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Challenges and Countermeasures in Authenticating User in Voice Biometrics

Is That Your Voice? Abstract— Biometric authentication [1] is a security process thatreliesontheuniquebiologicaltraitsofanindividualtoverify the person. There are many biometric authentication types such as fingerprint, facial recognition, retina scan, voice etc. Among these biometrics, the most famous ones include fingerprint, voice and facial recognition. In voice biometrics [2], system relies on characteristicsanddistinctionsofauser’svoice,itmeasuresthose distinctions and uniquely identify users. Instead of password, which can be forgotten, voice authentication allows people to use their voices themselves as passwords [2]. Methods used in voice authentication are speech synthesis and speech recognition. Voice authentication can be a great way to authenticate a user but they are prone to many vulnerabilities. Spoofing attack is one major vulnerability.Thispaperdealswiththeattacksonvoicebiometric andthecounter measurestakentoprotectuser’sinformationand identity. Keywords— ASV (automatic speaker verification), VC (voice conversion), FAR (False Acceptance Rate), FRR (False Rejection Rate), GMM (Gaussian Mixture Model), anti-spoofing, vulnerability, PAD (presentation attack detection) authentication and biometric. INTRODUCTION Voice is a strong medium of communication and so is the voice biometric. This biometric is highly used in mobile devices to access mobile banking and other facilities (also used in border control). Thus due to its wide area of applications, voice biometric has many vulnerabilities too. A vulnerability [3] generally refers to a security flaw due to program failure or a situation where security of a system is compromised. Security holes are typical example of vulnerability. One of the major voice biometric attack include “presentation attack”. Presentation attacks [4] are commonly known as spoofing, in present days. Presentation attacks can be defined as capturing human biometrics in such a way that it could interfere with intended motive of biometric systems, this can generally be achieved by posing as another individual by hiding the attacker’s identity, in short this can be described as “impersonating authentic user (target user)”. Impersonation is generally done to have desired authorization to reap benefits such as access to target users bank accounts and other financial information or this can be done just for fun too. In voice biometric impersonation means mimicking intended user’s voice. Another major attack in voice biometric is “replay attack”. Replay attack [5] is a type of attack where an attacker detects the transmission of data and either has it delayed or replayed. This activity is generally carried out by the malicious user or entity. Replay attack is also known as play back attack. In voice biometrics replay attacks are carried out by recording the legitimate user voice and using it to access the system. Recording can be done using a mobile phone but playing the recorded content is done using high quality speakers in usual cases. In this paper we define such attacks, their detection and the counter measures which can be employed to avoid spoofing of original data and securing the user’s identity. Broadly this paper includes verification of speaker, anti-spoofing, examining accuracy, privacy issues (presentation attack detection). Figure 1. Replay attack overview and description. Figure 2. General overall description of our study in this paper THREATS, DETECTION

University of Maryland Wk 7 Protecting Digital Assets Abroad Discussion

University of Maryland Wk 7 Protecting Digital Assets Abroad Discussion.

Risky Business: How Can U.S. Companies Protect their Digital Assets Overseas?Prepare a 3 to 5 paragraph briefing statement that can be used to answer the above question. Your audience will be attendees at a conference for small business owners who are interested in expanding their footprint overseas (sales, offices, product development & manufacturing, etc.).Post your briefing statement as a reply to this topic. Provide in-text citations and references for 3 or more authoritative sources. Put the reference list at the end of your posting.If you need help getting started: visit
University of Maryland Wk 7 Protecting Digital Assets Abroad Discussion

Religion and the State in the US

online dissertation writing The separation of church and state in the United States Religion in the United States Religious belief among Americans today is as vigorous, dynamic and widespread as it ever has been. Immigration constantly brings new and different religious traditions and practices to the United States, even as the Christian traditions to which most Americans adhere continue to adapt to the needs of an ever-changing population. Approximately ninety percent of Americans profess a belief in God, and religion remains a pervasive influence on American culture, politics and public policy. No Established “State” Religion: The separation of “church” and “state” Yet the United States is among the few nations in the world that eschew an established state religion-indeed it was the first to do so, in 1791. As a result, the government is prohibited from supporting or endorsing any religion, or promoting one at the expense of another. Among other things, this means it cannot appoint religious leaders, compel worship or prayer, provide official interpretations of sacred scriptures, or define creedal statements of faith. Although this arrangement is widely known in the United States as the “separation of church and state,” owing to the predominance of Christian churches, it also applies to mosques, synagogues, and indeed all religious institutions of any sort. Scholars often use the term “disestablishment” to specify the legal aspect of the concept, but by whatever name it is a core principle and defining feature of American political life. The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776: Representatives of 13 British colonies in North America published the Declaration of Independence, an open letter to the world stating their reasons for breaking the American ties of allegiance to King George V, written primarily by Thomas Jefferson: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. What does this mean? The Declaration argued that human rights were given by God, but that they must be protected by a government whose powers are derived from the consent of the governed, not from royal lineage or divine sanction. In its entirety, the declaration did not offer a detailed theory of church and state, much less codify it into law, but these passages do imply a certain view of the relationship between religion and government. According to this document: God is to be acknowledged as the creator of humankind and source of “inalienable” rights. Government is properly understood as a human, not divine, institution whose authority and power is derived from citizens themselves, not from God. This concept is known as “popular sovereignty,” which President Abraham Lincoln would famously describe nearly a hundred years later as “Government of the people, by the people and for the people.” The Declaration of Independence is highly esteemed in American culture not merely as the document that marked the United States’ independence as a nation, but also as a succinct statement of the founding values of this country. Bill of Rights December 15, 1791: This became part of the United States Constitution. It gave American citizens the most extensive guarantees of liberty the world had ever seen. If the Declaration of Independence signaled the founding of the new nation upon grand ideals of freedom, the Bill of Rights gave power to that promise. It guaranteed the rights to religious freedom, free speech and free association; protections against self-incrimination and unlawful search and seizure; guarantees of public trial, legal counsel and the “due process of law”; and the extraordinary recognition that citizens have many other powers and rights not enumerated in the Constitution. First right in the bill: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, nor prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” Challenges to the freedom of religion The right to the free exercise of religion is not absolute, at least as it applies to religious practices. While American citizens enjoy the absolute liberty of conscience (meaning that they are legally entitled to believe or reject any idea, religious or otherwise, that they encounter), it would be impossible for them to have equal rights to act upon those ideas without being subject to some sort of regulation. Some of these actions would conflict with the goals or actions of others, and the freedom of one or the other person would therefore be restricted. Thus in principle the laws and regulations protecting the free exercise of religion are intended to grant an individual the most expansive set of liberties compatible with the same liberties granted to all others. Conclusion The separation of church and state, and the freedom of conscience it is intended to protect, are widely embraced core principles of the American form of liberal democracy. Church-state separation is at once simple in concept and irredeemably complex in practice. In a sense the aspiration for legal neutrality vis-à-vis religion is doomed to failure because the concept of disestablishment itself rests upon a distinctively Protestant Christian understanding of religion as something that can be equated with faith, then privatized and separated from other parts of life. But in another sense, the “lively experiment” of religious liberty in the United States has been an extraordinary success, and not just for Protestants: thousands of different religious groups now make up the American religious landscape. Religion in the United States The religious landscape in the United States is shifting rapidly. We used to be a nation where most people identified themselves as Christian; today there are not only more Christian sects, but also growing numbers of people who belong to other faith traditions, and growing numbers who are not affiliated with any religion or are not believers. According to the national surveys, religious affiliation in the United States is both very diverse and extremely fluid. United States public is becoming less religion A study by the Pew Research Center made in 2014 compared data to 2007: The share of U.S. adults who say they believe in God declined from approximately 92% to 89%. The share of Americans who say they are “absolutely certain” God exists has dropped more sharply, from 71% in 2007 to 63% in 2014. The falloff in traditional religious beliefs and practices coincides with changes in the religious composition of the U.S. public. A growing share of Americans are religiously unaffiliated, including some who self-identify as atheists or agnostics as well as many who describe their religion as “nothing in particular.” Altogether, the religiously unaffiliated (also called the “nones”) now account for 23% of the adult population, up from 16% in 2007. Mixed religious backgrounds on the rise About one-in-five U.S. adults were raised with a mixed religious background, according to a new Pew Research Center study. This includes about one-in-ten who say they were raised by two people, both of whom were religiously affiliated but with different religions, such as a Protestant mother and a Catholic father, or a Jewish mother and a Protestant stepfather. An additional 12% say they were raised by one person who was religiously affiliated (e.g., with Protestantism, Catholicism, Judaism or another religion) and another person who was religiously unaffiliated (atheist, agnostic or “nothing in particular”). Still the exception To be sure, religiously mixed backgrounds remain the exception in America. Eight-in-ten U.S. adults say they were raised within a single religion, including two-thirds who say they were raised by two people who shared the same religion (or both of whom were religiously unaffiliated). An additional 14% who say they were raised by a single parent. But the number of Americans raised in interfaith homes appears to be growing. Fully one-quarter of young adults in the Millennial generation (27%) say they were raised in a religiously mixed family. Fewer Generation Xers (20%), Baby Boomers (19%) and adults from the Silent and Greatest generations (13%) say they were raised in such a household. Religious “nones” Americans are most likely to identify in adulthood as religiously unaffiliated if they were raised exclusively by a parent or parents who were unaffiliated themselves. Indeed, among adults who say they were raised either by a single parent who had no religion or by two people who were both religious “nones,” a solid majority (62%) identify as “nones” today. But there also are many “nones” who come from religiously mixed backgrounds. Nearly four-in-ten of those who say they had one parent who identified with a religion and another parent who was religiously unaffiliated describe themselves as “nones” today (38%). And one-quarter of those raised by a Protestant and a Catholic are now religiously unaffiliated (26%). One-in-five people who were raised exclusively by Catholics are religious “nones” today, as are 14% of those who say they were raised solely by Protestants. Catholics Most people raised solely by Catholics (62%) continue to identify as Catholics in adulthood, which is on par with the share of those raised solely by “nones” who remain religiously unaffiliated today. But those raised by one Catholic parent and one non-Catholic parent have less than a 50-50 chance of identifying with Catholicism as adults. Among U.S. adults from a mixed Protestant/Catholic background, for example, just 29% identify as Catholics today, while 38% are Protestants and 26% are “nones.” Protestants Eight-in-ten people raised exclusively within Protestantism continue to identify as Protestants today. And 56% of those raised by a Protestant parent and a religiously unaffiliated parent now identify as Protestants. Mother knows best Most Americans who were raised by a biological or adoptive mother and father say their parents played an equal role in their religious upbringing. But among the roughly four-in-ten adults who say one of their parents (either biological or adoptive) was “more” responsible for their religious upbringing, far more name their mother than their father. Moms seem to have been especially influential in the religious upbringing of people from interfaith families. Nearly half (46%) of those raised by parents affiliated with two different religions say their mother was primarily responsible for their religious upbringing, while just 7% say their father took primary responsibility; the rest say both parents played equally important roles in their religious upbringing (41%) or give some other answer, such as that they were not raised in any religion (3%).

US Problems: Medicare Program Ineffectiveness Research Paper

The United States of America currently faces several problems that make it impossible for the government to provide quality services to the citizens. Some of the major problems include “the lack of appropriate incentives to hold cost on food stamps, Medicare, Obama care, and entitlement programs (Williams, 2010)”. The complexity of these problems calls for immediate solutions in order to continue addressing the needs of the Americans. This discussion explores the nature of these problems and offers solutions for them. The Medicare structure has resulted in conflicting incentives especially when it comes to the issue of cost. Currently, there is lack of appropriate incentives to hold costs on “sharing rules” (Williams, 2010). As well, there are misaligned incentives especially in “cost shifting for nursing homes and health care facilities (Williams, 2010)”. The issue of cost allocation makes it impossible to provide adequate to patients suffering from acute and chronic diseases. Such problems have made the Medicare program ineffective. That being the case, various policy reforms can be useful towards addressing the problem (Williams, 2010). Such initiatives include pay-for-performance, capitation, and shifting Medicare costs to the government. The strategy will definitely help address most of the problems mentioned above. The second problem arises for America’s food stamps. Today the country spends a lot of money on food stamps than ever before. In 2010, President Obama projected to spend $10 trillion on the program. This is definitely a major problem because the country cannot afford such costs. It is agreeable that the program helps the poor and most vulnerable members of the society. The best solution is to address the problem of employment and identify the most vulnerable individuals. This will make it easier to allocate costs efficiently. As well, abuse and fraud have been associated with the food stamps program. There is need for efforts to address these wrongdoings and keep track of the gathered information. Alternatively, Congress can consider a move to end the program and allow each state to design its own food policy program. “This will definitely address the lack of incentives to hold cost on food stamps (Williams, 2010)”. In America, entitlement programs are managed by the government in order to provide financial benefits to various individuals who contribute by paying into the programs (Williams, 2010). In the recent past, expenditures related to entitlement programs have increased fast. Currently, experts project that the costs will grow in the coming years. This means that the actual collections for entitlement programs present a deficit (Williams, 2010). This explains why it has been impossible to hold cost on such entitlement programs. The best incentive to hold cost on entitlement is to use new policies regarding government spending and taxation. The government can increase taxes and eliminate tax exemptions. As well, the government can increase the age for eligibility. Such measures will help address the problem completely. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), also called “Obama care”, helped increase affordability and quality of insurance (Williams, 2010). The program has expanded both private and public health insurance coverage in the country. However, the original cost for the program was supposed to be below $1 trillion. The current economic situation and widening national debt does not allow the country to spend so much money on the program (Williams, 2010). This explains why there is lack of incentives to hold cost on “Obama care”. The best way to address the current crisis is to apply new regulations and legislations. This will ensure the citizen does not bear the costs. As well, the federal government can cut most of its discretionary and mandatory spending. The approach will offer new incentives to hold cost on “Obama care” and other entitlement programs in the country. Reference List Williams, N. (2010). Government Spending, Taxes, Entitlements, Healthcare, Pensions, Immigration, Tort Reform, Crime. New York: Author-House Press.

UMGC Ethical Issue Concerning Privacy and Organizational Policy Essay

UMGC Ethical Issue Concerning Privacy and Organizational Policy Essay.

I’m working on a Computer Science writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

InstructionsPaper B: a matrix mapping of a key IT-related organizational (or personal) ethical issue concerning privacy and organizational policy designed to correct the ethical issue. The first step of this assignment is an opportunity to analyze a key IT-related organizational (or personal, if you are not in the job force) ethical issue, related to privacy, subject to relevant laws, regulations, and policies. Both of the following sites provide sources, and an excellent backdrop for issues relating to privacy protection and the law.See EPIC Privacy Issues at: See List on left and/or: EFF Privacy at [see list below in center on this page].This includes sub-topics discussing information privacy, privacy laws, applications and court rulings (case law is usually an extension of the basic law based on the facts from specific cases and real-world court decisions), and key privacy and anonymity issues. While the sites provide many interesting topics, be sure to focus on our class IT topics. Use the template below and the list of suggested workforce privacy topics from one of the sites above to produce a matrix to map a key organizational ethical (or personal, if not in the job force) issue and how this issue is affected by laws, regulations, and policies. Use the list of normative ethics below to help you complete the matrix. Choose any three (only three) of the following list of twelve (12) principles of normative ethics described below.Prepare the Ethical Issue matrix (single-space in the cells) and include the following explanation (200 words) —double-space your narrative—below the matrix:Why I chose the dilemma;Why I chose the three principles; andAn analysis of the research used to identify the actions in the matrix.The completed matrix allows you to weigh the different issues involved and assign a rank as to the importance of the actions based on the effect on the stakeholders.Indicate appropriate APA in-text and source citations for all sources. In addition to critical thinking and analysis skills, your assignment should reflect appropriate grammar and spelling, good organization, and proper business-writing style.Normative Ethics ListAutonomy: is the duty to maximize the individual’s right to make his or her own decisions.Beneficence: is the duty to do good both individually and for all.Confidentiality: is the duty to respect privacy of information and action.Equality: is the duty to view all people as moral equals.Finality: is the duty to take action that may override the demands of law, religion, and social customs.Justice: is the duty to treat all fairly, distributing the risks and benefits equally.Non-maleficence: is the duty to cause no harm, both individually and for all.Understanding/Tolerance: is the duty to understand and to accept another viewpoint if reason dictates doing so is warranted.Publicity: is the duty to take actions based on ethical standards that must be known and recognized by all who are involved.Respect for persons: is the duty to honor others, their rights, and their responsibilities. Showing respect others implies that we do not treat them as a mere means to our end.Universality: is the duty to take actions that hold for everyone, regardless of time, place, or people involved. This concept is similar to the Categorical Imperative.Veracity: is the duty to tell the truth. A sample template for the matrix is shown below. To reconstruct the sample template, you may use the Table Tool in MS Word or copy and paste this template. Ethical issue:Stakeholders(Principle 1)(Principle 2)(Principle 3)1234Step 1: Identify the ethical issue that you want to analyze, as described above. An example might be the falsification of your personal profile in a social networking site.Step 2: Identify the stakeholders involved. You, someone who reads your personal profile in a social network site, potential employers, etc. Be sure that each stakeholder category is unique and not similar to another category you use.Step 3: Choose any three (only three) of the Normative Ethics principles that might apply to your issue such as autonomy, publicity, and veracity.Step 4: Identify how the ethical issue affects each stakeholder based on the principles you identified. Put this statement in the matrix next to the stakeholder. Sample Completed MatrixEthical issue: falsifying your profile on a social networking siteStakeholdersautonomypublicityveracity1: YourselfYou have the duty to maximize the right to make your own decisions.You have the duty to take actions based on ethical standards that must be known and recognized by all who are involved.You have the duty to tell the truth2: Other users of the networking siteThey have the duty to make their own decisionsThey make these decisions based on ethical standards that should be recognized by the person falsifying their profileThey assume that the person falsifying the profile has the duty to tell the truth.3: The social networking siteThe autonomy of the site is limited by law (Goldman, 2007)Users of social networking sites are content publishers, as such the site must take actions based on legal and ethical standards and must notify users of these standards so they are known by all.As providers of content the site must conform to the laws regarding truth or be held responsible for legal issues as defamation (making harmful false statements about someone else) or copyright infringement. (Goldman, 2007)Reference:Goldman, E. (2007, May). Social Networking Sites and the Law. Retrieved from [Note: Plug the above URL directly into your browser, in its entirety to open] The second step of this assignment requires that you write an organizational policy (or personal policy, if you are not in the job force) to correct the IT-related ethical issue that you had previously described, where you mapped a key organizational or personal issue and identified how the digital ethical issue was affected by relevant laws, regulations, and policies.The following elements must be addressed:You may take a look at other policies to see how they are written. While the following site: , provides credible examples of templates for policies, an Internet search may provide other templates, however there is no need to copy a template for this assignment, as the template should only be utilized to provide guidance regarding the following headings.Your policy should include appropriate information for the following major headings:Overview of the policy – an IntroductionPurpose of the policy – the aim of the policyScope (roles and responsibilities of stakeholders) – who is involved in policy execution.Policy Points to follow – (Note: you should be aware that a policy only describes “what,” the staff of an organization will do, while a procedure describes “how,” the staff of an organization will accomplish a required action. As a result, this section should only discuss the specific measures, needs, or changes to behavior within the organization in terms of policy points, i.e., what they must do to conform to the policy. Any procedures that are needed to assist in doing the “what,” are usually included by reference later in the policy – procedures should not be included in the policy points).Sanctions/enforcement of policy – what happens in case of non-complianceThis assignment requires a minimum of three external references. Indicate appropriate APA source citations for all sources you use.In addition to critical thinking and analysis skills, your paper should reflect appropriate grammar and spelling, good organization, and proper business-writing style.Prepare a 4-6 page, double-spaced paper with your Ethical Matrix and your Organizational or Personal Policy (if not in the job force).Please submit your Paper B to the LEO Assignments Module as an attached Microsoft Word file. Paper B is due at the end of the fourth week of this course. Include a Cover Page with your Name, the UMGC/Name of the Class, and the Title of the Paper.
UMGC Ethical Issue Concerning Privacy and Organizational Policy Essay