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Challenges Faced by Managers in the Public Sector

There are different levels of management in the three different sectors of the economy. There are non-managerial employees, first-line managers, middle managers and the top managers. Robbins et al ;( 2009). This essay will critically evaluate the challenges faced by managers in the public sector organisations. The essay will assess the roles of the manager in this sector and the difficulties managers encounter whilst carrying out their duties. The challenges posed by organisational structure and design with an example from the Northampton Borough Council, the issues due to the organisational culture, privatisation of some of the public sector services, the strategic management of the public sector and the complexities due to the constant changing environment in which these organisations operate, and the challenges to managers of the most recent comprehensive budget cuts, will be evaluated in this essay. The typical roles of a manager in any organisation is to organise, lead, plan and control the activities of the people and other resources within it towards achieving the objectives of that organisation; Naylor (2004). The role a manager plays is dependent on the level of management position although each level has its challenges. At the senior level, the manager’s role is much broader and in depth and it requires creativity and innovativeness; Robbins et al (2009). The senior manager is involved in decision making, strategic management planning and control, the manager, at this level of management is expected to have an understanding of all areas of the organisation to enable sensible handling of any given situation Hanagan;(2008). The role of the manager did not change in the 21st century rather the method of carrying out the above mentioned roles are different, for instance the manager has to organise work differently, communication is more sophisticated such as, the use of internet, mobile telephones and e-mail. In recent times, the management of change is considered as the most important skill of management due to the pace of change in the 21st century Hanagan, (2008).The rapid changes in technology, enormous improvements in communication, the increase in focus on global economy, and the environment are issues to the modern day manager. In addition to the above, the role of the manager in the public sector is challenged by the constant changes in legislation and political policies subject to government in power Hanagan (2008). An organisation is an arrangement which has been set up for a particular purpose. Robbins et al (2009). Different organisations belong to different sectors of the economy. There are three sectors; the public, the private and the third sector such as social enterprises. This three sectors have some common characteristics which are: they all have distinct purpose, each organisation is made up of people, and all create a structure within which the people could carry out their duties Robbins et al(2009). Organisations are grouped as public sector depending on certain factors such as; how much the organisation competes with similar organisations, goods and services are charged indirectly and how much it allows itself to be influenced by demand and supply of goods and services. The less such organisations are influenced by the above factors the more the organisations are considered as public sector organisations Hanagan (2008). Instances of these organisations are; Local Government council, Libraries, the National Police Force, the Defence Ministry, Colleges and Universities. The common features of these organisations are; they are set up to fulfil specific purposes, they are service motivated, they are accountable to many stakeholders and the public, they carry out their duties for the good of the people and they are funded through the use of taxpayers’ money. Avery important challenge to a manager whether in the public sector or in the private sector is to be aware of their relevant stakeholders and operate the organisation in ways which will yield maximum returns to each stakeholder group Bloisi et al (2007). The public sector organisation has a centralised organisational structure whereby authority and decision making is made at the senior managerial level. Organisational structure is a connected arrangement of positions and work units through which the important tasks of an organisation are subdivided and categorised to form decision centres from where the strategic plans of the organisation are carried out Bloisi et al (2007). Most of these organisations have a Matrix design structure which enables double responsibility and reporting roles with particular projects. Bloisi et al (2007). The managers in the matrix organisation are challenged by the constant need to resolve conflicts due to differences in perspectives and priority Bloisi et al (2007). For instance, the organisational structure of the Northampton Borough Council has over five managerial levels of management. According to Nicole Macdonald, a HR Manager Strategy with the council, one of the challenges they have is getting approval to carry out plans as quickly as possible. The council has about forty-seven councillors through whom decisions are made. These councillors represent different political fronts. Sometimes it is difficult to reach a consensus on certain issues and therefore arriving at a decision is elongated said, Cassie Triggs, a Democratic
Causes of the EU Democracy and Legitimacy Crisis. Discuss the extent to which recent crises might have amplified the EU’s problems with democracy and legitimacy. European integration has always been motivated by the ideals of an “ever closer union” culminating in the European polity envisioned by its founders, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Alcide De Gaspari[1] or by the idea of that the union could serve the interests of member states. The Economic Union was established in 1957 with the Treaty of Rome, which gave life to a new era of peace, prosperity and union in the European Continent. According to Bang, The EU can be considered to be an output-oriented system created to generate a collective solution to emerging challenges after the Second World War. In the following essay I will be analysing to what extend to what extent the democratic deficit and a Refuge migration crisis have affected the democratic and legitimate structure of the EU, based on the hypothesis that such crisis only contributed to an already pre-existing democratic deficit, which emerged by the inability of the EU to make the required decisions and gain the justification of its actions from its own people. The European Economic Community provided a vehicle for economic reconstruction and peace in Western Europe following the Second World War during 1950s and 1960s, as a way to secure prosperity after a decade of Euroclerosis[2] the single European Act of 1986 was introduced. The European Union originally suffered from a legitimacy crisis, however, in an attempt to solve the problem in the treaties of Maastricht and Lisbon the union increased the powers of its parliament. However, the European Union’s ability to continue upholding such prosperity is challenged by recent European crisis that have undermined its credibility as a supranational union, leading the union to face a democratic and legitimacy crisis. The EU economic crisis can be said to have contributed to the already existing democratic legitimacy crisis as governance processes are based on the principle of ‘governing by the rules and ruling by the numbers.’ [3] From 2010 through 2014, the European Central Bank (ECB) slowly moved from the ‘one size fits none’ rules to ‘whatever it takes’ .The Euro crisis began in 2009 when some eurozone member states such as Greece, Portugal and Spain failed to repay their government debt, requiring the assistance of the European Central Bank, the International Monetary fund and other Eurozone countries, however, it was also greatly caused by international investors and their lack of confidence in the ability of European Banks to be able to repay their debts. Moreover, the Eurozone had not centralized fiscal capacities as it was dependent on achieving unanimity amongst its member states. The crisis emerges because the European Central Bank suffered from the same profligate lending and borrowing actions that caused the financial crisis in the U.S. and the Global recession in 2008. In search of a solution EU leaders agreed to create a fiscal unity parallel to the monetary union by introducing a treaty which included the enforcement of budget restrictions of the Maastricht Treaty. Second, it reassured lenders that the EU would stand behind its members’ sovereign debt. Third, it allowed the EU to act as a more integrated union. Prior the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis the democratic legitimacy of the EU was according to Peter A. Hall was reasonably stable and successful; the minimal political input by the electorate was not problematic as the union was producing an affective and beneficial output with economies across the Eurozone growing. However, Vivien A. Schmidt states that one of the most significant consequences of the Eurozone financial crisis is the reduced popular support that it generated. This is further supported by Katsanidou and Otjes, who analysing crisis-stricken Greece in 2012, found that policy positions on economic issues are closely related to attitudes towards European integration[4]. This suggests that the impact of the crisis may have influenced in a negative way the perception that citizens have of the EU. In fact, this is corroborated by Katsanidou and Otjes in their argument that “due to European involvement in budgetary decision making in a country that was strongly affected by the crisis, citizens cannot conceive of expansionary budgetary policies without contesting the notion of Eurozone membership”[5]. However, Schmidt’s claims that despite the negative impact that the Eurozone crisis may have caused “Attitudes to the euro remain positive, but have decreased since the beginning of the crisis along with general attitudes towards the EU”. This suggests the possibility of the rise of electoral apathy, which places the democratic and legitimate structure that the EU has tried to embrace since the beginning in danger, because if there is not an agreement and coherency between the public opinion and possible new policies then member states and consequently the EU become illegitimate due to representation and lack of public consent, which is one of the essential characteristics of a democracy. Schmidt’s argument concords with Hix’s argument of “fair-weather phenomenon”[6], which highlights the existence of a correlation between public support and economic success, which can be observed through Eurobarometer opinion polls, which shows how during the second oil crisis in the early 1980 and rose in 1993 until 2010 there was some significant decrease in support with figures barely staying above 50%. However, the Eurobarometer also shows that in 1970s 60% of citizens supported EU membership[7] reaching a peak in 1991 achieving 70% of support, however, since 1996 there has been a decline barely staying above 50%, which is effectively intensified as a consequence of the sovereign debt crisis in the euro area, however, these figure also show that the European Union has suffered from a democratic-legitimacy crisis since the foundation of the EU, meaning that the Eurozone crisis should be more carefully mentioned during debates regarding the democratic stability of the EU as the Financial crisis can be regarded as having intensified an already existing democratic crisis that endangers its sovereign legitimacy. It is believed by many scholars that the EU suffers from a democratic deficit due to the growing lack of public engagement and political accountability and lack of a public sphere with demos characteristics. Kriesi have described the West European political space in terms of two dimensions related to and influenced by the process of globalisation, in the form of immigration and EU integration. The immigration crisis that Europe has been facing has become more of a damaging element to the European Union than a solution, there is a resistance in the polities of Europe, where radical right parties opposed to immigration and the policies of the European Union are on the rise.[8] The Refugee crisis has negatively affected and weakened the democratic structure of the European Union as it has brought to light how dysfunctional are the European public policies, primarily migration and asylum policies. Firstly, the American invasion of Iraq and the collapse of the regime and the long-term conflict among politicians and military fractions caused a wave of refugees, this situation and the collapse of Gaddafi’s regime, civil war and the disintegration of Libya opened the way for numerous refugees from Western and Sub-Saharan Africa to head over the Mediterranean towards the EU.According to Pero Maldini because the EU is not a state nor a confederation, executive authority bodies are in charge of executing European public Policies on behalf of their member states, who transferred to the union part of their sovereignty. The EU is founded on the values of freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respecting human rights. Those values inspire the creation of new public policies. However, the arrival of large number of people has brought concerns to the European Union. Historically, the EU has been sceptical towards immigration and this is seen in the introduction of an extensive network of laws and instruments directed at controlling the Union’s borders since 1990s as a way of preventing immigration. However, being a supranational community unified on a legislative-regulatory basis since 1999, the EU has been working on forming a Common European Asylum System (CEAS) however, However, during 2015/16 programs such as the Dublin Resolution, during the 2015/16 were suspended because of the danger of a potential collapse due to large number of migrants. The failure of these programs suggested that the EU asylum and migrant policies were dysfunctional. Their implementation proved to show a clash in the implementation of the EU’s fundamental values, which consequently had an effect on the de-legitimisation of EU government institutions and the process of political decision-making. Moreover, the most the suspension of the Schengen System indicates the EU’s inability to face crisis, but also is an indicator of the lack of solidarity to find a joint solution to solve the crisis. This highlight and contributed to the existing democratic deficit that the European Union has been facing for decades as Muller suggests that one of the main issues affecting the legitimacy of the. European Union is that the decisions carried by the Union concern millions of individuals, however such decisions are not all based on the consent of the public, since citizens cannot control the agenda and programs of the EU it undermines the legitimacy of its decisions. According to Lord, a democracy requires the acknowledgment of the power that citizens have to self-govern themselves directly or through representatives, it also requires certain degree of public control, it also requires political equality in order to ensure and give validity to the principle of “rule by the people” under equal circumstances and laws that ensures that the electorate has an equal access and voice over the political agenda. Lastly, it requires a justification to rule, as “John Stuart Mill argued that a primary purpose of representative government should be to ensure that those “whose opinion is overruled, feel that it is heard, and set aside not by a mere act of will, but for what are thought to be superior reasons”[9]. The EU is responsible for the introduction of 75% of the new laws binding on European citizens, when analysing those laws, Lord suggests that these crucial elements of democracy are absent. Lord suggests that the EU inability to have a deeper engagement with the building of the public sphere, leads to apathy from the electorate, which prevents the Union from advancing in terms of public policies development, therefore, he suggests that the Union should either seek a deeper level of community or it should establish a free trade zone which strictly generates only legal and administrative arrangements between member states. Bang emphasizes the lack of democracy of the EU by contrasting the Lisbon Treaty with the United States Constitution, during his comparison he highlights the essence of the American Constitution which is the principle of “We the people” which is the central theme of the document, he describes it as being “the American constitution is as ‘ tight’ , ‘ small’ , ‘ strong’ and ‘ crystal clear’ as a democratic constitution can be.”[10] He suggests that it is utopian to think that the EU could embrace such principle with the same depth, describing the Lisbon Treaty as hopeless as it does not begin with ‘We, the people’ but with ‘We, the Heads of States’. According to SIMON OTJES The levels of immigration in a country are likely to play a significant role in shaping attitudes towards European integration [11] . Majone suggests that the solution to such “democratic deficit” is procedural rather than a fundamental change, meaning that more transparency, better system of check and balances, scrutiny by private sectors, for example; the European parliament scrutinizing the European commission Majone consequently holds that, if the EU could increase the credibility of its policy-making by introducing such procedural mechanisms, then the public would or should accept the EU as legitimate and concerns about the democratic deficit would disappear. To conclude, I would not go as far as Moravcsik as suggest that the democratic deficit is a myth, but perhaps the EU should be run under s system of “input and output” democracy as suggested by Scharpfs; the model involves input legitimacy, which is responsiveness to citizen concerns as a result of participation by the people, and ‘output legitimacy’, which is assessed in terms of the effectiveness of the EU’s policy outcomes for the people[12] plus a new approach by Schmidt called “throughput legitimacy” which is “another term from systems theory, and is judged in terms of the efficacy, accountability and transparency of the EU’s governance processes along with their inclusiveness and openness to consultation with the people”[13]. This could allow the EU to recover its democracy and legitimacy. Works Cited  Amadeo, Kimberly. “Eurozone Debt Crisis Causes, Cures, and Consequences” Available at [Accessed, 2019] Anderson PJCauses of the EU Democracy and Legitimacy Crisis
Strategic management is the dynamic process of formulation, implementation, evaluation and control of strategies to realize the organization’s strategic intent. Strategic management is a dynamic process. In this particular course work of strategic planning module the company which I have selected is Cadbury India, a company with a great marketing structure, strategic planning and with a strong value among the customers all over the globe. Company History – Cadbury India The Company was incorporated on 19th July 1948, as a private limited company under the name of Cadbury-Fry (India) Private Limited and commences business soon thereafter. Gradually the Company undertook at its own cost and responsibility the development of cocoa growing in the country. A specialist cocoa advisory service was created. A cocoa research centre was also created together with seeding nurseries and distribution centers. Through its subsidiary, Induri Farm Ltd., the Company had set up facilities near Pune to breed cattle that would give improved yield of milk at economic feeding costs. Strategic Corporate Development History of Cadbury Inc . 1919 undertook a merger with J. S. Fry
PHYC 140 Cuyamaca College Gravitational Acceleration and Spring Lab Report.

It is a physics lab report, it is pretty easy, i’ll send u the video of the professor explaining how to do the lab step by step then you will put in all the data into a website called stemplosion, I will be giving u info for that and then lastly you will write a lab report and I will show u a sample of a lab report so u know how to make one. It is due today at 11;59 so I hope it is possible to do
Simple Harmonic Lab Lecture
this is the video of the professor explaining the lab
PHYC 140 Cuyamaca College Gravitational Acceleration and Spring Lab Report

Saint Martin University Why Are Buses Late in Halifax Discussion

Saint Martin University Why Are Buses Late in Halifax Discussion.

this is for a social research course this will be two parts so first part:Discuss how an answer to the question raised in the application insight activity in slide #23 (How can we find a fulfilling career?) can be drawn deductively, and also inductively. [2 Marks]Discuss which one seems to be the most ideal approach “for you”, and explain why . (Please discuss whether you prefer “deductive approach” or “inductive approach”) [2 Marks]i will attach a pp file of the slide second part:Which type of data source (E.g., Primary data vs. Secondary data) was used in the experiment in the video, “Why are buses late in Halifax?” Explain your response by outlining the characteristics of the primary data and secondary data. (e.g., briefly define each) [2 Marks](Video Link: In the same video (“Why are buses late in Halifax?”, what methodology did they use to analyze the collected data? (Quantitative method vs. Qualitative method) And in what ways did they show their results from the data? Explain your response in detail. [2 Marks]answer each question under the question please use your own words
Saint Martin University Why Are Buses Late in Halifax Discussion

HSA 4922 RC Healthcare Management Ethics & Professional Responsibility Capstone

essay writer HSA 4922 RC Healthcare Management Ethics & Professional Responsibility Capstone.

A strategic plan is a document used to structure and communicate organizational goals. It is also used to mitigate risks and alleviate the potential for legal cases. Barbara receives information that there is an additional, more pressing issue at a satellite clinic that is not documented in the original UCCO case. This issue relates to the emergency care clinic, which is used to treat patients with trauma-related injuries. The clinic has been over-utilized for the past year, resulting in stressed staffing, overwhelming costs, and decreasing quality of patient care and customer satisfaction. Staff productivity is affected by use of personal cell phones and clinic equipment is often used for social media.In one particular case, a 13-year old patient was seen for trauma care by the UCCO Emergency Clinic. The patient’s parents make it clear to the staff that they are not willing to give consent to any procedure involving blood products or transfusion. The risks are explained to the parents. The patient arrived unconscious but shortly regains consciousness. After the parents leave the room, the patient tells the nurse that she is afraid of dying and would like any care, including blood procedures and products, to save her life. The nurse later finds out that the rejection by the parents was due to religious reasons. The nurse quickly discusses the case with fellow employees, one of which posts comments on her social media page using a clinic-owned computer. The nursing director give a verbal warning to all involved nurses and staff.Visit the Rasmussen online Library and search for a minimum of 3 articles covering the topics of ethics, healthcare professionalism, and federal legislations. Conduct academic research using the library’s databases, like:CINAHLDiscoveryBusiness Source Complete via EBSCOBusiness via ProQuestIn the databases use basic search languages (controlled vocabulary/keywords) to determine ethics laws specific to this situation. Some keywords to consider are healthcare professional code of ethics. Then, refine your searches based on your search results. Make sure to include a minimum of 3 credible, academic sources in your paper.Using your research, address the following points in a minimum of 3-page report:Was the nursing manager legally compliant with to protect patient information? Explain the legal risks and support with federal legislations and professional expectations, such as HIPAA and professional codes of ethics.What bearing does the age and religious requests have on the patient’s case? Are there medical and ethical laws that supersede the parent’s requests?What is the role and importance of communication among UCCO facilities, particularly in reference to compliance and ethical standards?What are the ethical and professional factors of using social media?Were the reactions to the patient’s case illegal, or just unethical? How does this align with UCCO’s mission, values, and strategic action plans? How does it compare to your own personal beliefs and values?Remember to integrate citations accurately and appropriately for all resource types; use attribution (credit) as a method to avoid plagiarism. Use NoodleBib to document your sources and to complete your APA formatted reference page and in-text citations.Transferable Skills for this Project Stage:Ethics & Professional Responsibility
HSA 4922 RC Healthcare Management Ethics & Professional Responsibility Capstone

Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help

Drama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help. FIN/571 CORPORATE FINANCEÿ DUE 2/25/2017ÿ ÿ ÿ Rate of Return for Stocks and Bondsúÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿ ÿPurpose of AssignmentThe purpose of this assignment is to allow the student an opportunity to calculate the rate of return of equity and debt instruments. It allows the student to understand the effects of dividends; capital gains; inflation rates; and how the nominal rate of return affects valuation and pricing. The assignment also allows the student to apply concepts related to CAPM, WACC,ÿand Flotation Costs to understand the influence of debt and equity on the company’s capital structure.Assignment StepsResources:ÿCorporate FinanceCalculateÿthe following problems andÿprovideÿan overall summary of how companies make financial decisions in no more than 700 words, based on your answers:Stock Valuation:ÿA stock has an initial price of $100 per share, paid a dividend of $2.00 per share during the year, and had an ending share price of $125. Compute the percentage total return, capital gains yield, and dividend yield.Total Return:ÿYou bought a share of 4% preferred stock for $100 last year. The market price for your stock is now $120. What was your total return for last year?CAPM:ÿA stock has a beta of 1.20, the expected market rate of return is 12%, and a risk-free rate of 5 percent. What is the expected rate of return of the stock?WACC:ÿThe Corporation has a targeted capital structure of 80% common stock and 20% debt. The cost of equity is 12% and the cost of debt is 7%. The tax rate is 30%. What is the company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?Flotation Costs:ÿMedina Corp. has a debt-equity ratio of .75. The company is considering a new plant that will cost $125 million to build. When the company issues new equity, it incurs a flotation cost of 10%. The flotation cost on new debt is 4%. What is the initial cost of the plant if the company raises all equity externally?Submitÿyour summary and all calculationsDrama, Film, and Mass Communication homework help

Keiser University The Aged Discussion

Keiser University The Aged Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.

Watch at least 60 minutes of TV, focusing on the depiction of older adults. Analyze and discuss TV programming in the context of at least two of the following:Portrayal of elderly charactersIntergenerational themesConflict in relation to the older populationAging stereotypes or mythsCultural diversity in relation to quality of careTopic 2Discuss your own philosophy of aging.When do you think a person becomes elderly?What do you think of older people?Are they active, senile, debilitated, etc.?Provide a description of an elderly person that you know.
Keiser University The Aged Discussion

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