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Change of Life in the United States Essay

Social change is basically a structural alteration in a nation’s politics, the community, its economic system as well as institutions in creating better, equitable and just societies. Supporters of social change aim at the fundamental causes of significant social setbacks; these are homelessness, inequity and poverty. This paper therefore aims at showing how life in the United States will change after ten years, explain how the internet might be involved in these changes and finally name three ways in which sociologists can use the internet to study life in the U.S. There are a number of ways in which the social life in the United States can change in the next 10 years. Among many other ways which include discrimination, gender rights, technology, and rights for the disabled, sexual issues in the next ten years will be dominant. The rights of gay and lesbians will be widely accepted in the next ten years. This will be to an extent where it will be viewed as something common. On gender issues, there are expectations of having a female president at the same time as having women in key posts in the government. There are even expectations of women making up more representations in the house and possibly the Senate. Technologically, there will be great advancements which will enhance security, make work easier, and improve communication (make communication cheaper and readily accessible). Because of this again, transportation will be made easier, individuals will have the opportunities to learn and even work from the comforts of their homes. On areas of energy, there will be even better technology that will boost the use of alternative energy. “These will include the use of solar energy and the wind and subsequent decrease in the use of oil and electricity” (Harper, 2003). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology is a major constituent of social change. Without technology there will be very minimal realization of this. The internet is one technological division that is essential in social change. Security wise in the near future, controls and checking will most likely be stricter. The internet, Information and Technology will be employed to work against any risks. “New hardware such as image scanners, body scanners, fingerprint ID images and other identity records such as permanent cards will probably be brought in and implemented as new research and invention come to the fore” (Wright, 2007). With the internet, there will be easy access of information concerning any perceived security threats. The internet is a major constituent of any social changes because it has a major impact in communication. This is through cheap exchange of information and the ability to work and study from anywhere. The internet again is responsible for creating a world where people from anywhere can hook up for almost any reason in any given timeframe. This allows incredible opportunities which are both beneficial and detrimental. In a synopsis, the internet has improved our life-spans while making many aspects of life easy and enjoyable; the internet also generates a fairly reliant, indolent, and superficial culture. Sociologists have many ways in which they can use the internet to study life in the U.S. In one of the ways, they can study consumption rates from the internet. Through internet surveys, they can easily determine families’ daily, weekly and even monthly consumption rates on anything. They can again establish the academic life of the people in the United States. On the internet again, sociologists are able to gauge the economic parameters especially the ones affecting the section of the society that regularly uses the internet, since not all life is based on the internet. As shown by Giddens (2006) “money alone does not bring about change nor do individuals. But when people band together and form organizations to focus their collective power, social change happens”. This bases itself on the adaptation of the social order in a particular communitysociety. We will write a custom Essay on Change of Life in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Giddens, A. (2006). Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press. Harper, CL. (2003). Exploring social change. Engelwood Cliffs: New Jersey. Prentice Hall Wright, A. (2007). Technology and Social Change. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Concept Paper Prep.

Project D: Concept Paper Prep For the questions chosen in Project C, state carefully the problem that you are attempting to solve (i.e. the problem statement), the purpose of the study, and the significance of the study in relation to the academic and/or business world. In addition, include in your research potential theoretical concepts that would serve as the academic foundation for your study. The problem statement should begin with, “The problem to be addressed is…” The purpose statement should begin, “The purpose of this qualitative [type of qualitative study] study is…” The total submission must be at least 800 words to accurately reflect the problem, purpose, and significance of the study. Remember, the problem, the purpose, and the significance must have context, and must not be merely listed in bullet form. This assignment requires both an annotation page, as well as reference page for scholarly resources. There must be at least 10 sources.NEED BY 700 PM 25 NOV 2017
Concept Paper Prep

Joseph Jordan Studies in Psychology In the article, Mate Choice, Mate Preference, and Biological Market: the Relationship between Partner Choice and Health Preference is modulated by Women’s Own Attractiveness, the authors question the correlation between partner preference, and partner choice. The authors address that there are many studies where the subjects analyze which person or face they deem is attractive, but what they wanted to know is if their choices in partners matched that of what they would prefer. They began to ask this question after realizing that there was not a lot of studies on this subject and on those few studies that there are the conclusions were mixed and contradictory. Through those few studies the authors were able to hypothesize that there are some discrepancies between partner preference and partner choice, and that the more of a high-market person you are the more likely your preference will match you actual partner choice. For this hypothesis, they would test whether the relationship between participant’s face preference and mate choice is modulated by their own market value, as opposed to high-market valued individuals can usually get their preferred partner. The participants that they used in this study was fifty one heterosexual couples with ages ranging from 18-35. They then constructed the stimuli, or the pictures that the subjects would be looking at to judge which faces were healthier than the other. They did this by collecting images of 50 white males and 50 white females. In these photos, their faces were the main focus, so their hair was unobstructed and their clothing and body from the neck down was photo-shoped out of the image. They then had 100 heterosexual men, and 100 heterosexual women rate the 50 images of the men’s appearance on a scale of 1-7 (1 being much unhealthier than average, and 7 being much healthier than average. They then got a completely different 100 heterosexual men and 100 heterosexual women to rate the 50 women pictures on the same scale. The experimenters then took the top 15 rated healthy men pictures, and the bottom 15 rated least healthy pictures. With that information they constructed a prototype face with completely neutral features. They then at random selected 10 pictures of the men out of the original 50, and they did the same with the women. From this they constructed faces that would be seen as the healthiest, and photos that would be seen as the least healthy. Then the 51 couples of the main experiment were asked to rate those photos on the same scale of 1-7. The 51 couples were also asked to have their photo taken under the same consistencies of the photos used previously in the experiment. The experimenters then acquired 40 more participants, who have not participated in the experiment previously, to rate the photos of the men and women from the 51 couples on the same 1-7 scale. With this information, the experimenters compared what the couples preferred as a partner and what they actually chose as a partner, based off of how the 40 volunteers rated the faces of the couples. After comparing this data they came up with their results, and their conclusion. This was their conclusion from the study, “The results of the current study suggest that the extent to which mate preferences predict actual partner choice can depend, in part, on own market value, at least among women. More fundamentally, our data demonstrate the utility of considering biological market theories not only for our understanding of mate preferences or mate choice, but also for our understanding of the relationship between preference and choice.” In more lamens terms, the more attractive you are, or the more “high-market” of a person you are, and the more likely you are to choose a partner who actually matches your actual preference. This is much more prevalent in women, and can be explained due to the fact that the market for partners is limited, and it is mutual; the partner that you actually choose has to be mutually attracted to you who might not be the same as person as you would prefer. In another article, Are Smiles a Sign of Happiness? Spontaneous expressions of Judo winners, the authors were searching for whether smiling was an effect on emotion, or sociality. They wanted to find out if smiling was really due to pure joy, or was it just an act that people do in a social environment to try and tell people that they are happy. To dig out this answer, the experimenters/ authors had to first ask, when do people smile? Through earlier research on this topic the experimenters were able to conclude that there were two types of smiles: FEP smiles or Duchenne smiles were smiles that were due to pure emotional happiness, while BET smiles were more complicated, and could be due to emotion or due to social interaction. With BET smiles a person could fake a FEP smile or even hide one due to the sociality of the situation. They also took into account other older experiments, especially an experiment where they studied when Olympic medalists smiled. They found that when the Olympian was on stage or receiving the medal, they smiled 70% of the time, while when they were behind the stage or away from people they only smiled 7% of the time. With these past experiments in their mind the experimenters wanted to take a further look into this using a new and improved method to get a more definitive answer to the cause of smiles. For their experiment the testers would observe the facial expressions of Judo fighters at the 2010 National Spanish Judo Championship. Their test field consisted of 55 judo fighters who one their fights and whose faces were closely monitored by video tape. On top of the fighters being videotaped they were also asked to fill out a likert scale (0 being none at all, while 7 being very much). They would then try and correlate the exact frame of their peak happiness and observe their facial expression. They did the same procedure with international fighters, and they then counted the amount of Ducheene or FEP smiles from the winners. After tallying up all of the smiles they came up with their results and their conclusion. They found accounted for 33 smiles coming from the medal winners of the judo tournament, but they also found that 31 out of 33 of those smiles came while the fighters were engaged in some sort of social interaction. They also found that the fighter was much more likely to display a smiling face the more numerous and the more enthusiastic a crowd was. Through these results they concluded that happiness does not necessarily predict smiles. When comparing the fighter’s likert scale, when the fighters were actually the happiest, they were not smiling at all, rather they had their heads down with their mouths slightly agape. Smiles are mostly just a communicative response to tell people that we are happy, as opposed to a pure reaction of happiness. What the experimenters came to decide was that their tests were in much support of BET smiles, saying that smiles are determined more by the sociality of the situation. People will sometimes hide their smiles, or they will create smiles based off of what feels appropriate for that social situation. In another article, Hormonal and Morphological of Women’s Body Attractiveness, the experimenters are trying to figure out if a women’s attractiveness of her body correlates to her ability to reproduce. There are certain things that men are attracted to like a low hip to waist ratio, with larger sized breasts. This has been proposed to promote a healthy women, due to healthy fat deposits that help along baby brain develop while it is in the womb. There have also been contradictory findings from third world countries where men are more attracted to heavier set women. This suggests that a low hip to wait ratio may not be an evolutionary attractiveness, rather a molding of what men see as attractive through manipulation of western media. The experimenters wanted to get a more definitive answer to this question, so they were to measure chemical hormonal levels that promoted fertility and compared it to their apparent attractiveness. With a volunteer group of 33 women they had them self-collect saliva samples for an about a period of 1-2 menstrual cycles. All of these women were also photographed from head to toe in neutral clothing and in a neutral environment. The women were as well required to come in for four sessions during their menstrual cycles to do a number of various tests. Anthropometric samples were taken from the women, and their body mass index and their breast size were also measured. Their hip to weight ratios were measured from the photos that were taken from them, to keep from the discrepancies that could arise from the experimenter’s assistance performing the tests. Those photos were then taken an observed by 58 UCSB students, 31 of which were men, and 27 of them were female. The students were asked to give a rating of attractiveness on a scale of 1-7, 1 being the lowest and 7 being the highest. The raters were then asked to rate them using the same scale on a basis of long term attractiveness and short term attractiveness. The results had high agreeability, so the students seemed to agree on the level of the women’s attractiveness. The experimenters’ then cross examined the hormone levels, the breast size, and their hip to weight ratio with their rated attractiveness. With this comparison they were able to come up with reliable data, giving them the ability to come up with a conclusion. When comparing the hormone levels of women and their breast size, hip to weight ratio, and their Body Mass Index they found that there was no correlation between them. This goes against presumptions that were made by other people before this beginning of this experiment. A closer look at those results and they realized that the Body Mass Index had a huge impact on a women’s attractiveness. So in order to test for breast size, and hip to weight ratio, they then neutralized all of the women’s BMIs. After neutralizing the BMI the experimenters found that there was a strong correlation with women’s attractiveness and their hormone fertility levels. Since people viewed women with a high BMI so unattractive it masked the true results of the test. Once they neutralized the BMI’s they were able to come up with this conclusion: hormonal levels of estradiol and testosterone could confidently predict the apparent attractiveness of the women.

CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment

CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment.

For this week, you will work on developing a writing process strategy to continue improving your scholarly writing, and you will incorporate your S.M.A.R.T. goals identified in this week’s Discussion. As you work on these last assignments, take time to reflect on all you have accomplished, how much you have supported and encouraged your colleagues, and the rewarding journey ahead.To prepare for this Assignment:Review the feedback you received regarding the S.M.A.R.T. goals you identified in this week’s Discussion.Revise your goals accordingly, based on feedback provided by your Instructor, your colleagues, and any other relevant source (e.g., other Instructors).Review Learning Resources, and consider how these resources might support your writing process.By Day 7Submit a 2- to 3-paragraph reflection in which you do the following:Describe any strategies you might use for advancing your scholarly writing and why you selected these strategies.Explain the types of resources you will use to support your writing process as you continue your scholarly journey (e.g., Writing Center materials, support groups, professional learning communities, and regular discussions with your doctoral chair).Identify any potential issues you might face and provide strategies on how you might address these issues.Congratulate yourself on at least one skill you have gained/improved upon during your experience in this course.
CAEX6061G25 Week 8 Writing Process Strategy Assignment

De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report

essay writer De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report.

write a 1-2 page (double-spaced) paper on the topic: “The Ghost Map”The Ghost Map is a fascinating book about how a mystery about a widespread disease was solved using maps! Although this true story took place back in 1854, this is a timely topic with everything going on today with our current pandemic.I don’t expect you to read the entire book (however, I’d be delighted if any of you told me that you decided to do so). Instead, you can research the summaries of it on the Internet. Here are a few resources: New York Times (Links to an external site.), Goodreads (Links to an external site.), Amazon (Links to an external site.), Wikipedia (Links to an external site.).Some of the review links listed above have very short reviews, so you may need to view a few of them to get enough content to write a full page or two. There are also some videos out there, if you wish to view those in addition or instead.Grammar and spelling count towards the grade, so be sure to run the spellchecker and/or have someone review it for you before you submit in order to ensure you earn maximum points.Do not copy/plagiarize from your online resource (it’s going to be auto-checked by Turnitin.com/Vericite) and be sure to include your information source URL and date retrieved at the end of the paper!!
De Anza College The Ghost Map and Covid 19 Outbreak Book Report

Development of the Urban Design Group

Development of the Urban Design Group. Urban design Overview What is built-up design? Urban conceive is the method of forming the personal setting for life in towns, villages and villages. It is the art of making places. It engages the conceive of structures, assemblies of structures, spaces and countrysides, and setting up the methods that make thriving development possible. Why are so numerous locations so awfully designed? Why are the locations we are construction so distinct from the locations we like? So numerous new expansion snuff out what makes a location exceptional and give the effect of having been conceived (if that is the word!) by somebody with no sense of what makes a thriving place. Why is so much development so awfully designed? The detail that 84 percent of designing submissions are drawn up by somebody with no conceive teaching may have certain thing to do with it. But being taught in conceive does not inevitably signify that the individual to blame for the development will conceiving certain thing that might make a thriving place. After all, they may not have glimpsed that as their job. They may have been conceiving only of restricted and short-term aims: to construct certain thing that the developer can deal quickly; or to assist the building’s users, other than making a more pleasing know-how for persons transient by. The public interest is broader, and longer term. Urban conceive requests to persons who are involved in more than just the conceive of a lone construction or the concerns of a lone user. What gets built-up designers out of bed in the forenoon is the dispute of conceiving a location that will be utilised and relished by a broad variety of distinct persons for distinct reasons, not only now but in years to come. A new profession Urban conceive is one of the newest professions. The mark ‘urban designer’ is little more than 25 years old. Much of what built-up designers do – forming the locations where we reside – was finished by professionals of diverse types before then, but the job was glimpsed from the viewpoint of specific professions. Architects and planners utilised to contend about the functions of their two professions. Architects would accuse planners of hindering with aesthetic affairs about which they were not trained to judge. Planners would accuse architects of conceiving structures solely as things, with little try to take account of their context or of their expected influence on the surroundings. In 1978 some architects and planners called a truce. This expert sniping is pointless, they said. We have certain thing in common: we are all in the enterprise of making places. That should be the cornerstone of our employed together. People with a mission The Urban Design Group was formed, and shortly architects, planners, countryside architects, engineers, public creative individuals and a variety of other professionals were affirming their firm promise to built-up design. Their objective was to change how the natural environment was shaped. They contended that architects should be worried with the location, not just with conceiving a construction to persuade the client’s claims alone. Planners should be worried, not just with land use, but with the personal pattern of development. Landscape architecture should be engaged in investigating and comprehending sites at the start of the designing and conceive method, other than being conveyed in at a late stage to disguise unattractive structures with some planting. Highway engineers should use their abilities to make locations that are pleasing to be in and to stroll through, other than focusing narrowly on holding the traffic moving. Modern built-up conceive can be advised as part of the broader control and esteem of Urban planning. Indeed, Urban designing started as a action mainly used by with affairs of built-up design. Works for example Ildefons Cerda’s General Theory of Urbanization (1867), Camillo Sitte’s City Planning According to Artistic Principles (1889), and Robinson’s The Improvement of Cities and Towns (1901) and Modern Civic Art (1903), all were mainly worried with built-up conceive, as did the subsequent City Beautiful movement in North America. ‘Urban design’ was first utilised as a characteristic period when Harvard University hosted a sequence of Urban Design Conferences from 1956. These seminars supplied a stage for the commencing of Harvard’s Urban Design program in 1959-60. The writings of Jane Jacobs, Kevin Lynch, Gordon Cullen and Christopher Alexander became authoritative works for the school of Urban Design. Gordon Cullen’s The Concise Townscape, first released in 1961, and furthermore had a large leverage on numerous built-up designers. Cullen analyzed the customary creative approach to town conceive of theorists for example Camillo Sitte, Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin. He conceived the notion of ‘serial vision’, characterising the built-up countryside as a sequence of associated spaces. Jane Jacobs’ The Death and Life of Great American Cities, released in 1961, was furthermore a catalyst for interest in concepts of built-up design. She critiqued the Modernism of CIAM, and claimed that the publicly unowned spaces conceived by the ‘city in the park’ idea of Modernists were one of the major causes for the increasing crime rate. She contended rather than for an ‘eyes on the street’ approach to village designing, and the resurrection of major public space precedents, for example roads and rectangles, in the conceive of cities. Kevin Lynch’s The Image of the City of 1961 was furthermore seminal to the action, especially with considers to the notion of legibility, and the decrease of built-up conceive idea to five rudimentary components – routes, localities, perimeters, nodes, landmarks. He furthermore made well liked the use of mental charts to comprehending the town, other than the two-dimensional personal expert designs of the preceding 50 years. Other prominent works encompass Rossi’s Architecture of the City (1966), Venturi’s Learning from Las Vegas (1972), Colin Rowe’s Collage City (1978), and Peter Calthorpe’s The Next American Metropolis (1993). Rossi presented the notions of ‘historicism’ and ‘collective memory’ to built-up conceive, and suggested a ‘collage metaphor’ to realise the collage of new and older types inside the identical built-up space. Calthorpe, on the other hand, evolved a manifesto for sustainable built-up dwelling by intermediate density dwelling, as well as a conceive manual for construction new towns in agreement with his notion of Transit Oriented Development (TOD). Bill Hillier and Julienne Hanson in “The Social Logic of Space” (1984) presented the notion of Space Syntax to forecast how action patterns in towns would assist to built-up vitality, anti-social demeanour and financial success. The attractiveness of these works produced in periods for example ‘historicism’, ‘sustainability’, ‘livability’, ‘high value of built-up components’, etc. become everyday dialect in the area of built-up planning. Development of the Urban Design Group

Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon

Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon. Please use this proforma to record your data. You should aim to complete the experimental part and answer all the questions before you leave. Please show your completed pro-forma to one of the demonstrators before leaving so that they can check with you that you can answer all the questions. This will form also be available as electronically on studynet. You can use the electronic form to produce a final version of your report for submission online. Introduction In 1952, Hodgkin and Huxley published a series of four papers in the Journal of Physiology (London) reporting their experiments to investigate the underlying events of the action potential. In their final paper, they derived a series of equations that describe the relationship between sodium conductance (gNa ), potassium conductance (gK ) and the membrane potential in a squid axon following electrical stimulation. Hodgkin and Huxley were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. In this practical, you will use a computer program based on the Hodgkin and Huxley equations to show what is happening to the membrane potential, gNa and gK during and after electrical stimulation. An example of the output from the program is illustrated in figure 1. It can be seen that the electrical stimulation depolarises the membrane. Once a depolarisation of 30mV has occurred, the conductance to sodium ions increases rapidly and the membrane potential rises to 20mV. The rise in gK is slower in onset and lasts for longer than the increase in gNa . The fall in gNa and the associated rise in gK returns the membrane potential towards the resting value. Methods and Results Run the Squid Giant Axon simulation from the Start menu, HHX. Experiments using a single electrical stimulus In the first series of experiments, you will use a single electrical stimulus to initiate an action potential. Run a simulation with the following parameters: Q1 and 2. Investigate the effects of varying stimulus amplitude and duration by running all the simulations shown in the matrix below in Table 1: Enter a ‘X’ in the Table 1 matrix for experiments that produce an action potential, and record the peak height, amplitude, latency and threshold of any action potentials in Table 2 overleaf. For experiments that fail to elicit an action potential, enter a ‘O’ in the matrix below, and record a value of ¥ (infinity) for the latency and – for the other parameters in the table overleaf. Q3. Plot two graphs to show the relationship between: (i) Stimulus strength and latency and (ii) Stimulus duration and latency. How these graphs should be plotted is not immediately obvious, and information on how to complete this task will not be explicitly given! The optimal solution to the problem is for you to find, but the following points are provided for guidance: It is not legitimate to plot infinity on graphs It is not appropriate to extrapolate beyond data points It is not legitimate to plot average latencies. The graphs must be plotted so that every value of latency (except ¥) is represented. Use the blank sheet on the proforma, there is no need to use graph paper. Graph 1: Stimulus strength and latency Graph 2: Stimulus Duration and Latency Experiments with dual stimuli Q4. Run a simulation with the following parameters to demonstrate the absolute refractory period: Stimulation A shows a normal single, action potential, with the second action potential not being produced as the stimulation doesn’t depolarise the membrane fully, it only caused a minor depolarisation of -92mV. The reason there isn’t a second action potential is due to the fact that there is a lack of repolarisation, this is called the absolute refractory period. During this period, a second action potential cannot be initiated, no matter how large the stimulus is being applied. Stimulation B still only produces one action potential, which peaks at 17mV. Again a second is not produced because the stimulus is not large enough to create an action potential, however the second depolarisation is slightly larger than the one from stimulation A, as its peak is -81mV. This shows that this time, the neurone is again in absolute refractory period. Q5. Repeat the simulations, but with a longer delay between stimuli: Stimulation C again produces a single action potential; however the second peak of depolarisation is larger than both those found in stimulation A and B. The peak of the action potential is 17mV. The second depolarisation reaches -81mV, which is higher than stimulation A or B. Stimulation D produces two action potentials. The first action potential is larger than the second. Stimulation D shows a period of relative refractory period as when stimulus 2 is increased to 100 mV and the duration is increased to 7ms. Discussion Q6. Briefly justify why a latency of ¥ was recorded if an action potential was not produced. As there is no action potential, so this means it will never occur, so the latency will never be reached. This is the same for infinity, we can never reach it, so this is an appropriate number. Q7. What evidence from your results suggests that action potentials are threshold phenomena? As we can see, action potential depends on the threshold voltage being reached. The threshold voltages are all around the same value, about -70mV. From this we can see that once this threshold is reached then the action potential will occur. Q8. Comment briefly on the amplitude of the action potentials generated in these experiments. All the amplitudes from the action potential are around the same value. This is due to the all or nothing principle. Once an action potential is fired, it is always the same strength. Q9. From Graph 1, describe the effect of increasing stimulus strength on the latency of the action potential. Overall, the trend of the graph is that as you increase stimulus strength, the latency of the action potential reduces. On average, most of the stimulus durations follow the same pattern. Duration 0.5 ms doesn’t have enough data to create a curve. The point 20µA/cm2, duration 0.5 ms, is an anomaly, as it doesn’t match in with the rest of the graph. It is nearly 0.5 ms too high. Also, the graph has an unusual peak at 10 µA/cm2, duration 1 ms. This is about 2 ms above the rest of the graph. Q10. From Graph 2, describe the effect of increasing stimulus duration on the latency of the action potential. Overall, the trend of the graph is that as you increase stimulus duration, the latency remains constant. After 2 ms, all of the latencies remain steady, except from stimulus strength 7µA/cm2. This has a slight reduced latency, making a parabola shaped graph. However, all the latencies before 1 ms, are all increased compared to the points at 2 ms. Q11. Draw a simple flow diagram to illustrate the positive feedback cycle that results in the rapid depolarizing phase of the action potential. Q12. What event at the ion channel level terminates the above cycle? The potassium ions move out of the cell and the sodium ion channels shut. Q13. What physiological mechanism is responsible for the absolute refractory period? Absolute refractory period is caused by sodium ion channels being open even after an action potential has occurred. This means you cannot generate another action potential, until the membrane hyperpolarises. Once the channels close, they activate again, so an action potential can be generated again. Q14. Explain your observations to simulations C and D in the Methods and Results section. Stimulation C only has one action potential; this is due to the fact that the second amplitude is during the relative refractory period. This is shown as the second stimulation produces a slight depolarisation of the membrane; however it isn’t large enough to produce an action potential. However, the depolarisation is larger than that in stimulations A or B, and this is due to the delay of 7 ms. Stimulation D has two action potentials. This is due to the fact that the second stimulation is large enough to create a large depolarisation during the relative refractory period. This large depolarisation then causes the second action potential. Also, the delay of 7 ms allows the second action potential. Q15. Briefly summarise two effects that refractory periods impose on the behaviour of neurones (N.B. restatement of the definitions of refractory periods is not what is asked here) The refractory periods have two main effects on the behaviour of neurones. These are frequency coding and unidirectional propagation of action potentials. Frequency coding is the stimulus intensity of the action potential; this determines the number of action potentials that occur per specific time period. A stimulus with a longer duration will produce more than one action potential, as the time period for a second action potential to occur is longer. This means that it can overcome the relative refractory period. Unidirectional propagation of action potential makes sure that action potentials only travel in one direction. This makes sure that the second action potential doesn’t occur in the wrong direction. Questions to answer after the practical. Q 16 . Most Local anaesthetics are Sodium channel blockers. Describe how these compounds work, the side-effects and what their main clinical uses are. ( max 300 words). Local anaesthetics work by inhibiting the voltage dependant sodium channels located in the neurones. By inhibiting these channels, depolarisation doesn’t occur. This will lead onto action potentials not being produced in the neurone. If this occurs in the sensory neurones, this will prevent action potentials being fired towards the central nervous system. This means communication has broken down, so no pain will be felt during clinical procedures. The side effects of local anaesthetics are that the effect is total. All neurones will not be able to fire any action potentials, so all feelings and movement in the area is lost. Other side effects include confusion, respiratory depression and convulsions, hypotension and bradycardia, which could lead onto a cardiac arrest. Also, hypersensitivity has also been reported. The main clinical use for local anaesthetics is during dental procedures and during minor surgery on a small part of the body, often performed by a GP or a surgeon. Computer Simulation of Action Potential in Squid Axon

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