum by preventing the relaxing effect of drugs (Ehlert and Thomas, 1995). Both muscarinic receptor subtypes are activated by acetylcholine and produce a contractile response; however they vary in their transduction mechanisms and signalling pathways. Adenosine Adenosine has numerous diverse roles in normal physiology; such roles include promoting/maintaining sleep, regulating state of encouragement as well as local neuronal excitability and coupling cerebral blood flow to energy demand (Dunwiddie and Masino, 2001). It exists free in the cytosol of all cells and is transported in and out of all cells mainly using a membrane transporter(Rang et al., 2007). Under normal conditions, adenosine is formed intracellularly as well as extracellularly (Fredholm et al., 2001). ATP is stored in vesicles and released by exocytosis. It is also available in the cytosol of cells and is taken up and released via a specific membrane transporter. Released ATP and ADP are rapidly converted to adenosine by the action of tissue nucleotides. Studies have shown that there are pathways that contribute to adenosine formation, a) by the action of adenylate kinase and cystolic 5′-nucleotidase, b) formation from hydrolysis of adenosine 3, 5′ phosphate and c) formation by the action of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase. The pharmacological effects of adenosine include smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of nerve activity, lipolysis and platelet aggregation(Daly et al., 1983). There is evidence that stimulation or inhibition is of adenylate cyclise is involved in adenosine action and therefore it has been concluded that adenosine is mediated by cyclic AMP. Based on its ability to inhibit cell function and thus minimise the metabolic requirements of cells, one of its functions may be as a protective agent released when tissue integrity is threatened. Adenosine exerts its physiological actions activation of a number of specific cell surface receptors. There are four different adenosine receptors known as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Some characteristics of these receptors are presented in Figure 1a. These subtypes have been distinguished on the basis of their agonist and antagonist selectivity. They belong to the G protein-coupled receptors. Mechanism of Adenosine action Adenosine A1 receptors are negatively coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, however they can act through other pathways such as stimulation of phospholipase C, activation of potassium channels and inhibition of N-type calcium channels (Zizzo et al., 2009). A1 receptors are coupled to Gi and G0 proteins and lead to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and consequently cause a decrease in cAMP (Ranjit, 2008). Adenosine A2A and A2B are coupled for activation of adenylate cyclise whereas A3 receptors have been shown to stimulate phospholipase C and D, to inhibit adenylate cyclase and to activate ATP sensitive potassium channel (Ralevic and Burnstock, 1998). Activation of these receptors require comparatively high amounts of adenosine. A2A and A2B receptors have a high and a low affinity for adenosine respectively. Receptor Subtype A1 A2A A2B A3 Transduction mechanism Inhibits adenylyl cyclase Activates adenylyl cyclase Activates adenylyl cyclase Inhibits adenylyl cyclase Primary distribution Brain (cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus). Dorsal horn of spinal cord. Eye, adrenal gland, atria Spleen, thymus, leukocytes, blood platelets. Straitopallidal GABAergic neurons, olfactory bulb Caecum, colon, bladder Testis, mast cells Tissue functions Antinociception, Hypothermia. Sedation, Sleep, Inhibition of lipolysis, Cardio and neuroprotection Reflex tachycardia, vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, sleep protection against ischemia Relaxation of vascular and intestinal smooth muscle, cytokine production, inhibition of cell proliferation Mast cell degranulation, coronary vasodilation and protection from reperfusion Selective antagonists DPCPX PSB 36 SCH 58261 PSB 1115 potassium salt MRS 3777 hemioxalate Figure 1a: Summary of adenosine receptors. Adenosine and the enteric functions of the Gut The enteric nervous system (ENS) consists of a compilation of neurons in the gastrointestinal nervous system which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system. It moderates motility, secretion, microcirculation, inflammatory and immune responses of the gastrointestinal tract (Altaf and Sood, 2008). The ENS is composed of extrinsic, which consists of parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions and the intrinsic component which encloses neurons. Intestinal functions results from an interaction between the ENS, smooth muscle and the mucosal/immune system. The network is regulated by several mediators; however there is consolidating evidence that adenosine is a significant regulating agent (Bueno, 2000) (Wood, 2004). Studies show that in the small intestine adenosine and adenosine derivatives where found to inhibit cholinergic transmission in guinea-pigs via a prejunctional action on neurotransmitter release (Gustafsson et al., 1978). The action of the A1 receptors allowed mediation of the inhibitory action of adenosine in the cholinergic transmission(Shinozuka et al., 1985) of motor neurones innervating circular and longitudinal smooth muscle however A2A receptors have been reported to reduce the cholinergic motor responses(Gustafsson et al., 1985a; Gustafsson et al., 1985b). Histamine Histamine has a role as a primary transmitter or neuromodulator and it is widely distributed within mammalian tissues. (Izzo et al., 1998). Histamine is a vasoactive substance to be identified in the body which can rapidly metabolise and holds properties of being highly polar and not diffusing readily across cell membranes or the blood-brain barrier. It is stored in mast cells and basophils of blood and has two receptors known as H1 and H2. The release of histamine could cause changes in the cardiovascular system and induce anaphylactic shock. Histamine has been shown to induce gastric acid secretion through the H2 receptors linked to cyclic AMP production in oxyntic cells. Researches show that gastric cells of the guinea-pig may have a class of binding sites for histamine which shows no relationship to adenylate cyclase and the H2 receptor. Histamine creates a spasmogenic effect on the intestine that results from H1 receptor stimulation(Guy A. and Settipane, 1988-1989). There are three histamine subtypes known as H1, H2 AND H3 and all three have been identified to be present in the guinea pig small intestine. Studies show that H1 receptor subtypes mediate the contraction of the longitudinal muscle in the small intestine (Izzo et al., 1998). However researchers also state that the effect of histamine is predominantly due to the interaction with H1 receptors located on smooth muscle cells and moderately due to the interaction H2 receptors present on myenteric plexus interneurones (Bauer and Matusak, 1988). AIMS The aim is to confirm the prejunctional action of adenosine and examine whether adenosine has the additional ability to relax the smooth muscle directly. The project will use histamine to contract the smooth muscle and the objective is to find out whether adenosine can reduce these contractions and if so is the concentration range similar to that needed to inhibit the contractions to the electrical field-stimulation? It will also be investigated what adenosine receptor subtype is involved (A1, A2A, A2B, A3 identified using selective antagonists). METHOD Animals and preparation of tissue Dunkin Hartley guinea-pigs (250g ) of male sex that had previously been fed Harlan 2040, the guinea-pig diet and ad lib filtered tap water, were obtained from Harlan UK. They were group housed and provided with grade 6 woodchip and hay bedding. Their enrichment consisted of plastic and cardboard fun tunnels, plastic igloos and gnawing blocks. Furthermore they were kept at room temperatures of 19-23°C and at room humidity of 45-65%. They were provided with 12 hours light and 12 hours of dark lighting. The guinea-pigs were stunned by a blow to the head and sacrificed by exsanguination. Two segments of 3cm length were removed from the distal part of the small intestine, for each tissue the ends were tied with cotton threads to the tissue holder and then suspended in 20ml organ baths containing Krebs solution (composition in mM: NaCl, 118; NaHCO3, 25; Glucose, 11; KCl, 4.7; CACl2, 2.5; KH2PO4, 1.18; MgSO4, 1.18). This was aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and maintained at 37°C. The tissues were left for 30minutes to equilibrate under a resting tension of 1g before starting the stimulation. Experimental protocol The organ baths were equipped with parallel electrodes which allowed electrical field stimulation to be transmitted at a frequency of 0.1Hz, 40V, 0.5ms pulse duration. Contractions of the ileum were measured with isometric transducers (ADInstruments Force Transducers), amplified and recorded onto a data capture system (Lab Charts on the PC). The tissues were allowed to stabilise in the organ baths in order to reach steady contractions. Figure 1b represents the experimental set up. C:UsersHomeDocumentsDSC00308.JPG Figure 1b shows the laboratory designed set up for the experiment, with a set of two organ baths. There were several parts (a-e) to the experiments to be carried out on the ileum. ‘n’ is the number of ileum used throughout the experiment n=18. The number of experiments carried out on the ileum was 56. Effect of Adenosine-the experiment consisted of stimulating the tissues continuously with electrical field stimulation and adding cumulative concentrations of adenosine (10-11M – 10-4M) to the organ baths and the responses were recorded. Effect of Histamine- the tissues were stimulated with histamine, cumulative concentrations of histamine (10-11M – 10-4M) were added to the organ bath and responses were measured. The concentration 1×10-6M gave the maximum response and a steady contraction, it was used to contract the tissue with adenosine. Effect of Adenosine in the presence of Histamine- the concentration of histamine that gave the maximum and steady response was added to organ bath. The tissue was permitted to stabilise in order to reach steady contractions. Once reached, cumulative concentrations of adenosine were added (10-8M – 10-4M) in order to observe the responses of the ileum to adenosine in the presence of histamine. Effect of PSB36(10-8M)Histamine Stimulated Small Intestine

Analysis Of Organisational Culture And Performance Business Essay

There are two main objectives of this study in the light of current research literature. First is to test empirically the organisational culture and performance relationship in banking industry, especially in Indonesia context. Second is to test empirically whether organisational culture may make a differentiation between the best and the worse performance of Indonesian banking industry. To achieve those objectives, the specific objectives are: To test empirically the relationship between strong organisational culture and performance (C-P) in a sample of Indonesian banks industry. To test empirically the relationship between organisational culture gap and performance in a sample of Indonesian banks industry. To test empirically the relationship between organisational culture and fraud (C-F) perception, in Indonesian banking context. To test empirically whether organisational culture can differentiate between Islamic bank and conventional banks, in Indonesian banking context. Research contributions There are academically and empirically some expected contributions from this research. It firstly relates to provide a framework for analyzing the corporate culture in the banking Industry. Saffold (1998) points out that organizational culture and performance studies share a generic conceptual framework. This framework relates organizational culture profile with organizational performance in proportion to the strength of cultural traits. This study, however, is different from the existing framework. Besides providing good corporate culture of management practices, this study framework is also influenced by societal, industrial (specific banking industry), and specific culture of Islamic Banks (see section 2.8 literature review for more detail). This framework hopefully may help banks’ management in Indonesia to manage their corporate culture and eventually improve their performance and reduce the fraud as well. Secondly, this research will elaborate new things relating to organizational culture and performance studies. For example it will compare the high and low performance of the banks, between Islamic bank and the rest of the banks, test the relationship between organizational culture and fraud, and use CAMEL (longitudinal) data in measuring bank performance. The existing studies such as Peters and Waterman (1982), Kotter and Heskett (1992) do comparison however based on convenience organization samples. Thirdly, this research will also overcome methodological flaws from previous studies. These flaws such as participating organisations on the study are in small numbers and cannot be representing the entire industry; selected respondents are not representing the entire organisation cultures (convenience samples), mostly top level managerial-up (Calori and Sarnin, 1992; Kotter and Heskett, 1992; Wilderom, Glunk and Maslowski, 2001). Combining with high and low performer banks, this study, however, will use bank samples more than 75% of the banking industry (in term of assets) or more than 30% (30-40 banks) in terms of number of bank in banking industry. Simple random sampling in selecting the respondents will be used to represent culture of the entire organisations. Fourthly, this research will elaborate the influence of organizational culture on organizational performance in Indonesian context, a non-western and emerging countries. Such studies are rare. Those organizational culture studies are usually conducted in western countries, mostly USA and Europe. This study will reveal weather organizational culture can become an indicator of banking performance so that related parties such as the banking supervisory authority may be beneficial in improving its policies on banking supervision and regulations. Since this organisational culture – performance study emphasizing banking industry is also rare, this study will also beneficial to the banking industry, especially both in Indonesia and emerging countries and world banking industry. Plan of the study The thesis will consist of nine chapters in total. The background, objective of the study, and plan of the study will be presented in chapter one. Chapter two will provide the background of Indonesia and Indonesia banking industry. Overview of Indonesian banking industry will be highlighted. This overview will include history, development and current condition of the Indonesian banking industry. The structure of Indonesian banking industry consisted of five classifications of bank will also be presented. How to measure the performance (CAMEL Rating system) of each bank will also be provided. Chapter three presents the literature review of organisational culture and performance. A critical analysis of main variables: organisational culture, organisational performance, and relationship of organisational culture-performance will be presented. This chapter will present conceptualisation (including national culture) and measurement of organisational culture. The key empirical studies of organisational culture-performance, major studies of culture involving Indonesia, and the Islamic and conventional bank studies will be presented. Limitations of existing studies and research gaps to be filled will also be identified and the position taken in the literature will be justified. Research hypotheses generated will be provided. Chapter four presents the research design of this study. Strength and weaknesses of research philosophy will be critically presented. An appropriate research approach and strategy will be identified and justified. Operationalisation of the instrument used will be provided. Appropriate techniques to be used to test hypotheses are described and justified. Chapter five presents the result of strong culture thesis using overall CAMEL rating as the objective of bank performance. Chapter six presents the result of culture gap thesis using overall CAMEL rating as the objective of bank performance. Chapter seven will test the relationship between organisational culture and individual perception of fraud. In chapter eight, whether organisational culture can make a differentiation between Islamic and conventional bank’s performance will be tested. Chapter nine provides a summary of results and conclusions. This chapter will be discussed implications of the results for theory, practise, and the Central Bank Indonesia as the banking regulator and supervisor. Suggestions and interesting avenues for future research will be provided. Research model Based on the distillation of strong culture and culture gap thesis, a proposed model of this study is presented in figure 1. The degree and rapidity of change in the external environment in which organisations operate are enormous and constant. This environmental pressures and changes such as new regulations, new and existing competitors, information technology and communication change will lead to adaptation and successful organisations. Experiencing this learning process, organisation gradually learns and develops a better understanding to make effective and efficient responses. This learning process and proof organisation success will reside in organisational assumptions, beliefs and values. Based on this, organisations develop management policies, systems and control to maintain its learning success. It is expected that organisations can maintain internal coordination / integration, control and consistency of internal process. Strong shared values influence employee motivation and involvement that will lead to more costumer focus and service orientation. Thus, overall bank performance will be influenced. The first hypothesis to be tested is: H1: There is a significant relationship between strong culture and overall bank performance, using overall CAMEL rating The differentiation between perceived culture and preferred culture will lead to a culture gap. The culture gap reflects employees’ agreement with each other towards both organizational culture and the future of organisation. The bigger the gap is the harder it is for its organization to control key functions in coordination, integration and control. The smaller the gap is the better the organisation function in creating adaptive changes and reacting to customer needs and services. Thus, overall bank performance will be influenced. The second hypothesis to be tested is: H2: There is a significant relationship between strong culture and overall bank performance, using overall CAMEL rating. Strong organisation culture is that to influence individual commitment, motivation, and social control in organisation. Control systems work when those who are monitored are aware that someone is paying attention and is likely to care when things aren’t going according to the plan. In a strong culture, common agreements exist among people about what constitutes appropriate attitudes and behavior. Thus, culture has a function of social control in organisation. The third hypothesis to be tested is: H3: There is a significant relationship between strong culture and fraud perception of individuals and organisation in the Indonesian banking context. Islamic banks are governed by Islamic law that prohibited interest on loan and deposits. Profit-and-loss sharing (PLS) paradigm is the principle of Islamic banks. However, Islamic and conventional banks have the same nature of business as a bank and operate in the same industry. Assuming organizational culture-performance exists in conventional banks, whether it also exists in Islamic banks. Thus, organizational culture can differentiate between Islamic banks and conventional banks. The fourth hypothesis to be tested is: H4: Organisational culture can differentiate between Islamic banks and conventional banks, in Indonesian banking context. Environmental pressures and changes: societal and industrial culture Figure 1 A Proposed Model Overall bank performance (CAMEL rating) H5: Differencing high and low performance H5a: Islamic bank and conventional bank Organisational assumptions, beliefs, and values (Schein, 2004) Good corporate culture (process): Management policies, system, practices and controls specifically focus on corporate culture H1 Organisation learning and response (Schein, 2004) Adaptive change and flexibility Black line = Influence Blue line = Feedback Source: Adapted from Kotter and Heskett (1992), Deal and Kennedy (1992), Peters and Waterman (1992), Denison (1990), O’Reilly (1989), Hammer (2004), O’Reilly and Chatman (1991), Cameron and Quinn (2006), Wilderom and Van den Berg (1998), and Gup (1991) Individual behaviour guidance and performance Culture gap H3 Good corporate culture: Values Practices Customers focus and service orientation Fraud perception H4 Coordination/integration, control, motivation, and involvement Strong culture H2 Cek list ada strong culture di: Wallach 83 CAMEL Rating bank compliance .. Rating of management is the rating of the managerial capacity of the Bank management in conducting its business, adequacy of risk management, and compliance of the Bank with applicable legal provisions and commitments made to Bank Indonesia and/or other parties. Bank compliance is defined as the compliance of the Bank with applicable legal provisions, including but not limited to the Legal Lending Limit, Net Open Position, and Know Your Customer Principles. Schein 418 Learning and change cannot be imposed on people. Their involvement and participation is needed in diagnosing what is going on, in figuring out what to do, and in actually bringing about learning and change. The more turbulent, ambiguous, and out of control the world becomes, the more the learning process must be shared by all the members of the social unit doing the learning. Kilmann (Schein) p.38 In summary, organizational midlife is the period when managers have the most choice as to whether and how to manage cultural issues and is therefore the time when they need to be most aware of how to diagnose where the organization is and where it is going. As organizations face increasingly turbulent environments, flexible cultures, cultures that encourage diversity rather than uniformity, may well be more advantageous than strong cultures. 1 Kilmann p. 144 Culture Is Not Just an Internal Affair Stanley M. Davis In summary, OPEC, industry economics, and government regulation all affected the oil companies more than did their customers and competitors; and they affected the oil companies’ cultures as well as their strategies. 1p.150 routine supervision. In summary, the culture at Lincoln is based on the strong convictions of the company’s founders and is well developed vertically, horizontally, and historically. It is similar in many ways to what Sethia and Von Glinow (see Chapter Nineteen) call an “integrative” culture. The culture is pervasive and affects the company’s structure, compensation systems, physical facilities, relations with customers and stockholders, and personnel policies as well as the daily behavior of managers and employees. p.160 Summary Specialized corporate cultures have numerous advantages, including strong member commitment to the values inherent in the culture. However, such pervasive cultures are less tolerant of divergent values, which creates potential problems with morale and turnover. Careful recruitment and selection of members predisposed to accept an existing or new culture should minimize these problems. However, another disadvantage is the inability of specialized cultures to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions. The advantages of uniformity and commitment must be balanced against the disadvantages of potential stagnation and reduced flexibility. It appears that specialized cultures may be better suited to environments where fundamental changes have a low probability of occurrence because as much effort is required to maintain specialized cultures as is required to create them. The managements of Lincoln Electric 200 Moreover, a number of writers have begun to develop a variety of theories of culture change that might assist managers in their attempts to “manage” their cultures. For example, Pettigrew (1979) suggests that since leaders are the “creators” of culture, culture change is accompanied by a change in leadership; thus, leadership succession is the essen-‘ tial ingredient in culture change. From a rather different perspective, O’Toole (1979) argues that culture is imbedded in organizational structures such as a company’s reward system or hierarchy of authority. Therefore, to change culture the key structures supporting a given culture must be changed. Others, such as Ouchi (1981) and Peters and Waterman (1982), believe that culture can be changed by developing a new set of values, or “management philosophy,” which is then inculcated into employees. The change process involves the development of new company goals and ideals and the socialization of both old and new employees to this new set of beliefs. The creation of new symbols as a change strategy has also been discussed by Peters (1978). He argues that leaders can change culture simply by changing their activities, agendas, or interpersonal styles to reinforce new behaviors. Thus, the management of symbols and their accompanying meanings is the agent of cultural change. Other writers, such as Silverzweig and Allen (1976), Baker (1980), Schwartz and Davis (1981), and Sathe (1983), have also outlined similar strategies that might be used to change organizational cultures. While these writers present a variety of potentially useful approaches to managing culture change, they tend to focus immediately on specific tactics or strategies for change rather than first attempting to uncover the underlying processes of culture change. Rather than present simply another strategy for managing culture change, the purpose of this chapter is to describe the conditions and processes under which such change takes place. After we are able to describe the process of culture change, we can then begin to explore meaningfully how it might be managed. The model of culture change that will be described was derived by examining the histories of five organizations that have experienced significant changes in their cultures: General 270 Tn ssummary, culture is hard to change when it is deeply held. Because of long experience, people often are unable to see alternatives easily. Many will have developed personal stakes in the current way of operating and thus do not want to change. And when those who have both a long history and a personal stake in current ways are powerful, they do not have to change, and they can enforce their reticence on the company. The implication of our definition of culture is that culture is most powerful when it is least obvious; that is, when it is taken for granted because it has worked in the past as a way of seeing the world and operating within it. Further, unless culture is changed at all three levels-assumptions, values, and practices- and especially at the level of assumptions, an organization’s culture has not really been changed. As we consider the elements making up an “ideal culture,” we will focus on assumptions, because these are the component of culture most difficult to change. However, our examples will also suggest values and practices consistent with the assumptions of an ideal culture. P 354 What Are Adaptive Cultures? Even if we accept the idea that the term culture will always be a bit vague and ill defined, unlike the more superficial and tangible aspects of organizations, it is still important to consider what makes a culture good or bad, adaptive or dysfunctional, Wallach (1983, p. 32) provides a summary of what cultures do for the organization: “There are no good or bad cultures, per se. A culture is good-effective-if it reinforces the mission, purposes and strategies of the organization. It can be an asset or a liability. Strong cultural norms make an organization efficient. Everyone know what’s important and how things are done. To be effective, the culture must not only be efficient, but appropriate to the needs of the business, company, and the employees.” Why does one organization have a very adaptive culture while another has a culture that reflects only the past? Is one a case of good fortune, and the other a result of bad luck? To the contrary, it seerns that any organization can find itself with an outdated culture if its culture is not explicitly managed. If left alone, a culture eventually becomes dysfunctional. Human fear, insecurity, oversensitivity, dependency, and paranoia 418 Summary Managerial efforts to create, strengthen, or change culture will have a high probability of success only if such efforts are accompanied by parallel efforts to design (or redesign) the organizational reward system for cultural compatibility. The reason for this is that if the reward system is in harmony with the culture, it will reinforce and invigorate the culture, but if it is inconsistent with the culture, then it will undermine and stultify the culture. In this chapter, a framework of four types of cultures and their matching reward systems have been described. Managers can use this framework to diagnose the current situation in their organizations and create appropriate reward system 1 1 1

Select ONE ARTICLE from the following links and summarize the reading in your own words.

assignment writing services Select ONE ARTICLE from the following links and summarize the reading in your own words.. I’m stuck on a Computer Science question and need an explanation.

Select ONE ARTICLE from the following links and summarize the reading in your own words. Your summary should be 2-3 paragraphs in length and uploaded as a TEXT DOCUMENT. Click the link above to submit your work. There is an EXAMPLE attached to show you the format requirements.
What is most important is that you use YOUR OWN WORDS to summarize the news article. It is essential that you do not copy text directly from the Internet. Plagiarism is unacceptable. You can easily avoid this by rephrasing the contents and summarizing it using your own words.–publications-page
Select ONE ARTICLE from the following links and summarize the reading in your own words.

Effect of PM Question Time on Government Decision Making

Effect of PM Question Time on Government Decision Making. As Norton has noted, Parliament ceased to be a policy-making legislature in the nineteenth century and is now a ‘policy-influencing’ legislature. Parliament is thus expected to subject policy to a process of scrutiny and influence.[1] This essay will assess the extent to which the present mechanisms available to parliament to call the government to account can be said to have a meaningful ability to effect governmental decision making. In order to evaluate the role of parliament in this matter, some of the procedural mechanisms of the House must be examined. Question Time in the House of Commons is one of the principal means by which information is obtained from ministers by Members of Parliament.[2] Prior notice of the questions is given to ministers, however, supplementary questions may then be asked on matters arising out of the minister’s reply, of which notice will not have been given. Question Time is widely publicised and therefore has the effect of drawing public attention to matters of particular concern. The process can also highlight the capabilities of individual ministers as they will need to ‘think on their feet’ in order to answer the supplementary questions. In April 1995 the then Health Secretary announced that several London hospitals were to be closed to curb public expenditure. The announcement of this unpalatable policy was made through a written answer rather than orally in the House. At Question Time the Health Secretary was accused of ‘lacking moral courage’[3] and the episode gained considerable publicity. Question Time is the only regular occasion upon which the government is obliged to account to Parliament for its management of the nations affairs.[4] Other merits of the system are that it provides an opportunity for the opposition to select issues as well as an opportunity for backbench MPs to question ministers. This in turn allows for local and regional issues to be given hearing in full parliamentary session. It also offers ministers the opportunity to become aware of issues which might otherwise have gone unnoticed. Parliamentary questions are very useful in highlighting existing governmental policy and bringing any controversial issues surrounding it to the attention of the media and hence the public. This allows effective scrutiny of government. However, the process does not provide a direct mechanism for effecting governmental decision making, although indirectly, the resulting public pressure may provide a mechanism for influencing policy change. Further limitations are that it operates on a rota system, with departments being subject to questions only once per 3 or 4 weeks; time restraints make ‘in depth’ questioning impossible; and, sensitive questions can be avoided.[5] Moreover, government backbenchers are able to reduce the time available for opposition questions by presenting favourable questions to ministers. Each Wednesday the House of Commons hosts Prime Minister’s Questions which lasts approximately 30 minutes. This procedure allows the Leader of the Opposition to put up to three questions to the Prime Minister. This presents an opportunity for immediate argument between the parties and can affect MP’s perceptions of their leaders.[6] Other MPs are then able to ask questions of the Prime Minister. As above, this allows for raising public awareness of issues and for questioning government policy. However, similar problems also exist, with the use of government backbenchers to praise government action rather than question it. This process has lead Loveland to conclude: “That MPs and ministers feel it appropriate to waste the Commons’ evidently limited and supposedly valuable time on such nonsense is in itself regrettable. That such questions are also manifestly an insult to the intelligence of voters provides further justification for the contention that the House of Commons is a quite inadequate vehicle for the sensible representation of political opinion in a modern democratic society.”[7] Another way in which parliament may effect governmental decision making is via debate. There are several types of debate which happen in the House of Commons. Debate will occur after the second reading of legislation, yet there are other provisions as well. Emergency debates may exceptionally occur where a matter is deemed to be of urgent national importance. There are also daily adjournment debates, where backbenchers can initiate short debate on matters for their choosing. Selection is by ballot through the Speaker’s Office. Members may also express concerns about issues by tabling a written motion requesting debate ‘at an early day’. However, such early day motions rarely result in debate and instead are primarily confined to shoeing the strength of parliamentary feeling on particular issues.[8] Where pressure grows significantly the government may feel inclined to respond but again the influence is often indirect. Carroll provides an evaluation of debate as a whole.[9] He states that the merits of debates are that: they force ministers to explain and justify policy initiatives to the House; they provide an opportunity for the opposition to expose flaws in government policy and decisions and present suggestions; they help to educate public opinion; they provide an opportunity for government ministers to display dissent, enabling policy changes to be considered; and, they give MPs the opportunity to present the views of constituents and interest groups. However, the demerits of debate according to Carroll are high in number: in the main it is the government, rather than parliament, which decides what will be debated and when (there are twenty Opposition Days when the Opposition chooses the subject for debate); most debates are dominated by the frontbenches; there is not time to engage in full detailed debate or to debate crises as and when they arise; they are often poorly attended; they attract little public attention. Furthermore, Carroll alleges that policy is formed and decisions made before parliamentary debate takes place. The government therefore defends its decisions during debate regardless of any merits of alternative proposals or exposed defects in its decisions and therefore debates appear to have ‘very little immediate effect in terms of influencing government thinking or action’.[10] Perhaps the most effective scrutiny of government is through select committees.[11] These committees are chaired by senior backbenchers and consist of between 9 and 13 backbench members. They allow in depth analysis of departmental action and investigate a wide range of topics.[12] Examples of issues investigated by select committees include the ‘Westland Affair’[13], although the government refused to allow witnesses from the Department of Trade and Industry to give evidence; and the Arms to Iraq controversy, where the Select Committee on Trade and Industry examined the sale of equipment to Iraq during the first Gulf conflict. Media interest may also influence the topics investigated by select committees, as evidenced by the examination of the decision to go to war in Iraq by the Foreign Affairs Select Committee in 2003.[14] Select committees are empowered to send for persons, papers and records and can expect full government co-operation. Furthermore, persons giving evidence must take a formal oath. However, as illustrated above, the co-operation of government, although expected, is not always assured. Once a select committee has investigated an issue it will publish a report. Around one third of these reports result in debate in the House, which are subject to the analysis above. Carroll has provided further evaluation of the merits and demerits of select committees,[15] stating in support that: they provide a systematic infrastructure for detailed scrutiny of government conduct; they are the only parliamentary forum in which ministers and public servants may be questioned ‘in depth’ on topics not determined by party leaders; there is a less party-political atmosphere; the members gain expertise in a particular area; the reports attract media attention. However, the demerits include: they cannot impose any sanctions or direct pressures on government if dissatisfied with departments’ conduct; as noted, few reports result in debate; the government can dictate when persons will not give evidence; they are poorly supported in terms of resources; facilities and research staff. From the analysis above it may be seen that although Parliament has several option open in terms of scrutinising government action, these procedures offer little in terms of direct effect of government decision and policy making. The Select Committee on Modernisation of the House of Commons has produced a report which suggests reforms to make better use of non-legislative time and strengthen the role of the backbench MPs.[16] So far this has resulted in minimal reforms such as a reservation of time for Topical Questions in departmental question time and a consideration of ways in which opportunities to debate the plans of government departments may be guaranteed.[17] However, without further reform, Parliament is currently unable to influence government decision making in any significant per-event sense. Bibliography Allen, M. and Thompson, B., Cases and Materials on Constitutional and Administrative Law, 9th Edition (2008), Oxford University Press Barnett, H., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 6th Edition (2006), Routledge Cavendish Bogdanor, V., The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century, (2003), Oxford University Press Bradley, A.W. and Ewing, K.D., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 14th Edition (2007), Pearson Carroll, A., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 4th Edition (2007), Pearson Education Lord Hutton, “The media reaction to the Hutton Report”, (2006) PL 807 Loveland, I., Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Human Rights: A Critical Introduction, 4th Edition (2006), Oxford University Press Norton, P. (ed), Parliament in the 1980s, (1985), Blackwell Pollard, D., Parpworth, N., and Hughes, D., Constitutional and Administrative Law: Text with Materials, 4th Edition (2007), Oxford University Press 1 Footnotes [1] Norton, P. (ed), Parliament in the 1980s, (1985), Blackwell, pg 8 [2] Barnett, H., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 6th Edition (2006), Routledge Cavendish, pg 405 [3] cited in Loveland, I., Constitutional Law, Administrative Law and Human Rights: A Critical Introduction, 4th Edition (2006), Oxford University Press, pg 157 [4] Carroll, A., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 4th Edition (2007), Pearson Education, pg 160 [5] Carroll, supra pg 161 [6] Loveland, supra pg 158 [7] Loveland, supra pg 159 [8] Pollard, D., Parpworth, N., and Hughes, D., Constitutional and Administrative Law: Text with Materials, 4th Edition (2007), Oxford University Press, pg 281 [9] Carroll, supra pp 162-164 [10] Carroll, ibid note 9 [11] Bogdanor, V., The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century, (2003), Oxford University Press, pg 172 [12] Bradley, A.W. and Ewing, K.D., Constitutional and Administrative Law, 14th Edition (2007), Pearson, pg 219 [13] Defence Committee, HC 518, 519 (1985-86), London: HMSO; Trade and Industry Committee, HC 176 (1986-87), London: HMSO; Treasury and Civil Service Committee, HC 92 (1985-86), London: HMSO [14] Lord Hutton, “The media reaction to the Hutton Report”, (2006) PL 807 [15] Carroll, supra pp 168-170 [16] Allen, M. and Thompson, B., Cases and Materials on Constitutional and Administrative Law, 9th Edition (2008), Oxford University Press, pg 321 [17] Allen and Thompson supra pp 321-322 Effect of PM Question Time on Government Decision Making

Walden University Dialogo Entre dos Estudiantes Universitarios

Walden University Dialogo Entre dos Estudiantes Universitarios.

I’m working on a spanish question and need guidance to help me learn.

Spanish-I need the dialogue reviewed and errors corrected. I should be using the correct tense and includes directions. Please make sure I’m using correct masculine or femanine.In pairs, write the situation (140 – 150 words) in a dialogue on p. 372 act. 3 En la ciudad. Use the vocabulary on Lesson 14, Expresiones útiles on p. 363 and Familiar tú commands -grammar 14.2 as much as possible. It is necessary to get together and work on the dialogue, apply grammar 14.2, once the dialogue is ready ONLY one student will post it including both names.
Walden University Dialogo Entre dos Estudiantes Universitarios