Project D: Concept Paper Prep For the questions chosen in Project C, state carefully the problem that you are attempting to solve (i.e. the problem statement), the purpose of the study, and the significance of the study in relation to the academic and/or business world. In addition, include in your research potential theoretical concepts that would serve as the academic foundation for your study. The problem statement should begin with, “The problem to be addressed is…” The purpose statement should begin, “The purpose of this qualitative [type of qualitative study] study is…” The total submission must be at least 800 words to accurately reflect the problem, purpose, and significance of the study. Remember, the problem, the purpose, and the significance must have context, and must not be merely listed in bullet form. This assignment requires both an annotation page, as well as reference page for scholarly resources. There must be at least 10 sources.NEED BY 700 PM 25 NOV 2017
Concept Paper Prep
CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment
CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment.
For this week, you will work on developing a writing process strategy to continue improving your scholarly writing, and you will incorporate your S.M.A.R.T. goals identified in this week’s Discussion. As you work on these last assignments, take time to reflect on all you have accomplished, how much you have supported and encouraged your colleagues, and the rewarding journey ahead.To prepare for this Assignment:Review the feedback you received regarding the S.M.A.R.T. goals you identified in this week’s Discussion.Revise your goals accordingly, based on feedback provided by your Instructor, your colleagues, and any other relevant source (e.g., other Instructors).Review Learning Resources, and consider how these resources might support your writing process.By Day 7Submit a 2- to 3-paragraph reflection in which you do the following:Describe any strategies you might use for advancing your scholarly writing and why you selected these strategies.Explain the types of resources you will use to support your writing process as you continue your scholarly journey (e.g., Writing Center materials, support groups, professional learning communities, and regular discussions with your doctoral chair).Identify any potential issues you might face and provide strategies on how you might address these issues.Congratulate yourself on at least one skill you have gained/improved upon during your experience in this course.
CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment
De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report
essay writer De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report.
write a 1-2 page (double-spaced) paper on the topic: “The Ghost Map”The Ghost Map is a fascinating book about how a mystery about a widespread disease was solved using maps! Although this true story took place back in 1854, this is a timely topic with everything going on today with our current pandemic.I don’t expect you to read the entire book (however, I’d be delighted if any of you told me that you decided to do so). Instead, you can research the summaries of it on the Internet. Here are a few resources: New York Times (Links to an external site.), Goodreads (Links to an external site.), Amazon (Links to an external site.), Wikipedia (Links to an external site.).Some of the review links listed above have very short reviews, so you may need to view a few of them to get enough content to write a full page or two. There are also some videos out there, if you wish to view those in addition or instead.Grammar and spelling count towards the grade, so be sure to run the spellchecker and/or have someone review it for you before you submit in order to ensure you earn maximum points.Do not copy/plagiarize from your online resource (it’s going to be auto-checked by Turnitin.com/Vericite) and be sure to include your information source URL and date retrieved at the end of the paper!!
De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report
Development of the Urban Design Group
Development of the Urban Design Group. Urban design Overview What is built-up design? Urban conceive is the method of forming the personal setting for life in towns, villages and villages. It is the art of making places. It engages the conceive of structures, assemblies of structures, spaces and countrysides, and setting up the methods that make thriving development possible. Why are so numerous locations so awfully designed? Why are the locations we are construction so distinct from the locations we like? So numerous new expansion snuff out what makes a location exceptional and give the effect of having been conceived (if that is the word!) by somebody with no sense of what makes a thriving place. Why is so much development so awfully designed? The detail that 84 percent of designing submissions are drawn up by somebody with no conceive teaching may have certain thing to do with it. But being taught in conceive does not inevitably signify that the individual to blame for the development will conceiving certain thing that might make a thriving place. After all, they may not have glimpsed that as their job. They may have been conceiving only of restricted and short-term aims: to construct certain thing that the developer can deal quickly; or to assist the building’s users, other than making a more pleasing know-how for persons transient by. The public interest is broader, and longer term. Urban conceive requests to persons who are involved in more than just the conceive of a lone construction or the concerns of a lone user. What gets built-up designers out of bed in the forenoon is the dispute of conceiving a location that will be utilised and relished by a broad variety of distinct persons for distinct reasons, not only now but in years to come. A new profession Urban conceive is one of the newest professions. The mark ‘urban designer’ is little more than 25 years old. Much of what built-up designers do – forming the locations where we reside – was finished by professionals of diverse types before then, but the job was glimpsed from the viewpoint of specific professions. Architects and planners utilised to contend about the functions of their two professions. Architects would accuse planners of hindering with aesthetic affairs about which they were not trained to judge. Planners would accuse architects of conceiving structures solely as things, with little try to take account of their context or of their expected influence on the surroundings. In 1978 some architects and planners called a truce. This expert sniping is pointless, they said. We have certain thing in common: we are all in the enterprise of making places. That should be the cornerstone of our employed together. People with a mission The Urban Design Group was formed, and shortly architects, planners, countryside architects, engineers, public creative individuals and a variety of other professionals were affirming their firm promise to built-up design. Their objective was to change how the natural environment was shaped. They contended that architects should be worried with the location, not just with conceiving a construction to persuade the client’s claims alone. Planners should be worried, not just with land use, but with the personal pattern of development. Landscape architecture should be engaged in investigating and comprehending sites at the start of the designing and conceive method, other than being conveyed in at a late stage to disguise unattractive structures with some planting. Highway engineers should use their abilities to make locations that are pleasing to be in and to stroll through, other than focusing narrowly on holding the traffic moving. Modern built-up conceive can be advised as part of the broader control and esteem of Urban planning. Indeed, Urban designing started as a action mainly used by with affairs of built-up design. Works for example Ildefons Cerda’s General Theory of Urbanization (1867), Camillo Sitte’s City Planning According to Artistic Principles (1889), and Robinson’s The Improvement of Cities and Towns (1901) and Modern Civic Art (1903), all were mainly worried with built-up conceive, as did the subsequent City Beautiful movement in North America. ‘Urban design’ was first utilised as a characteristic period when Harvard University hosted a sequence of Urban Design Conferences from 1956. These seminars supplied a stage for the commencing of Harvard’s Urban Design program in 1959-60. The writings of Jane Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Gordon Cullen and Christopher Alexander became authoritative works for the school of Urban Design. Gordon Cullen’s The Concise Townscape, first released in 1961, and furthermore had a large leverage on numerous built-up designers. Cullen analyzed the customary creative approach to town conceive of theorists for example Camillo Sitte, Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin. He conceived the notion of ‘serial vision’, characterising the built-up countryside as a sequence of associated spaces. Jane Jacobs’ The Death and Life of Great American Cities, released in 1961, was furthermore a catalyst for interest in concepts of built-up design. She critiqued the Modernism of CIAM, and claimed that the publicly unowned spaces conceived by the ‘city in the park’ idea of Modernists were one of the major causes for the increasing crime rate. She contended rather than for an ‘eyes on the street’ approach to village designing, and the resurrection of major public space precedents, for example roads and rectangles, in the conceive of cities. Kevin Lynch’s The Image of the City of 1961 was furthermore seminal to the action, especially with considers to the notion of legibility, and the decrease of built-up conceive idea to five rudimentary components – routes, localities, perimeters, nodes, landmarks. He furthermore made well liked the use of mental charts to comprehending the town, other than the two-dimensional personal expert designs of the preceding 50 years. Other prominent works encompass Rossi’s Architecture of the City (1966), Venturi’s Learning from Las Vegas (1972), Colin Rowe’s Collage City (1978), and Peter Calthorpe’s The Next American Metropolis (1993). Rossi presented the notions of ‘historicism’ and ‘collective memory’ to built-up conceive, and suggested a ‘collage metaphor’ to realise the collage of new and older types inside the identical built-up space. Calthorpe, on the other hand, evolved a manifesto for sustainable built-up dwelling by intermediate density dwelling, as well as a conceive manual for construction new towns in agreement with his notion of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson in “The Social Logic of Space” (1984) presented the notion of Space Syntax to forecast how action patterns in towns would assist to built-up vitality, anti-social demeanour and financial success. The attractiveness of these works produced in periods for example ‘historicism’, ‘sustainability’, ‘livability’, ‘high value of built-up components’, etc. become everyday dialect in the area of built-up planning. Development of the Urban Design Group
Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon
Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon. Please use this proforma to record your data. You should aim to complete the experimental part and answer all the questions before you leave. Please show your completed pro-forma to one of the demonstrators before leaving so that they can check with you that you can answer all the questions. This will form also be available as electronically on studynet. You can use the electronic form to produce a final version of your report for submission online. Introduction In 1952, Hodgkin and Huxley published a series of four papers in the Journal of Physiology (London) reporting their experiments to investigate the underlying events of the action potential. In their final paper, they derived a series of equations that describe the relationship between sodium conductance (gNa ), potassium conductance (gK ) and the membrane potential in a squid axon following electrical stimulation. Hodgkin and Huxley were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. In this practical, you will use a computer program based on the Hodgkin and Huxley equations to show what is happening to the membrane potential, gNa and gK during and after electrical stimulation. An example of the output from the program is illustrated in figure 1. It can be seen that the electrical stimulation depolarises the membrane. Once a depolarisation of 30mV has occurred, the conductance to sodium ions increases rapidly and the membrane potential rises to 20mV. The rise in gK is slower in onset and lasts for longer than the increase in gNa . The fall in gNa and the associated rise in gK returns the membrane potential towards the resting value. Methods and Results Run the Squid Giant Axon simulation from the Start menu, HHX. Experiments using a single electrical stimulus In the first series of experiments, you will use a single electrical stimulus to initiate an action potential. Run a simulation with the following parameters: Q1 and 2. Investigate the effects of varying stimulus amplitude and duration by running all the simulations shown in the matrix below in Table 1: Enter a ‘X’ in the Table 1 matrix for experiments that produce an action potential, and record the peak height, amplitude, latency and threshold of any action potentials in Table 2 overleaf. For experiments that fail to elicit an action potential, enter a ‘O’ in the matrix below, and record a value of ¥ (infinity) for the latency and – for the other parameters in the table overleaf. Q3. Plot two graphs to show the relationship between: (i) Stimulus strength and latency and (ii) Stimulus duration and latency. How these graphs should be plotted is not immediately obvious, and information on how to complete this task will not be explicitly given! The optimal solution to the problem is for you to find, but the following points are provided for guidance: It is not legitimate to plot infinity on graphs It is not appropriate to extrapolate beyond data points It is not legitimate to plot average latencies. The graphs must be plotted so that every value of latency (except ¥) is represented. Use the blank sheet on the proforma, there is no need to use graph paper. Graph 1: Stimulus strength and latency Graph 2: Stimulus Duration and Latency Experiments with dual stimuli Q4. Run a simulation with the following parameters to demonstrate the absolute refractory period: Stimulation A shows a normal single, action potential, with the second action potential not being produced as the stimulation doesn’t depolarise the membrane fully, it only caused a minor depolarisation of -92mV. The reason there isn’t a second action potential is due to the fact that there is a lack of repolarisation, this is called the absolute refractory period. During this period, a second action potential cannot be initiated, no matter how large the stimulus is being applied. Stimulation B still only produces one action potential, which peaks at 17mV. Again a second is not produced because the stimulus is not large enough to create an action potential, however the second depolarisation is slightly larger than the one from stimulation A, as its peak is -81mV. This shows that this time, the neurone is again in absolute refractory period. Q5. Repeat the simulations, but with a longer delay between stimuli: Stimulation C again produces a single action potential; however the second peak of depolarisation is larger than both those found in stimulation A and B. The peak of the action potential is 17mV. The second depolarisation reaches -81mV, which is higher than stimulation A or B. Stimulation D produces two action potentials. The first action potential is larger than the second. Stimulation D shows a period of relative refractory period as when stimulus 2 is increased to 100 mV and the duration is increased to 7ms. Discussion Q6. Briefly justify why a latency of ¥ was recorded if an action potential was not produced. As there is no action potential, so this means it will never occur, so the latency will never be reached. This is the same for infinity, we can never reach it, so this is an appropriate number. Q7. What evidence from your results suggests that action potentials are threshold phenomena? As we can see, action potential depends on the threshold voltage being reached. The threshold voltages are all around the same value, about -70mV. From this we can see that once this threshold is reached then the action potential will occur. Q8. Comment briefly on the amplitude of the action potentials generated in these experiments. All the amplitudes from the action potential are around the same value. This is due to the all or nothing principle. Once an action potential is fired, it is always the same strength. Q9. From Graph 1, describe the effect of increasing stimulus strength on the latency of the action potential. Overall, the trend of the graph is that as you increase stimulus strength, the latency of the action potential reduces. On average, most of the stimulus durations follow the same pattern. Duration 0.5 ms doesn’t have enough data to create a curve. The point 20µA/cm2, duration 0.5 ms, is an anomaly, as it doesn’t match in with the rest of the graph. It is nearly 0.5 ms too high. Also, the graph has an unusual peak at 10 µA/cm2, duration 1 ms. This is about 2 ms above the rest of the graph. Q10. From Graph 2, describe the effect of increasing stimulus duration on the latency of the action potential. Overall, the trend of the graph is that as you increase stimulus duration, the latency remains constant. After 2 ms, all of the latencies remain steady, except from stimulus strength 7µA/cm2. This has a slight reduced latency, making a parabola shaped graph. However, all the latencies before 1 ms, are all increased compared to the points at 2 ms. Q11. Draw a simple flow diagram to illustrate the positive feedback cycle that results in the rapid depolarizing phase of the action potential. Q12. What event at the ion channel level terminates the above cycle? The potassium ions move out of the cell and the sodium ion channels shut. Q13. What physiological mechanism is responsible for the absolute refractory period? Absolute refractory period is caused by sodium ion channels being open even after an action potential has occurred. This means you cannot generate another action potential, until the membrane hyperpolarises. Once the channels close, they activate again, so an action potential can be generated again. Q14. Explain your observations to simulations C and D in the Methods and Results section. Stimulation C only has one action potential; this is due to the fact that the second amplitude is during the relative refractory period. This is shown as the second stimulation produces a slight depolarisation of the membrane; however it isn’t large enough to produce an action potential. However, the depolarisation is larger than that in stimulations A or B, and this is due to the delay of 7 ms. Stimulation D has two action potentials. This is due to the fact that the second stimulation is large enough to create a large depolarisation during the relative refractory period. This large depolarisation then causes the second action potential. Also, the delay of 7 ms allows the second action potential. Q15. Briefly summarise two effects that refractory periods impose on the behaviour of neurones (N.B. restatement of the definitions of refractory periods is not what is asked here) The refractory periods have two main effects on the behaviour of neurones. These are frequency coding and unidirectional propagation of action potentials. Frequency coding is the stimulus intensity of the action potential; this determines the number of action potentials that occur per specific time period. A stimulus with a longer duration will produce more than one action potential, as the time period for a second action potential to occur is longer. This means that it can overcome the relative refractory period. Unidirectional propagation of action potential makes sure that action potentials only travel in one direction. This makes sure that the second action potential doesn’t occur in the wrong direction. Questions to answer after the practical. Q 16 . Most Local anaesthetics are Sodium channel blockers. Describe how these compounds work, the side-effects and what their main clinical uses are. ( max 300 words). Local anaesthetics work by inhibiting the voltage dependant sodium channels located in the neurones. By inhibiting these channels, depolarisation doesn’t occur. This will lead onto action potentials not being produced in the neurone. If this occurs in the sensory neurones, this will prevent action potentials being fired towards the central nervous system. This means communication has broken down, so no pain will be felt during clinical procedures. The side effects of local anaesthetics are that the effect is total. All neurones will not be able to fire any action potentials, so all feelings and movement in the area is lost. Other side effects include confusion, respiratory depression and convulsions, hypotension and bradycardia, which could lead onto a cardiac arrest. Also, hypersensitivity has also been reported. The main clinical use for local anaesthetics is during dental procedures and during minor surgery on a small part of the body, often performed by a GP or a surgeon. Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon
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