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Changes to the National Curriculum

‘Since the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1992, a number of changes have been made to its structure and implementation. Identify and explain these changes and assess the contribution of the National Curriculum in the effort to raise standards in Education’. This essay will describe, identify and explain the changes that have occurred to the ‘National Curriculum’ (NC) since its conception in 1992. It will also assess these changes and evaluate the benefits and difficulties that it has experienced since 1992. The ‘Education Reform Act’ (ERA) came into effect in 1988, this enabled Kenneth Baker the Conservative Minister of Education to implement the roll-out of the National Curriculum in 1992 within primary / secondary education. However, prior to 1992 there had been no National Curriculum and previously teachers had worked out their own schemes of work that they deemed appropriate for their pupils. As a result of this the standard of education across the country varied considerably and the methods employed to teach were wide-ranging. With the implementation of the National Curriculum in 1992, responsibility was shifted away from teachers to centralised government over what was to be taught. The National Curriculum established a ‘set-framework’ of learning to enable children to move freely between schools as they would be learning from the same framework. The National Curriculum ensured that schools taught a certain range of subjects, this consisted of ten subjects. The subjects were divided into two sub-categories (core and foundation). The three main core subjects were English, Maths and Science, and together with seven other foundation subjects (Art, Home Economics. Music, History, a Modern Foreign Language (only compulsory in secondary schools), Geography and Physical Education created the foundation of the National Curriculum. Compulsory National tests (SATS) were introduced at 7, 11 and 14 on core subjects. The results are published annually in league tables (along with GCSE/A levels and truancy statistics). Changes occurred to the National Curriculum from its inception. Rather than being embraced the National Curriculum was met with hostility from some teachers and most of the larger teachers unions. One of the main criticisms of the National Curriculum by teachers and teaching unions was that at first glance that it contained far too many subjects and was considered to be too rigid, compared to what was previously taught. This meant that it was difficult to teach the subject well as the students had to learn so many subjects, and they presumed that it would be very difficult for students. The National Curriculum was also criticized for being extremely ‘Eurocentric’, as it was primarily focused around European culture, giving those from ethnic backgrounds very little opportunity to learn about their roots. Certain sections of the public also argued that the government intentionally fashioned the National Curriculum to remove subjects which they as a political party are against for political reasons, such as sociology, politics, and environmental sciences (they were never contained in the National Curriculum). However, a benefit to the National Curriculum was that teachers now had to educate students in a range of subjects. This gave children / students a better start for the skills they would need for later in life. It was also disputed that the national Curriculum helped to reduce the division of girls and boys subjects, as both sexes were taught the same subjects. This helped to reduce the stereotyping of gender. In 1993, teachers decided to boycott the national curriculum testing arrangements (SATS) after complaining about the workload. The Secretary of State for Education, in a move in the right direction asked Sir Ron Dearing, who was the current Chairman of the School Curriculum and Assessment AuthorityHYPERLINK “http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/school-curriculum-and-assessment-tf#p2000a9f68830215001” (SCAA), to review the national curriculum. Dearing made an Interim Report in 1993 and a Final Report in 1994 (The Dearing Report) after a period of consultation with teachers and the teachers unions. In his report his recommended on slimming down the curriculum, and improving its administration. He also recommended that the slimmed down national curriculum should not be altered for five years and that national tests should be simplified without sacrificing validity or reliability. The revised curriculum was implemented from August 1995. The 1992, Ofsted (The Office for Standards in Education) formed as part of the major overhaul and centralisation of the school system begun by the Education Reform Act 1988, which introduced the National Curriculum, extensive testing in schools and the publication of league tables. Ofsted inspections were carried out on school every 6 years. This change was introduced as it was believed standards needed to be raised in schools. Many people thought Ofsted inspections were a good idea, if schools were failing, it was noticed and measures were put in place in order to improve these schools. However, Ofsted were also often seen to be too strict on schools, making it difficult for schools to pass inspection highly. Also, it was felt that many teachers and schools would improve their teaching standards while they were being inspected. Some schools would also send some of their worst behaved students on school trips for the inspections. This defeated the object of Ofsted inspections as it wasn’t the normal teaching standards that were being tested. Recent inspections by Ofsted have revealed that although a good proportion of schools had improved since they were last checked many were stilling failing. Figures released by Ofsted in 2009 show that 11% of schools checked since last September were rated outstanding, while 9% were not up to scratch. [Angela Harrison, BBC] In the year 2006-07, 14% of those checked were outstanding and 6% were “inadequate”. [Angela Harrison, BBC] In 1997, the incoming ‘The New Labour Government’ came into power in the UK. They Introduced the National Literacy Strategy to all Primary Schools in England from September 1998 after setting targets for pupils at Key Stage 2 in English (80%), Mathematics (75), but not in Science. Previously a pilot project had been tested during 1996, which involved schools in 14 Local Education Authorities. The strategy was planned for teachers to teach a daily Literacy Hour, which followed a pattern of 30 minutes whole class teaching, then group work and concluding with a plenary session. A number of documents have been published by the Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) to help teachers raise standards in literacy at the time. The National Literacy Strategy framework endeavoured to improve standards for all primary aged pupils. The strategy’s purpose was to make sure that all pupils were receiving on a daily basis dedicated one hour of literacy. The end result would give pupils the opportunity to develop skills in reading, grammar, spelling, and oral work and help raise standards in teaching and learning. In the following year of September 1999 The National Numeracy Strategy framework was introduced and like the literacy strategy, aimed at raising standards for all primary pupils. Similar to the National Literacy Strategy it prescribed a one hour daily mathematics lesson for all pupils. The Five Year Review in 2000 set out the main aims and purposes of the National Curriculum for the first time. The four main purposes of the National Curriculum are: To establish an entitlement. To establish standards. To promote continuity and coherence. To promote public understanding. The National Curriculum has been put into place in the hope that children will achieve and will have an entitlement to learning irrespective of their background, be it race, gender, cultural or otherwise. It also makes expectations for children’s attainment explicit for all concerned and sets out national standards for performance. These standards can then be used for target setting, measuring progress and monitoring progression. The Foundation Stage was introduced by the Labour government in 2000, to provide guidance for settings which provide care and education to pre-school children (aged 3 to 5). It was named the Foundation Stage because “…it lays the foundations for children’s later learning.” [Neaum and Tallack, 2002]. It evolved from the Rumbold Report of 1990, which investigated the educational provision for the under 5’s, and found that there was a patchy, unplanned curriculum which was unsatisfactory. In 2004 a review was carried out of Key Stage 4, from this review the introduction of ‘Entitlement subjects’. The Curriculum Entitlement Framework provides pupils with access to a wider range of learning opportunities suited to their needs, aptitudes and interests, irrespective of where they live or the school they attend. In 2007 the government abolished formal written Key Stage 1 SATS and replaced them with teacher recorded assessments. The Key Stage 1 assessments are very low key and completed by the pupil’s teacher over a period of a few weeks so they will be hardly aware that an assessment is taking place. In 2008 a review of Secondary National Curriculum resulted in new Key Stage 3 and 4 Curriculum which was introduced in 2009. This updated part of the curriculum now offers Diplomas and other alternatives to current GCSE and A-level examinations. In 2009 the then current Labour government announces that Key Stage 3 Sats examinations are to be abolished and that Sir Jim Rose will be conducting a full review of the Primary National Curriculum. The findings of the report will be implemented from September 2011. In May 2010 a general election was held and ‘New Conservative’ / Liberal Democrat government came to power under David Cameron and Nick Clegg. The future changes to the new primary national curriculum which were put forward by Sir Jim Rose to be implemented from September 2011 have been shelved, the government stating that it does not intend to proceed with the new primary curriculum. Instead they are committed to giving schools more freedom from unnecessary prescription and bureaucracy. They have always made clear their intention to make changes to the National Curriculum that will ensure ‘a relentless focus on the basics and give teachers more flexibility than the proposed new primary curriculum offered. The National Curriculum has undergone considerable change and development over the past twenty years and is still being altered and adjusted at the present day. Controversy still exists as to the approach education should adopt for those over the age of 14 testing is thought to be heavily based on recall of knowledge encouraging a lack of skill development activities. Many of the original subjects that were mandatory no longer are, as it was felt the curriculum was too full. In my opinion, since the introduction of the National Curriculum, I believe that it was the keystone to greatly improving the standards of education that children receive in today’s society. This is because before the standard of education students received was highly based on class status and was typically biased towards the middle / upper class families, another factor was your locality in the country. Teachers also taught a range of subjects that they wished to teach as there were no set subjects so what you could be taught varied across the country. This led to many students leaving school with limited knowledge. With the introduction of the Literacy and Numeracy hours Sats results have increased again of the subsequent years but again now have slowed to a halt. As seen in the table below. But on the flip side having felt that on the whole the National Curriculum is effective it is also somewhat flawed. Children are ‘taught to the test’ at a detriment to other subjects, and so they are missing out on a broad and balanced curriculum. Schools and teaching staff will also admit that they are being forced to “teach to the test”; cutting out subjects such as history, geography and art to inflate their position on national league tables or else look as if they are failing. The national tests also distort children’s education as they are being offered a restricted timetable as teachers are forced to focus on the core subjects. In a number of schools an emphasis on tests in English, Mathematics and Science limits the range of work in these subjects in particular year groups, as well as more broadly across the curriculum in some primary schools. Having said this, the positive points outweighed the negative greatly as it was the start towards the National Curriculum that we currently have today.
Political Science homework help. W1 Discussion #1ÿ350wordsAccountingAs you dive into Week 1 and begin to explore new elements of accounting and the accounting profession, you will find that the world of accounting offers many different types of jobs. Managerial and Financial accounting are just two examples of the many facets of the accounting world. As the world of accounting has changed greatly in the last ten years, there is a new focus on the importance of ethics in all areas of the accounting profession.Keep these key elements in mind as you explore the Week 1 materials, then address these questions:1 – What are the key differences between managerial and financial accounting?2 – How is managerial accounting relevant to you in your future career?3 – Why has ethical behavior in the area of accounting and finance become so important?Click here to access the MSSB discussion forum guidelines and grading rubric.W1 Discussion #2ÿ350wordsAccountingThis week, you were asked to access a number of videos and websites. These are great resources to help you learn the materials this week. Consider what type of resource you find most helpful in learning new materials (videos, examples, text, etc). Then consider which topic you struggled with the most this week. Complete an online search for a new resource that will help you with that topic. For example, if you learn best from videos and you struggled with the topic double entry accounting, then complete an online search for ?double entry accounting videos?. If you learn best by examples, search for ?double entry accounting examples?. Select one of the items you find in your search that you found particularly helpful in learning the topic you struggled with the most and post a summary of the resource and a link to the resource.INITIAL POSTCite and summarize the resource.http://smallbusiness.chron.com/differences-between-financial-accounting-management-accounting-3985.htmlhttp://www.accountingcoach.com/blog/financial-accounting-management-accountinghttp://www.accountingcoach.com/debits-and-credits/explanation/1http://www.accountingcoach.com/accounting-equation/explanationhttp://accounting-simplified.com/financial/statements/types.htmlhttp://www.accountingtools.com/adjusting-entrieshttp://accountingexplained.com/financial/cycle/closing-entriesVideo: Easy Way to Learn Debits and Creditsÿ ÿÿhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hoCYtUYqubYVideo:ÿ Accounting Equationÿÿhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eezXyx7ZANYVideo: Financial Accounting vs. Managerial Accountingÿhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ep7DqVxFHaYW1 AssignmentComplete homework exercises in Word or Excel.ÿChapter One: exercises 4, 9 and 10.Political Science homework help
FCC Assessment Tools & Diagnostic Tests Fecal Occult Blood Tests Case Study.

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and ChildrenWhen seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero ImagesFor this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.To PrepareReview this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.The AssignmentAssignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:Include the following:A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.What is its purpose?How is it conducted?What information does it gather?Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:Include the following:An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.
FCC Assessment Tools & Diagnostic Tests Fecal Occult Blood Tests Case Study

FNU ?People of Greek Cuban Heritage & Hindu Heritage Greek Ancestry Discussion.

People of Greek Heritage.People of Cuban Heritage.People of Hindu Heritage.Read chapter 11, 16 and 30 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations. Read Content chapter 30 in Davis Plus Online Website. Once done present an 800 words essay contracting the cultural and health care beliefs of the Greek, Cuban and Hindu heritage. Please note we are studying two oriental and one occidental heritage. In the essay mention how the Greek and Hindu heritage has influenced the Cuban heritage in term of health care beliefs.You must cite at least 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years excluding the class textbook and 2 replies to any of your peers sustained with the proper references. A minimum of 800 words must be presented excluding the first and reference pageTranscultural Health Care. A Culturally Competent Approach (4th ed.)Purnell, L.D.Publisher: F.A. Davis Company; 4th edition ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-3705-4
FNU ?People of Greek Cuban Heritage & Hindu Heritage Greek Ancestry Discussion

Discussion write a short paper on both questions and answer with the help of refernces

Discussion write a short paper on both questions and answer with the help of refernces.

As markets change over time so do strategic decisions. please review the May 16th online article published by Peter O’Dwyer of the Irish Examiner “Michael Dell flies into Cork to consult with staff on EMC merger and watch the YouTube film, published by the CUBE “Michael Dell – EMC World 2016.”1. discuss the company’s technology, products, and career opportunities. Do you think this company will remain a global leader in their field? Why or why not? What does your team think of Michael Dell’s strategic initiative?http://www.irishexaminer.com/business/michael-dell-flies-into-cork-to-consult-with-staff-on-emc-merger-400857.html2. What are some of the characteristics of champions? (Click on image below). Who is a champion that you can think of and why do you think they are a Champion?http://www.wbur.org/hereandnow/2016/05/19/phelps-coach-book
Discussion write a short paper on both questions and answer with the help of refernces

Baker College Endangered Species Niche and Biome Paper

assignment writer Baker College Endangered Species Niche and Biome Paper.

A focus of this module is biodiversity. A key factor contributing to high biodiversity is a species survival rate. Species which are considered in danger of dying have a low survival rate, and are classified as “endangered.” Please choose an endangered species off the World Wildlife Fund Endangered species list, which can be found here: https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/directory?di… (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.You will develop a one-page description of your chosen endangered specie, including information on:
The typical habitat/biome in which the species is found
The species niche
The contributing factors to the specie’s die off
Work being done, or proposed to revive the species
Baker College Endangered Species Niche and Biome Paper

Health Insurance Cooperatives Essay

Table of Contents History of Insurance Cooperatives in United States Pros and Cons of health insurance cooperatives My views concerning Health insurance cooperatives Expected Outcome Reference List Cooperatives are organizations that are owned and run by those members that enjoy their services. In the United States, nonprofit health insurance cooperatives have been recommended as the third option to the tradition private health insurance and the newly suggested public health insurance. In United States, different cooperatives offer their members diverse services that range from credit loans to electricity. Thus, the issue of cooperatives and specifically the concept of health insurance cooperatives is not a new phenomenon to Americans. The introduction of health insurance cooperatives in US will enable an approximately 47 million uninsured Americans who belong to the low social economic status receive affordable medical care. Health insurance cooperatives have lately received a considerable political support from various political personnel’s such as the senator Kent Conrad as they are known to reduce the insurance premiums paid by their members considerably. He considers them as the best option to provide insurance covers to Americans since they are neither governmental project nor one for profit making, but instead a project tailed at helping the public. Despite the great support the project has received from various stakeholders, there are few people that view it as a wrong focus that cannot match the superior government program. They are of the opinion that the government should establish health insurance cooperatives as an alternative to the government public health insurances, but not as their substitutes. They argue that health insurance cooperatives cannot expand robustly as the public health insurance projects can do. This controversy has raised a considerable debate worldwide of whether the United States should opt for a public health insurance program or health insurance cooperatives which are regarded as more economical, efficient and effective in addressing the health issues of majority of Americans who cannot afford to access the high insurance costs associated with private insurance coverage (Debate: Health insurance cooperatives, 2010). History of Insurance Cooperatives in United States Health Insurance Cooperatives are health insurances schemes that are designed to offer insurance services to their members at a reduced cost than the private insurance companies. Health insurance cooperatives are jointly owned by all those people that insurer with them, unlike private insurance companies that are owned and controlled by private investors with their main objective of making profits. The concept of health insurance cooperatives is not a new phenomenon in United States since it has existed in United States as early as 1983 in many some of its States such as California and Minnesota. Such cooperatives are generally known to be formed and managed by employers with a common agenda of enhancing the health care of their employees. For instance, annually Santa Ana Strawberry a farm that is owned by Mack Ramsay Pores offers its 35 employees insurance coverage from a health insurance cooperative based in Irvine. The insurance cooperative covers roughly 15,000 Californians agriculture laborers. Due to its cost effective mechanism, this nonprofit health care system is currently being reviewed as an appropriate model by the proposed insurance cooperative. The Irvine health insurance cooperative is referred as the United Agriculture Benefit Trust and operates like a normal private insurance company. The reason why it is more profitable to its members than other insurance firms is because it uses its power of collective bargaining to negotiate better rates with doctors and hospitals. Ramsay commends that the services that are received from health insurance cooperatives as being better and cheaper than those provided by their counterpart private insurance companies. The services that the health insurance cooperatives offer are superior to the one given by private insurance companies because cooperatives do not operate for profits and any profit they realize in their operation together with their savings is usually reinvested back. Nevertheless, there are some critics who argue that health insurance cooperatives are not in the long term profitable to their members since they are noted to be more likely to face insolvency due to being poorly regulated, unlike their compliment private insurance companies that are better managed. The allegation about health insurance cooperatives being faced with insolvency is not true according to California Insurance Commissioner Poizner who advocates that all insurance trust face similar challenges and all could ruin if hit hard financially (Stukel,

The Nordic Paradox

The Nordic Paradox.

Answers need to include details.(answer what it asks)3. Read this article: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/06/10/the-best-countries-for-gender-equality-may-also-have-a-domestic-violence-problem/?utm_term=.45561ee11b35Describe the paradox regarding rates of domestic violence reporting:4. In the same article, one argument explaining the paradox is that there is a “backlash.” The other argument is that actual rates of violence are in countries with less gender equality are probably much higher (they are under-reported). A. Explain both arguments.- Backlash explanation (the reported rates are indeed higher in the gender equal countries and lower in the gender unequal countries): – “Reported rates are misleading” explanation (they are over-reported in gender equal countries and under-reported in the gender unequal countries): B. Explain why you agree with one or the other (both cannot be true):
The Nordic Paradox