For the health of democracy, access to information is really essential. In any democracy, citizens have the rights and responsibilities to participate in public matters. Knowledge about a society is obtained through free debates, newspapers, magazines, television and radio. All these are possible when there is a free and independent press. In all democratic countries, freedom of the press has been a treasured right. Press freedom is a pillar of democracy  . Often, the press is referred as the fourth pillar of a country  . Such freedom should be free from interference of the state. The preservation of the freedom of the press may be done through constitutional or legal protections. In the present chapter, the definition and the importance of the press freedom will be analyzed first. Then, the evolution and development of the written and audio-visual press in Mauritius will be examined before considering the constitutional foundation of the freedom of the press of the country. 1.1 Freedom of Press 1.1.1 Definition of freedom of the press Everywhere in the world, the meaning of press freedom differs. Different countries possess different degrees of freedom of the press  . This suggests that freedom of the press is not absolute in the world  . In universal terms, defining freedom of the press is difficult. Various definitions to freedom of the press have been attributed by different scholars and in many text books. Lieberman (1953) defined freedom of the press as the right to serve, without government interference and with police protection, and the most fundamental right of freedom of information  . As for Dennis and Merrill (1996), freedom of the press is the right to communicate ideas, opinions, and information through the printed world without government restraint  . For both authors, the “right to share information” and “no government intrusion” is among the main elements of this freedom. For other scholars, free press is an independent adversary  performing the function of watchdog preventing the State from aggrandizing and abusing the rights of its citizen. Freedom of the press is not only the right of media; it is the right of the citizens also. Going back to history, in 1791, freedom of the press was legally guaranteed by the U.S Constitution, “congress shall make no lawâ€¦abridging the freedom of speech or of the pressâ€¦” Freedom of the press was recognized by the National Assembly of France in the Article 11 of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. This freedom was considered to be a fundamental right in Europe and in the United States. In 1948, the United Nations declared it a universal right and adopted Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Freedom of the press is derived from the fundamental right of freedom of information. The latter is a “human right and the touchstone of all the freedoms. It implies the right to gather, transmit and publish news anywhere and everywhere without fetters”  . The rights to seek and to disseminate information are of particular importance to the press. Along with freedom of information, freedom of expression also plays an essential role in press freedom. In Hossenbaccus v. Le Mauricien  , it was held that “Freedom of expression is fundamental. It is an essential instrument for the advancement of knowledge and must indeed be well guarded to enable the press to fulfil its social obligation to inform the public”. Freedom of expression comprehends the freedom of propagation, publication and circulation of ideas  –  . Freedom of circulation and distribution of the matter are also included in press freedom. So freedom of expression and freedom of press are intertwined. 1.1.2 Importance of Freedom of the Press Press freedom is considered as the most important freedom by informal writers, jurists and political philosophers  . Freedom of the press has always been the most effective instrument for the functioning of a democratic society. It helps in human development and good governance. The role that press freedom plays in our society will determine its importance. An independent media sector acts as watchdog on the government, holding it accountable to the public as well as helping citizen to have a better knowledge on political choices. It focuses on social problems and also provides a public forum, for several voices in public debate. On behalf of the public, the press serves as a watchdog to avoid government wrongdoings. Government officials are not always accountable and transparent to the people. So the “fourth estate” investigates in the State’s records to examine and evaluate, and hold the officials accountable for their actions. The press keeps the public officials responsible to the public as they are expected to serve them  . In countries like Taiwan, Brunetti and Weder, free press has helped in reducing corruptions  . There are eight purposes that the press should look forward in a democratic society: supervision on the political environment, determined agenda-setting, floors for a responsive and illuminating advocacy, channel for dialog on various range of views, safeguarding the rights of citizen and ensuring they are heard, inducements for people to be involved, respecting the citizens and promoting equality  . However, these goals often have to face obstacles. In a democratic society, the citizens need to be well-informed in order to make and exchange opinions on the actions of government officials and the elected representatives. A central purpose of press freedom is to build up an educated and well-informed electorate  that will form opinions on public maters and on their political leaders. Politicians also will have the opportunity to comment on the public’s opinion. Thus, everyone will participate in a free political debate which is a core concept of a democratic society  . Freedom of the press is important in the way that the “liberty” of the press is essential in influencing public spirit and this can be used against the ambition of autocratic authority; this is apparent with independent newspapers because they have a tendency to be aware of public discontents and changes. In short, press freedom acts as an “agency” which controls arbitrary power. A free press can be said to be a market of ideas  which helps people to evolve, mobilize and form new ideas in the public area. For the working of democracy, public criticism is fundamental  . 1.2 Evolution and Development of the Written and Audio Visual Press in Mauritius 1.2.1 Written Press The history of the printed press in Mauritius can be traced back to 1767 with the first printing materials which Pierre Poivre introduced in the island. One year after, the “Imprimerie Royale” was created. However, the oldest printing was claimed to be an almanac printed in 1457. Isle de France, now known as Mauritius, was among one of the first colonial countries, which owned a newspaper industry. On 13th January 1773, Nicolas Lambert issued the first newspaper “Annonces, Affiches et Avis Divers Pour Les Colonies des Isles de France et Bourbon”. As the chief editor was a Government officer and the newspaper was printed by the Government press, this shows that the issue was barely a free one. The second newspaper started in 1786 under the name “Journal des Isles de France et de Bourbon” by two young lawyers named Durrans and Brun. This one was absolutely literary compared to the third paper, “Journal Hebdomadaire de la Colonie”, issued in 1791, which was partly political. On the 5th January 1792, the Colonial Assembly published two weekly papers, one which contained the minutes of its proceedings and its administrative committee. This one was known as “Journal des Assemblées” and the other one as “Gazette de Isle de France” which contained public notices, advertisements and the other matters of public interest. The first political paper was “l’Observateur” which appeared only in 1816. Nearly one thousand newspapers and magazines have appeared namely “Annales des Modes des Spectacles et de Littérature Récréatives, Dédiées aux Dames”  but most of them had a short life-span. There was censor on the press in the colonies at that time. Article XI  of the decree of human rights provided that “La libre communication des pensées et des opinions est l’un des droit les plus précieux de l’homme. Tout citoyen peut donc, parler, écrire, imprimer librement (â€¦)”. This was attempted by the French revolution to put an end to censor. During the English colonization, Adrien D’Epinay was the first one to bring Freedom of the Press to Mauritius. In 1832, He was the first one to use the freedom by publishing “Le Cérnéen”. It was the oldest French white-owned newspaper and it survived until 1982. Another landmark in the history of the press is the publishing of “La Sentinelle”. It was founded by Rémy Ollier, a coloured man, in the 1950s. The coloured ownership of the media helped this community in legitimizing their rights in the colonial times. The term coloured changed to the label “Creole” and in 1920s, a creole family took over “Le Mauricien”, a white-owned paper which was established in 1908. As from the 1960s, newspapers like “Action” and “L’Express”  were introduced and at that time, the Mauritian press modernized and international standards were adopted. Techniques like reports and personal enquiries were brought in. They are nowadays the bedrock of every press whether written, spoken or visual. Between 1832 and 1973 the general format of newspapers was four pages with mostly advertisements. In the local news, there were parliamentary meetings of the Government and of the sole Municipality of the island, Municipality of Port Louis. From this it can be understood that parliamentarians, mayors or politicians were head of the publishing houses. Today, “L’express” changes to 24 pages as compared to before it were only 4 pages and for “Le Mauricien” it is 48 pages as compared to earlier it was 16 pages. They are the daily papers one in the morning and the second in the afternoon. Nowadays we have “Le Défi Quotidien” which is a daily paper also. There are also a number of weekly papers in Mauritius such as, “5 Plus Dimanche”, “Bollywood Massala”, “L’Express Dimanche”, “Le Dimanche/L’Hebdo”, “Le DéFI Plus”, “Le Matinal”, “Samedi Plus”, “Week End” , “Star” and “Sunday Times”. A number of papers in oriental languages were also published. “Anjuman Islam Maurice” was the first one which appeared on 1st March 1883 firstly. Mirza Ahmode was the founder and the paper was published in Hindustani and Gujurati. From 1906 to 1914 a weekly paper, “L’Islamisme” appeared in French, Gujurati, and Urdu. The eminent Indian lawyer, Manilall Maganlal Doctor, launched “The Hindustani” on 15th March 1909 in English and Gujurati. “Mauritius Arya Pratika” was edited by Pandit Acshinath Kistoe from 1924 to 1940 and it appeared in English and Hindi. From 1929 to 1973 two papers appeared namely “Arya Vir” and “Zamana” with the last one which was launched in 1948. They appeared in English, Hindi, French and Tamil. On 11th August 1932, “Chinese Daily” was launched and it was the first daily Chinese paper. Then the “China Times” came in 1953 by Long Siong Ah Keng. Other Chinese language papers were launched; “Chinese Newspaper” (1953-1975), “Central Daily News” (1960-1967), “The Mirror” and “L’Aurore”. The evolution of the written press has been noted in terms of availability, varieties, content and style of reporting. With changes like technology, nowadays papers are printed with the use of computers as compared to before where printing was done in led. As seen above, there was only reporting about news, local and abroad, only. Nowadays, a number of articles have been introduced in the press like editorials on sports, women and children. Concerning accessibility, a wide range of newspapers and magazines are available on the market, locally. Each one differs from each other in order to capture a maximum of readers. Newspapers is said to be our key companion in our everyday life and it will continue to be so. 1.2.2 Audio Visual Press The press is not limited to written only; there is the audio visual press. Audio visual plays a great role in communication. It was on the 9th of August 1927 that Mauritius experienced its first radio broadcasting, which was done by Charles Jollivet. It was then called “Radio Maurice”. The station was situated in Beau Bassin and later moved to the Plaza Theatre in Rose hill. Music and news were broadcasted for only 2 hours every day. In 1937, a second station came into existence under the name “Société des Radiophilles” by Mr P.Adam. It was located at Mr. Adam residence in Forest Side and later transferred to the Town Hall in Curepipe. The station was used to transmit message to the members of the Société mainly. At the beginning of the 2nd World War in 1939, these two stations were controlled by the British Ministry of Defense. Information that was broadcasted was done locally only. By the end of the 2nd World War, another station was set up in Curepipe Town Hall under the aegis of “Radio France Libre D’Outremers”. This station was merged with “Société des Radiophilles” and this gave birth to the national broadcasting station as from 1st July 1944 under the name Mauritius Broadcasting Service (MBS). The studio was situated in Plaza, Rose Hill until 1946 when the station moved to Pasteur Street, Forest Side. As from 2011, MBC was transferred to Moka. After the radio, the TV broadcasting was introduced on a pilot basis on the 8th June 1946 as the Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (MBC). The inaugural broadcast was launched on 8th February 1965 with a transmission of about 3 hours every evening. The MBC was set up in order to build a sense of nationhood and for islanders to welcome independence (that changed in 1968). The first outdoor TV live broadcast was on the royal visit of Princess Alexandra in 1968. Later, in 1973, the process of black and white television occurred. During that year, news editor were engaged to record press conference and other local events. On 7th November 1987, television was welcomed in Rodrigues and the duration of 3 hours changed to 13 hours daily. In the 1990s, the two main channels  were implemented. Liberalisation of broadcast media was done in 2002 and this gave the Mauritian audience the choice between the MBC and three other private radios. Radio One was launched on 13th March 2002, Radio Plus on 13th April 2002 and Top FM on 31st December 2002. The MBC radio now consists of 7 stations; RM1, RM2, Kool FM, Taal FM, World Hit FM, Best FM and Music FM. The MBC has evolved in digital switchover, thematic channel (Knowledge channel, Movie channel, Tourism and Culture channel) and language channel (Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Telegu and Mandarin). Mauritian audiences nowadays have a variety of information and different coverage and views of the same stories. Throughout history, the Mauritian press has gained a lot and more is expected to come with, the liberalisation of television channels in the forthcoming years. 1.3 Constitutional Foundation of Freedom of the Press Mauritius has a written constitution in which certain fundamental rights are guaranteed as specified in Chapter Two of the Constitution. Of these, Section 12 relates to freedom of expression. It would be useful to refer to the text of these causes of section 12 at once: “(1) Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, that is to say, freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference, and freedom from interference with his correspondence. (2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provisionâ€¦” Compared to countries like the U.S.A, there is no separate provision guaranteeing the freedom of the press in our constitution. Our supreme court has held in Duval v The Commissioner of Police  and in London Satellite Systems Ltd. V State and ors  that freedom of the press needs not to be mentioned separately as it is already in the guarantee of ‘freedom of expression’. The latter comprehends the freedom of propagation, publication and circulation  . The scope of press freedom is circumscribed by the interpretation given by S12 because there is a link between freedom of press and freedom of expression. The arguments for and the limitations upon both freedoms should be compatible. For instance in Cie de Beau Vallon Ltée v Nilkomol  it was held that “freedom of expression referred to, (in the Constitution), cannot override legally established norms to which it is subordinated and which must be respected: the use of words like “public order”, “public morality” and “rights and freedoms of others”. The same applies to press freedom in the press industry. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms that are found in our Constitution are modeled on the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and our Section 12 was borrowed  from its Article 10  . The rights of privacy and free expression are treated as fundamental rights having equal status. According to this view, the two rights must be proportionate. One will not inevitably trump the other  . Freedom of the Press rests on the same cornerstones as Freedom of Expression. It can be argued that there is simple iteration since protection of freedom of expression is already been catered for in our Constitution. This can give rise to the introduction of a separate press clause in our Constitution. Under Mauritian Law, press freedom gives journalists a right to obtain information from private sources on a voluntary basis only. The press cannot compel citizens to release information about themselves which they are unwilling to disclose. A separate press clause may provide this privilege. CHAPTER TWO – NEED FOR LIMITATIONS ON FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 2.0 Introduction Undoubtedly freedom of the press in a country is partly good and partly bad. Although each citizen in Mauritius or another country holds the power to say or express whatever he or she feels, it is preferable for some thoughts or views to be unuttered. In the previous chapter, we explained that the freedom of press is considered as an essential tool for knowledge and exchange of ideas and opinions in a modern democracy. However, a question arises on why should there be any need for supervising this freedom by law? In this present chapter, we will deal mainly with the need for limitations on freedom of the press and then the abuses of freedom of the press. Afterwards, the different categories of limitations will be discussed where it will be divided in two main parts namely, prior restraints and post-publication restraints. 2.1 Abuse of Freedom of the Press Nowadays, in every conversation, the words “Press Freedom” are mentioned. It shows how important that freedom is. However, the same significance is not given to the responsibilities linked to it. This makes it liable to be abused. As we know, any institution or freedom if left ungoverned has the tendency to be abused. This created the need for freedom of the press to be controlled. In 1789, the French Declaration of the Rights of Man in France declared that one of the cherished rights of man is the free exchange of thoughts and views and at the same time mentioned that press freedom is “subject to responsibility for abuse of this liberty in cases considered by law”  . In U.S.A., even if the federal Constitution guarantees freedom of the press to be unrestricted, every citizen should be responsible for the abuse of that freedom. West Germany’s Constitution lays emphasis on what is meant by “abuse” of a freedom and what would be the penalty if there is abuse under the Article 18  . For India, abuses are mentioned in clauses (2) and (6) of Article 19. “A truly free press would be free not just of state intervention but also of market forces and ownership ties and a host of other material bonds”  . Many powerful bodies use the press for their private interests in order to make propaganda which can be harmful to the public. In some newspapers we can notice stories which are published just to denigrate someone (like politician). The press become a monopolistic control rather that a free institution. There is abuse of freedom of expression and of speech at the same time. The main aim of freedom of the press is to offer to the public a wide range of information and if false information is disseminated, this will have a detrimental effect on society. This is often seen where a political party controls a newspaper. This may influence a reader’s way of thinking. This contributes to a form of abuse of this freedom. So, the press must check the facts before publishing in order to avoid half-true stories or unbiased information. 2.2 The Need for Limitations In this twentieth century, freedom of the press is becoming important for development, democracy and dialog. According to many studies, it has been devised that there is a connection between the three D’s and a free press. If ideas cannot be flourished in a free space, societies will not ameliorate whether in human, social and economic development. However, freedom of the press has been universally accepted that it is not a right without limit, and some classifications of limitations on freedom of press have been devised by almost every liberal government. Lord Denning stated: “The freedom of the press is extolled as one of the great bulwarks of liberty. It is entrenched in the constitutions of the world… It can publish whatever it chooses to publish. But it does so at its own risk… Afterwards, after the publication, if the press has done anything unlawful they can be dealt with by the courts… If they should damage the reputation of innocent people…they may be made liable in damages…. The press is not above the law.  “ Just as an individual, the press is also prohibited to conduct any illegal act. The freedom of the press is limited by certain factors. These factors can be internal such as codes of ethics, the power of the editorial and the press councils. As for the external ones, they are public interest, rulings of the court, libel actions, subscriber demands and pressures from powerful groups. In any given country, the need for limitations on freedom of the press is recognized and the restrictions are derived from its civil and criminal law. Limitations are also derived from formal agreements drafted by governments which concerned human rights. Article 10 of ECHR  declared that every freedom is subjected to restrictions and penalties if they are violated and the State can even impose limitations. These limitations are needed in order to avoid crime or disorder. According to Article 29 of UCHR  only the limitations imposed by the law will be subjected to everyone in case of breach of freedom. In Mauritius, the same restrictions that are applied to freedom of expression are also imposed on freedom of the press. So, press freedom is subjected to the limitations set out in section 12 of the Constitution. Rights and maintenance of order in a country exist due to the State and it’s upon the latter to safeguard and implement those rights. Hence when a right or a freedom is being exercised, it should be done in such a manner that it does not cause harm to the State. Freedom of the press can be controlled by the government if it countervails with public interest. In case of war emergency, the State has the power to safeguard itself from any broadcast which may cause obstruction to the nation’s defense or the “prosecution of war against a national enemy.”  In most countries, it is the court which maintains a balance between the public interest and other competing interests. It should be pointed out that freedom of the press must be reconciled with public security. For example, in U.S.A., the court will poke its nose only when the danger is consequential and clear and present to the public interest. As for India, Article 19  of the Constitution expressed clearly that it is the Court who will strike a balance between any competing public interests. It is true that in today’s world there is no absolute freedom. The press industry has to face various limitations imposed by the State. However, we do ask ourselves to what extent do a journalist have to draw a line when disseminating information? What part of any speech should and should not be covered by the law? 2.3 Classification of Limitations 2.3.1 Prior Restraint The State may find that some information if disseminated can be harmful to the public or it is too secret to disclose. In those cases, the government has adopted “Prior Restraint” which means restricting a message before it is published or broadcasted. In other words, there is government intervention before the publication takes place. The Supreme Court of U.S.A. held that prior restraints by definition, has an immediate and unalterable sanction  . Prior restraint exists in many forms but the most common one is licensing or censorship. The second most obvious one is judicial injunction or “gag order”. When censorship is imposed, this means that the publication on a specific matter or even a newspaper is prohibited without “advance approval of an executive officer”  . As compared to the judicial injunction, even with anybody’s approval, the publication of specific matter cannot be executed. If this order is violated, punishments are incurred. There are other restrictions like interdiction of entry into specified area, control over the volume of circulation, control over the sources of information and security for good behaviour from persons disseminating offending publications. According to landmark cases like Near v. Minnesota  the Supreme Court cancelled a gag law and considered the doctrine of prior restraint as unconstitutional. The court held that a journalist in a free press has the right to shape the opinions of the public and the interference of the State does not contribute to the phrase “free press”. However, the government has continued to restrict the publications of some controversial material. In 1971, the Court in New York Times Co. v. United States  established that freedom of the press is nearly free when there is no restraint on publications before disseminating. The State was not able to prove a prior restraint of expression when it tries to prohibit New York Times and Washington Post from publishing a specific matter from a study. Prior restraints have some ups and down. Surprisingly, the doctrine of prior restraint has never been completely analysed. No comprehensive study
Factors motivating companies to promote workforce diversity
Factors motivating companies to promote workforce diversity. Diversity issues related to race, gender, age, disabilities, religion, job title, physical appearance, sexual orientation, nationality, multiculturism, competency, training, experience, and personal habits are explored in these links. The bias is toward valuing diversity. As we enter the 21st century, workforce diversity has become an essential business concern. In the so-called information age, the greatest assets of most companies are now on two feet (or a set of wheels). Undeniably, there is a talent war raging. No company can afford to unnecessarily restrict its ability to attract and retain the very best employees available. Generally speaking, the term “Workforce Diversity” refers to policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are considered to be, in some way, different from those in the prevailing constituency. In this context, here is a quick overview of seven predominant factors that motivate companies, large and small, to diversify their workforces: Organizations can expect challenges from those who don’t see themselves as part of “diversity.” This will happen if one casts diversity primarily in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation. Besides the four previously mentioned primary equity-based groupings, an organization can prove that it is serious about workplace diversity, and not simply political correctness, by placing equal emphasis on a realistic variety of diversity dimensions, such as age, marital and parental status, education, personality type, communication style, etc. The emphasis needs to be communicated that everyone is part of the diverse workforce. There will be resistance if the amount of time devoted to training, education and other diversity interventions is seen as taking away from what some would refer to as “real work,” especially if allowances aren’t made for time spent away from the job. Telling someone that he or she has to take a day to attend diversity training, but that there won’t be any slack on work deadlines, is a good way to breed resentment toward the entire effort. The best defense against resistance to an examination of diversity is education, but not limited to the classroom variety. Leaders throughout the organization, not just those in Human Relations, must help everyone in the workforce grasp this concept. If Company A has developed systems, procedures, policies and a culture that allows employees from a variety of backgrounds to contribute productively, and Company B’s systems, etc., seem to work only for certain types of people, Company A’s is most likely going to perform better. An increasing number of organizations use a very broad definition of diversity and use the word “inclusion” to place the emphasis on commonality rather than difference. However, changing an organization to adapt to a more diverse workforce requires changing culture, systems, behaviors and more. This takes time. And it takes realistic expectations and broad inclusion. Nothing converts skeptics like success. Demonstrating strong performance while building an organization that manages a diverse workforce helps convince the doubters and cynics that managing diversity, which we could simply call “managing reality,” is a smart business strategy. As a Social Responsibility Because many of the beneficiaries of good diversity practices are from groups of people that are “disadvantaged” in our communities, there is certainly good reason to consider workforce diversity as an exercise in good corporate responsibility. By diversifying our workforces, we can give individuals the “break” they need to earn a living and achieve their dreams. As an Economic Payback Many groups of people who have been excluded from workplaces are consequently reliant on tax-supported social service programs. Diversifying the workforce, particularly through initiatives like welfare-to-work, can effectively turn tax users into tax payers. As a Resource Imperative The changing demographics in the workforce, that were heralded a decade ago, are now upon us. Today’s labor pool is dramatically different than in the past. No longer dominated by a homogenous group of white males, available talent is now overwhelmingly represented by people from a vast array of backgrounds and life experiences. Competitive companies cannot allow discriminatory preferences and practices to impede them from attracting the best available talent within that pool. As a Legal Requirement Many companies are under legislative mandates to be non-discriminatory in their employment practices. Non-compliance with Equal Employment Opportunity or Affirmative Action legislation can result in fines and/or loss of contracts with government agencies. In the context of such legislation, it makes good business sense to utilize a diverse workforce. As a Marketing Strategy Buying power, particularly in today’s global economy, is represented by people from all walks of life (ethnicities, races, ages, abilities, genders, sexual orientations, etc.) To ensure that their products and services are designed to appeal to this diverse customer base, “smart” companies, are hiring people, from those walks of life – for their specialized insights and knowledge. Similarly, companies who interact directly with the public are finding increasingly important to have the makeup of their workforces reflect the makeup of their customer base. As a Business Communications Strategy All companies are seeing a growing diversity in the workforces around them – their vendors, partners and customers. Companies that choose to retain homogenous workforces will likely find themselves increasingly ineffective in their external interactions and communications. As a Capacity-building Strategy Tumultuous change is the norm in the business climate of the 21stcentury. Companies that prosper have the capacity to effectively solve problems, rapidly adapt to new situations, readily identify new opportunities and quickly capitalize on them. This capacity can be measured by the range of talent, experience, knowledge, insight, and imagination available in their workforces. In recruiting employees, successful companies recognize conformity to the status quo as a distinct disadvantage. In addition to their job-specific abilities, employees are increasingly valued for the unique qualities and perspectives that they can also bring to the table. According to Dr. Santiago Rodriguez, Director of Diversity for Microsoft, true diversity is exemplified by companies that “hire people who are different – knowing and valuing that they will change the way you do business.” For whichever of these reasons that motivates them, it is clear that companies that diversify their workforces will have a distinct competitive advantage over those that don’t. Further, it is clear that the greatest benefits of workforce diversity will be experienced, not by the companies that that have learned to employ people in spite of their differences, but by the companies that have learned to employ people because of them. Organizational Justice Organizational justice refers to employee perceptions of fairness and historically begins with the work of Adams on equity theory. Equity theory is the historical root of organizational justice. According to Adams a man suffers from cognitive dissonance when things do not go in the manner as he expected. It predicts that individuals are motivated by the perception of in equity. The theory states that men and women are in a continual and never ending state of social comparison with a referent group of individuals. The Adams traditional theory assumes that responses to injustices are more dynamics in form and entail a need to reduce that level of distress or dissonance created by the inequitable state. Individuals constantly measure their perceived inputs and their outcomes as a ratio in comparison to a referent individual. Adams defines the inputs in social exchange as qualities and characteristics that a person possesses such as age, seniority, social status education, effort, ability or skills etc. The outcomes are defined as items or privileges received in social exchange such as rewards money, increased status, authority or enjoyable work/assignments/duties. Any inequity produces two different social behaviors such as if an individual perceives inequity because his inputs far exceed his outcomes or vice versa one may expect that anger or guilt will follow identified three dimensions of organizational justice. These are distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice. The marketing and management disciplines have traditionally distinguished among three types of justice: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. Recently, argued that this traditional three factor model of justice is better conceptualized as four different types of justices. He suggested that in addition to distributive and procedural justice, interactional justice be split into two distinct types of justice: interpersonal justice, defined as the fairness of interpersonal treatment provided during the enactment of procedures and distributions of outcomes, and informational justice, defined as the fairness of explanations and information. Distributive justice Individual’s cognitive evaluation regarding whether or not the amounts and allocation of rewards in a social setting are fair. In simple terms, distributive justice is one’s belief that every one should get what they deserve. Thus it is the fairness of distributions or allocations of rewards. Employee’s perceptions of distributive justice are related to desirable outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, turnover, and performance. Distributive justice is the perceived fairness of outcome allocations, and is typically evaluated with respect to the equity of those outcome distributions. This research demonstrates that the perceived distributive justice of complaint handling positively affects customers’ reactions, including satisfaction with the encounter, outcome satisfaction, satisfaction with complaint handling, repatronage intentions, overall satisfaction/return intentions, and perceptions of fairness, and decreases negative word-of-mouth Procedural justice Procedural justice is concerned with the fairness of the procedure used to make a decision. For example, a pay raise may be based on a sales representative selling more units of a product. Some co-workers may consider this procedure to be unfair, believing management should instead base pay raised on dollar volume. This conclusion may be reached because selling 10 products for a low amount of money each contributes very little to company profits and they are at the same time, easier to sell, selling high priced products may take much longer to finalize, but the profits garnered for the company are also higher. In this case, it is not the outcome in dispute which is the amount of the pay received, instead, it is the perceived justice (fairness) of the procedure used to reach the outcome. It is the exchange between the employee and the employing organization used a Meta analysis approach for data analysis and found that the employee perceptions of procedural justice can be related to all the desirable organizational outcomes, argued that procedural justice could be a better predictor of job performance as compared to distributive justice. Furthermore, procedural justice is considered important particularly to successfully implementing organizational changes. Factors motivating companies to promote workforce diversity
Globalization for Nation-States: Threat or Driver? Essay (Critical Writing)
order essay cheap When related to the nation-state (that is, the sovereign authority that governs over a territory where a particular nation lives), globalization can be regarded in two ways: as a threat to the existence of states or as a positive influence that can provide important experience and spur development. Lechner and Boli recognize it, and the positioning of the text in their Reader reflects these tendencies (230-231). Dangers of Globalization In “The Declining Authority of States,” Susan Strange describes how the authority of nation-states and their government is undermined by globalization processes. She mentions the Asian state as the example of a “lucky” government that had managed to preserve unity and power due to being exempt from the globalization processes; however, as globalization proceeds to develop, Strange believes that Asia will succumb to the “ungovernance” (Strange 235, 238). Similar in ideas but different in topic, the work of James H. Mittelman “Global Organized Crime” focuses on the way globalization and technology affect crime, which challenges state authority. The “nexus of organized crime and globalization” produces the global (transnational) organized crime which is armed by the technological advancements, often organized in a way that is resembling a business (Mittelman 240). To develop this argument, the modern example of international terrorism that has grown to emulate a state can be mentioned. As a result, it is impossible to deny the destructive influence of globalization on nation-states. Similarly, in “Has Globalization Gone Too Far?” Dani Rodrik dwells on the societal and economic impacts and demonstrates that globalization plays a part in labor devaluation, intranational and even international tensions and conflicts. The author highlights the “receding governments” problem that is seen in social insurance issues (Rodrik 247), and he invites policymakers to reconsider the government’s obligations. This call for action distinguishes the work; Rodrik appears to believe that despite the diminishing power, nation-states have a say in the changes, and it is difficult to disagree. Thus, the dangers of globalization are real and tangible, but they can and should be alleviated. Harmless and Positive Globalization In “Welfare Spending in an Era of Globalization: The North–South Divide,” John Glenn also discusses social security. However, he works to prove that globalization as “economic liberalization or structural adjustment” tends to have different impacts on nation-states (especially the developing ones) that may depend on national or international specifics (Glenn 258). In other words, this work can be regarded as a demonstration of the importance of nation-state control over globalization outcomes. However, there is also evidence to globalization having positive influences: David P. Baker and Gerald K. LeTendre in their “World Culture and the Future of Schooling” focus on the educational impact and show how the “globalized world of education” has been developing (259). When shared through globalization, worldwide experience (related to education, healthcare, justice system) exerts positive influences on nation-states. Therefore, it appears logical for them to seek the ways to minimize the potential harm and maximize possible benefits. Works Cited Baker, David, and Gerald K. LeTendre. ” World Culture and the Future of Schooling.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 259-262. Print. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Glenn, John. ” Welfare Spending in an Era of Globalization: The North–South Divide.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 252-258. Print. Lechner, Frank J., and John Boli. The Globalization Reader. New York, NY: Wiley, 2015. Print. Mittelman, James. “Global Organized Crime.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 239-244. Print. Rodrik, Dani. ” Has Globalization Gone Too Far?” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 245-251. Print. Strange, Susan. ” The Declining Authority of States.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 232-238. Print.
Western Governors University Biological Anthropology Discussion Paper
Western Governors University Biological Anthropology Discussion Paper.
For this assignment, you will choose one popular news article that discusses a topic related to biological anthropology and analyze how this information is portrayed. Many of the topics we will cover in this class are often discussed in popular media, but they are not always presented in a way that is accessible to a general public or present information that may not be factually correct but have the potential to catch people’s attention (aka click bait). You may choose a popular news article from any news source, but to help you find one you can join the BioAnth News Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/groups/BioAnthNews/ or following the BioAnth News Twitter account: https://twitter.com/BioAnthNewswhich regularly posts 1-2 articles a day related to biological anthropology or you can search their feed for an article that was published sometime during the first few months of 2020.Your response should be 400 – 500 words (approximately 1 1⁄2 pages double spaced) and should include:·A summary of the research or topic presented in the article·Description of how the topic is related to biological anthropology·Your personal critique of whether or not this article is accessible to a general public and how it could have been improved·Your personal critique of whether or not the research from this article will helps us understand what it means to be humanPlease also include a link to the news story that you are analyzing at the end of your response.
Western Governors University Biological Anthropology Discussion Paper
Essay Help. I’m studying for my Law class and need an explanation.
Please write short essay for EACH question about 500 word count. Thank you!
Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e., an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).
Responses must be typed double-spaced, using a standard font (i.e., Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to writing assignments. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the Internet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.
1. Compare and contrast experimental and quasi-experimental research designs. (3)
2. Is differential association reinforcement theory strictly focused on the individual, the environment, the social world around the individual, or all three? Discuss your answer in detail. (3)
3. Discuss the criticisms of social control theories. Do you agree or disagree with the criticisms? (1)
4. If you had to study just one aspect of deviance in the life course perspective (onset, continuation, and desistance), what would you study? Why? (4)
Perspectives on Deviance and Social ControlMichelle Inderbitzin, Kristin A. Bates, and Randy R. Gainey, 2019SAGE Publications, Inc.