The airline Cebu Pacific Air (CEB) has been flying since March 1996 (Cebu Pacific Air 2010). It has experienced ups and downs when two of its fleets crashed, killing hundreds of people (Balatucan c. 2010). Yet despite the tragic incidents, CEB was able to rise and salvage its reputation, bringing it in as one of Southeast Asia’s most dominant airlines (Krinks 2002). Its status grew, giving it the license to have international flights through in the world. Cebu Pacific Air is especially well-known in Singapore, as one of the leading airlines who has flights nearly everyday in Singapore. Yet due to the economic crisis that is felt globally, CEB is letting go a portion of its loyal employees. Though it is painful for the company to do so, such measures are out of the management’s hands as the wave of financial turmoil crash stronger and stronger daily. This is the perfect time for the company to regroup, so that Cebu Pacific Air could emerge as a stronger, better, and a safer airline which will be known throughout the world in the years to come. If the company will be able to rethink its management style, in particularly, people management, then more profit would be generated for the airline, and the company will be able to afford its lavish number of employees as well. 1 – Introduction According to Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. (2008), Cebu Pacific Air contributed 45% of the total domestic passenger traffic by carrying 2.57 million passengers in a span of six months in 2008 (from January to June). This means that in 2008, the company was able to generate lots of income and was a great donor to the Philippines’ annual revenue. Yet despite this, the economic crisis has not been kind to the company. Some employees had to be let go in order to adapt and give way for a better regrouping that will give Cebu Pacific Air a better leverage in the airline industry. Main competitor Philippine Airlines already bowed out of the race by having to retrench a lot of it people. Yet Air Philippines, a Philippine Airlines affiliate, was rumored to be headhunting the market for a Quality Assurance Director. Right now Cebu Pacific Air is also in need of a Quality Assurance Director to oversea the whole production and process of Cebu Pacific. What the company has now is Mr. Jose F. Buenaventura who directly reports to the Director, President and CEO of Cebu Pacific, Lance Gokongwei. Having a Quality Assurance Director will have its many advantages, therefore bringing the Cebu Pacific revenue higher than it has ever been. With the February 2, 1998 crash of Flight 387 which took 104 lives, and the May 3, 2006, Flight 393 crash which delayed flights in a local airport because of a failed aircraft part, Quality Assurance is not a question of want, but a necessity. It is important that the company changes its management style and employ a superbly qualified Quality Assurance director to ensure that future flights of Cebu Pacific will not suffer the same fate as the two flights mentioned above. 2010 has been a good year so far, by enabling the company to meet its 40 million passengers in the 999 pesos ‘Go Lite’ Seat. Having met this milestone, the company will be able to proceed with more important and valuable projects which will increase the income of the airline. Despite the obvious growth of Cebu Pacific Air in the current years, expenses are mounting up, and these turbulent times globally should be taken advantage of. Cebu Pacific should sit back and regroup, taking its biggest and best thinkers into a room to determine the best course of action that will propel the company even higher than its standing today. The author believes that once Cebu Pacific changed its management style and employed the right Quality Assurance Director, more revenue will enter the company’s portfolio. With proper planning, and correct execution of plans, Cebu Pacific could well be a household name in terms of flying, abolishing all traces of competitor’s greatness forever. 2 – Background of the Company Cebu Pacific Air would cease to exist as it is known today without the efforts of John Gokongwei, who is the founder of this noble airline. He stared selling textiles and corn, created textile miles and explored food manufacturing before directly competing with San Miguel, one of the premier brands in the Philippines. Gokongwei continued to amass wealth by building shopping malls, hotels, compounds, real estate, among many others. His major companies include Digitel Corporation, Apo Cement, and Cebu Pacific Air (Krinks 2002). Cebu Pacific Air first graced the skies on March 1996. The company calls its clients as “Juans”, which is a typical Filipino name with affiliations to the poor. Because the company aims to give “low fare, great value” (Cebu Pacific Air 2010), the word Juan is very symbolic in terms of giving the medium and average families the chance to fly and visit places. This dream is made possible by Cebu Pacific as it offers the lowest prices on the market. CEB started its operations by offering clients to fly domestically in cheap prices. After the initial success, the company was able to fly internationally on November 2001. Now, nine years later, Cebu Pacific is given the license to land in Bangkok, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Macau, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, Singapore, Bangkok and other hot spots across Asia (ibid). It enables every Juan who boards its planes to explore the countries near the Philippines, and to enjoy their stay with the affordable prices. Cebu Pacific Air also boasts to be very safe and reliable, considering its recent re-fleeting program which brought about twenty-nine new planes. These 10 A319 and 11 A320 Airbus planes and 8 ATR 72-500 aircrafts (ibid) gives Cebu Pacific the right to say that it has the youngest fleet in Southeast Asia. Having younger planes gave the airline passengers a sense of security that since the planes are never overhauled, repaired, and manipulated in any way, and the maintenance of the fleet is routine, then their safety will not be compromised despite the low fare. Not only is Cebu Pacific the leader when it comes to low fares, it is also the torchbearer of technology in terms of aviation in the Philippines. It is the first local airline to use e-ticketing (made popular by the American Airlines), ‘prepaid excess baggage and seat selection in the Philippines’ (ibid). Unlike other domestic airlines, Cebu Pacific not only provides magazines in flight (the magazine is called Smile), but also provides board games and other forms of entertainment, otherwise known as Fun Flights (ibid). Lastly, not only does Cebu Pacific provide low fares that will give peace of mind and assurance to consumers, but it also provides the travelers with a from plane-to bed service after having tied up with destination hotels, travel insurance, entertainment ticketing, travel agencies, travel insurance, and other travel necessities. The Juans could simply board the plane, and upon arrival, ride the rental car arranged for them by the company. Last February 2010, the on-time performance of Cebu Pacific reached 92.5% (ibid), and the company is aiming to raise this to a hundred. With the smooth travels, reliability, and enjoyable flights, it is no wonder that Cebu Pacific is the best choice for air transport in Southeast Asia. 3 – Literature Review Though there are many management styles, Cebu Pacific employs ‘people-friendly but firm in the discipline and order area’ (Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. 2010). Before the author discusses this particular style, a literature review of workplace related concept would be given to establish the importance of the author’s proposed management method to be given later on. 3.1 Air transport in the Philippines Krinks (2002) points out that the air transport was only accessible to citizens with a high social standing, the elites, the famous, tourists, and businesspeople whose travel expenses are being shouldered by their companies. Majority of Filipinos can only dream of flying and visiting foreign places, since to ride an airplane before is synonymous to having a lavish lifestyle. This was before Cebu Pacific came in. Philippine Airlines, the first airline in the Philippines, has dominated the air transport industry in the Philippines for more than five decades. It was first obtained by the Philippine government in 1948, was bought by a private institution in 1965, and was re-taken by the government in 1977. This was when the former President Ferdinand Marcos issued a decree saying that PAL should be the sole domestic carrier (Krinks 2002) in the Philippines. When former President Marcos was ousted, President Corazon Aquino then started turning Philippine Airlines as a private company. By 1993, Lucio Tan was the major stockholder, and from then on, Philippine Airlines enjoyed the privilege of dominating the Philippine skies without competitors. By 1995, former President Ramos re-build two airports in the Philippines and made their sizes to be globally competitive. The Manila and Mactan (in Cebu) airports were the major airstrips in the country, and Ramos urged competitors to take advantage of the five new airports with international flights. By 1996, Cebu Pacific entered the picture by giving the lowest rates possible without incurring loses for the company. PAL’s maket share fell a whooping 65%, and it continued to decline by losing billions of pesos from that year onwards. By 2000, PAL was indebt to an amount totaling to $2.2 billion, and Cebu Pacific was being embraced by the Filipinos. The air transport industry is currently being shared by Cebu Pacific Air, Grand Air, Air Philippines, Philippine Airlines, Asia Spirit, and Corporate Air (ibid). Along with the opening of NAIA 3 came the opportunity for Cebu Pacific to display to its counterparts that it is a force to be reckoned with. When the third Ninoy Aquino International Airport was opened in Villamor, Pasay City, Cebu Pacific was the one who first launched a flight in the airport (Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. 2010). Airport General Manager Alfonso Cusi for NAIA 3 said that the airport had an agreement with CEB that the airline will fully utilized the terminal for their regional flights (ibid). 4 – Proposed Workplace Relations Approach Cebu Pacific’s laidback friendly approach to its employees are working and motivating people, but the lax in discipline and respect could be further improved. A domineering or autocratic style of management could work as well, but according to Thomas (1997), this type of leadership could fail at one point or another. But since Cebu Pacific needs to regroup and to change its system in order to earn more revenue, it is time for the airline to think about its workplace relations approach. An organization requires the utilization of a complex array of resources to grow, survive and achieve the ultimate mission or objectives that informed its existence or creation. The mobilization and deployment of these resources – human, financial and material – in the right resource-mix, gives the organization leverage toward the desired end. Of these resources, the human resource is the most potent and central, contributing significantly to corporate bottom line and competitiveness. The organization therefore gains sustained competitive advantage through people, the organization workforce. Competitive advantage is simply defined as anything that gives an organization an edge over the competitors in its market. According to Porter (1985), the unique talents among employees, including flexibility, innovation, superior performance, high productivity and personal customer service are ways employees provide a critical ingredient in developing a firm’s competitive position. Similarly, Chiavenato (2001) notes that employees are purveyors of activities and knowledge whose most important contributions in the organization are their intelligence and individual talents. There is agrowing consensus that effective management of human capital is critical to an organization’s success (Barney
Competitive Rivalry Within The Industry Business Essay. Federation Internationale de I Automobile in 1945 established Formula A which was over the years referred to as Formula One.In mid 1960s F1 went further on and transformed into a specialised business where leading and competitive technologies were used to built cars. Within no time F1 was one of the most popular TV sporting event which had the third highest audience in the world. Around 2008, more than 14 car manufacturers or constructors were competing in F1 out of which the top three teams were Ferrari , McLaren and BMW. The finest teams would typically test and develop their own systems and would generally employ 450 to 800 employees. The employees will include the highly qualified race engineers, designers, aerodynamicist, composite experts and system specialist. In addition to the sponsorship the individual teams have, Revenue is generated through the price money generated by the inning championship points which is negotiated on behalf of teams by Bernie Eccles tone’s Formula One Group (FOG).In 2009 around 15 percent of Ferrari’s budget was estimated to have come from price money. PORTER’S FIVE FORCES FRAMEWORK OR MODEL Formula one is a extremely competitive industry and is based on a swiftly changing environment, which can be defined and projected with the help of Porter’s five forces “Porter’s five force model is a framework designed for industry analysis and strategic development for businesses by Michael Porter in 1979.It helps organisation to derive five forces that determines the competitive intensity of the organisation/ industry.” (http://globaleduc.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/5-forces.png) Fig 1.1 a graphical view of Porters Five Forces Model Porters Five Forces For Formula One Constructors Threat of New Entrants: High start up and running cost. High amount of experience and expertise required to meet the technology challenges Bargaining Power of Buyers: The buyers in Formula One are of high intensity because of the high power of the game. They play an important role in bringing out the contribution for funds for the teams. They basically are: Fans Media Sponsors Competitive Rivalry within the Industry: Formula One is a highly intense and competitive industry. Each team places prominence in different capacities on a number of aspects like: Engineers and Designers Technology Drivers and Management Sponsorships Bargaining Power of Suppliers: The suppliers of Formula One constructors play an extreme important role. It is so crucial so that in a few instances, primary suppliers have been the grounds of the end of the dominant period of some constructors. Threat of Substitutes: For Formula One the popular sporting events can be a threat as they may end up being more popular among people and may take away resources such as money, drivers, sponsors, popularity, etc. Some of the events are: Cricket Olympics Le Man Soccer BTCC Implication of the Porter’s framework â€¢ With the help of this framework, the management can think and understand about the possible threats and opportunities for their further growth and expansion. â€¢ The study can provide the better solutions for improving strategies to deal with the competitors. â€¢ Directions for the future steps and plans can be obtained. â€¢ Possible actions can be taken to raise firm’s value by getting better structure to their firm’s advantage and to be in better position to convey better competitive advantage. According to porter, “The intensity of competition in an industry is neither a matter of coincidence nor luck. Rather competition in an industry is rooted in its underlying economic structure and goes well beyond the behaviour of current competitors” (As cited in Moore. J.I., 1992, p-37) Limitations of the Porter’s framework â€¢ Due to explosion of information technology, easily accessible technology and worker mobility, it is nearly impossible to establish any competitive advantage which cannot be traced by the competitors. â€¢ No space for unforeseen circumstances, if any unexpected events occur such as weather change, natural calamities. â€¢ The framework is comparatively rigid. According to Mintzberg H, et al, (1998, p-34), “Every strategic change involves some new experience, a step into the unknown, the taking of some kind of risk. Therefore no organization can ever be sure in advance whether an established competence will prove to be strength or a weakness”. Competitive advantage required to succeed in Formula One “Competitive advantage is a heart of a firm’s performance in competitive markets. It’s all about how a company puts all the generic strategies into practice. It may take the form of prices lower than competitors for equivalent benefits or the provision of the unique benefits that more than offset a premium price. ” Porter, M. E., (1980), Competitive Strategy, Free Press: New York. The case studies clearly depicts that all three teams focussed on different strategies. However their strategies changed within the environment and circumstances, but what evident is that a team needs all the elements to be put in the right place. Below listed are some of the most important aspects for any team competing to focus on. Technology and Innovation To succeed in Formula one it was believed that the team needs to have the most up to date technology for designing the car. As the Technological factors did affect the success in Formula One, the teams should be adaptable to the new innovations or the technology changes. For example Williams’ success was also due to their engineering focus, which enabled them to make a car which was both fast and dependable by adopting many of the innovations done by other teams. Best Driver The Best Driver is another factor; the success for Formula one would depend on. An example would be driver’s choice of Ferrari Michael Schumacher, who played the role of a driver as well as a motivator of the team and the Driver, Niki Lauda. He was always able to design and develop a car by building associations and interactions with the design team. McLaren recruited Alain Prost and Ayrton Senna who were the best at their time, and they had won four consecutive constructor titles for McLaren Best Supporting Team “Internal strategic capability allows for successful strategy and is required for survival and success.”(Johnson et al, 1998). The success factor of a constructor also depends on the Effective management and the internal relationship between the Technical Director, the Driver and the Design Team. Ron Dennis and his professional management style were synonymous with the success of McLaren. Similarly Niki Lauda was always able to design and develop a car by building associations and interactions with the design team. Williams were remarkable in their effort to build an extensive relationship with Renault which was their engine supplier. Retaining Sponsors/Finance The constructor’s relationship with the Sponsors also plays a vital role in the success factor. The winning performance of F1 teams has a direct impact on their values as well as on business, both by providing sponsors with more exposure and by entitling the team to a greater proportion of the media royalties that are distributed on the basis of performance. The higher fraction of team’s finance is generated through sponsorship which brings in a lot of cash injections. The most successful team in Formula One The study evidently brings out the generic level of success stories for each of the teams. But like it is always said there their can never be two winners at the same time. The winner is identified by its approach applied in winning the task. Ferrari, its renaissance and its return to glory Ferrari is the oldest team which is still racing among of all the Grand Prix teams. Ferrari experienced its success in the mid 1970’s. Mauro Forghieri was accountable for some of the most victorious Ferraris of the 1960s. In addition to Forghieri, a new team boss, Luca di Montezemolo was also appointed, who was unlikely the right hand man for II Commendatore. He brought in the much needed discipline in the team. He defined strict areas of tasks so as to reduce the adverse effects of the internet policies and interference. This helped to create an environment where various technical teams concentrated on and were fully accountable for their own areas. Recruitment of the best drivers like Niki Lauda and Michael Schumacher added a lot to the success story of Ferrari. Niki Lauda was always able to design and develop a car by building associations and interactions with the design team. This enabled Ferrari to convert the driver’s senses into dependable technical solutions. Thus in 1975, Ferrari dominated due to the Forghieri’s creative ideas, introducing the new 312T and Lauda’s achievements of Drivers’ and constructors’ world championship. Michael Schumacher who was recruited as the Driver was a motivator of the which was identified by his effort made to just to converse and have a great understanding with an engine technician he even learnt Japanese. In 1999 Ferrari won its first constructor’s championship for 12 years. Ferrari held both championships in 2000s and that was the moment that the team felt it had truly returned the glory of the mid 1970s. Recruitment of two more individuals from Benetton: Rory Byrn, who had the overall responsibility for designing the car and Ross Brawn, who operated and managed the entire technical operation, was also a beneficial move for Ferrari. Byrn and Brawn with a design department of 50 people, taking up the advantage of the fact that Ferrari makes its own engines, integrated the design of the engine, chassis and aerodynamics. This rejuvenated team provided the basis for Ferrari’s dominance in F1. Reason why Ferrari was unable to sustain the success The reason for Ferrari’s loss of advantage can be isolated into many factors. The early 1970s began shakily for the Ferrari’s, as it could not compete with the DFV engine, which was built by Cosworth Engineering. The DFV was F1’s first purpose built engine. It was light, powerful and relatively inexpensive. During this period, the Ferraris were very fast, but not reliable. Thus it got worse for the Ferraris was rarely finishing the race line. Luca di Montezemolo, the team boss of Ferrari recruited the driver, Niki Lauda. The things didn’t continue smoothly for a long time. Niki Lauda lost control of the car and crashed in flames at the German Grand Prix. He suffered from severe burns and inhaled toxic fumes. Astoundingly Lauda improved from his injuries but was still no fully prepared, he returned back to race in Ferrari, but couldn’t perform well. Thus the Nurburgring accident ended up the relationship of Ferrari with Niki Lauda, which was one of the main factors in the loss of Ferrari. Year 1980 was a disaster for Ferrari. Ferrari couldn’t respond to the new innovations in aerodynamics, which bought the ground effect revolution. No initiative was taken was taken to develop a V6 turbocharged engine. Consequently, Jody Scheck also failed to qualify his Ferrari for the race at Canadian Grand Prix. Hence, we can say that Ferrari’s uniqueness in designing its own engine and constraining itself from getting adapted to the new technology in market was another factor for Ferrari’s loss in the 1970’s to1980’s. In year 2005, it meant the end of the glory period for the Ferrari as it couldn’t respond to the change in the regulations of F1. The tyres were required to last for the whole of the race, but being unable to respond, Ferrari struggling towards the end of the race on its Bridgestone tyres. The main factor responsible for the loss of Ferrari in 2006 was the loss of its team members. Michael Schumacher retired at the end of the year in 2006 and highly experience engine director Paolo Martinelli moved to a job with Fiat and Ross Brawn announced that he was taking a sabbatical in 2007. Thus these factor i.e. the change in the regulations in the sport and the loss of the key team members lead to the loss of Ferrari in later 2000’s. Consideration for Ferrari in order to have prevented the loss of advantage of success Response to innovation and new regulations Ferrari always maintained its uniqueness by building its own engine design and its development with the help of dedicated technical team. Though, this uniqueness of designing their own engine got Ferrari many victories, at the same time, at some point of time Ferrari were not able to adopt or respond to the new innovations and the change in technology. The Ferrari was not able to respond to the new innovations in aerodynamics which bought the ground effect revolution. Thus Ferraris must have sustained their success factor by keeping up with the new innovations. In 2005, F1 made some changes in the regulations i.e. the tyres were required to last for the whole of the race. This change in regulation left Ferrari struggling towards the end of the race on its Bridgestone tyres. An another change in the regulations of F1 during this period was that the constructors had to shift from 3.5 litres V10 engine to smaller V8’s with the design engines to be frozen for three years from 2007. Though this was a benefit for the Ferraris, it struggled to perform in the early part of the season Focus on reliability issues Ferrari’s dominated the 1975 season because of Niki Lauda, but due to the reliability issues of the Ferrari’s, Niki Lauda lost the control of the car crashed in flames. And this accident resulted in Lauda leaving the Ferraris which was a loss for Ferrari. Thus, if Ferrari must have realised the reliability issues, Lauda’s accident would have been avoided. Sustaining the talent Ferrari was struggling in the mid 1980s as it was not able to respond to the new developments in aerodynamics. Thus, in 1986 Ferrari recruited John Barnard to the top technical role. But Barnard was not ready to move to Italy. Ferrari allowed Barnard to establish a design and development facility near Guilford that was known as the Ferrari GTO or Guilford Technical Office. GTO concentrated on the design of the following year’s car, whereas the Maranello focused on the building and racing the current car. But this physical separation between the design and development in Guilford and the racing operations in Maranello lead to problems and Barnard and Ferrari parted company in 1996. If Ferrari must have kept both the design and development team in one place and found a replacement for Barnard, it must have been able to sustain its success. Team with the best source of competitive advantage In my opinion, Ferrari projected the best source of competitive advantage as it held in the key factors responsible for success. The major key quality of Ferrari to build up a solid and beneficial relationship between the team and the driver has driven the Ferrari to success. However there were other reason as well that added to the forces that led Ferrari to succeed. Relationship with the team The Ferrari portrayed a successful relationship with Luca di Montezemolo. He bought the much needed management discipline to the team. Ferrari had a commendable association with Niki Lauda who was always able to design and develop a car by building associations and interactions with the design team. This enabled Ferrari to convert the driver’s senses into dependable technical solutions. The Ferrari team also maintained good relationship with Michael Schumacher which led to its dominance in F1.Schumacher’s talent as driver and motivator of the team. The relationship of the teams with the manufacturers was also a key factor for the success of the constructors in F1. Uniqueness of the in house engines Ferrari manufactured its own cars at the Maranello factory. Ferrari’s uniqueness in designing their own engines did get them a lot of victories. The other constructors in the race were unable to respond to the chassis/ gearbox and the engine combination which was unique to the Ferrari. Relationship with the manufacturers Ferrari had good term relationship with the manufacturer, Shell with whom it had a long term partnership for both technical and financial support. The relationship between the team and the tyres also played a major role in the success factor of a constructor. Ferrari’s relationship with the Bridgestone tyres was a key aspect in its advantage. It designed and developed its components keeping in mind the advantage. In 2002, Bridgestone tyres specifically developed and designed its compounds for Michael Schumacher and Ferrari. Competitive Rivalry Within The Industry Business Essay
RELG 101 Religion and Sacred Space Paper
RELG 101 Religion and Sacred Space Paper. I’m working on a History question and need guidance to help me study.
Mircea Eliade insisted that the academic study of religion is not merely about cataloguing an endless litany of rituals and doctrines around the world. To study religion is also to study an experience of the holy on its own terms. This interest in religious experience led Eliade to the topic of sacred space. In 1957, he published The Sacred and the Profane, a book which explored, in the author’s words, the human need to “acquire orientation in the chaos of homogeneity, to ‘found a world’ and to live in a real sense.” The need to “found a world” is most obviously reflected in hogans, synagogues, cathedrals, and temples; but is also seen in humbler structures and locales, from the simple hearth to the BU nature preserve, and perhaps even cyber-space. In any event, these spaces condense a host of human experiences of the wholly other – what Rudolph Otto had called the mysterium temendum et fascinans.
For this paper, I ask that you pick a spot that is sacred to some group of people and compose an essay exploring its significance to a scholar of religion. Make sure it is a location you are familiar with and can describe to the reader in evocative detail. Also consider the topic of sacred space more generally. What makes a space sacred? How have other scholars (Müller, Durkheim, Eliade, etc.) conceived of such space, and how might your analysis of a specific place contribute to their own?
Some suggestions: Papers should have a clear central idea or thesis which unfolds in a coherent way from paragraph to paragraph. In addition to analysis, you will also want to spend some time describing the unique aspects of the space you’ve chosen. Papers that do not cite and discuss the reading material at length will be assigned significantly lower grades. Papers that do not reach the required page limit (at least 4 full pages) or do not follow the required format will also receive significantly lower grades. Please feel free to email with questions. I am also happy to go over portions of your work with you (up to a page) prior to handing it in.
Papers should use footnotes for all references to the course material, whether in the form of a direct quote or an allusion to someone else’s ideas. Footnotes should appear at the end of the sentence in which the reference is made, after the period.
1 Papers do not need a bibliography/works cited. Instead, the first reference to a given source constitutes a full citation. All further references should be abbreviated.
2 See examples below. To ensure the correct format, papers should be written in Word (doc, docx) format rather than, say, Google Docs. “Insert footnote” can be found under the Reference tab in Word.
RELG 101 Religion and Sacred Space Paper
The Effectiveness Of Sex Appeal In Advertising Media Essay
essay order The aim of this study is to be able to determine the extent the effectiveness of sex appeal in advertising and how it may be affected by factors like religion, culture and traditions. This study involved the participation of representatives of different genders, nationalities, religions and culture. All the participants were made to visually analyze a series of advertisements for men’s perfumes. The brand used for this purpose was Tom Ford. The perfumes are known for their unique sense of advertising and the products are well known as luxury items. Among the participants, there were male and female representatives of orthodox, Christians, Hindus, Muslims and atheists belonging to different nationalities as well, currently residing in UK. The research questions posed to them were regarding their personal preferences and perception towards advertising in general and their thoughts on using sex appeal in advertisements. They have been formulated to measure the degree of acceptance and rejection of the use of sex appeal and provocative images in promoting luxury products. The data has been analysed on the basis of the impact cultural and religious beliefs have on consumers of such luxury products. The data has been presented in a very neutral manner and verbatim has been used from the participants in the table (Appendix 1) as a measure of the intensity of feelings in certain cases. Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 have been used for coding and the methodology has been discussed in subsequent sections of this thesis. Research Questions: Personal Information Do you have an emotional connection with your place of birth? Would you say you feel a strong affiliation with your domestic society and its traditions? Would you say you have adapted towards the British culture or still feel strongly about your own culture? Perception of Advertisement Would you agree that you are easily influenced by advertisements you see or not? What forms of advertisement do you enjoy the most? Do you think the ways in which you perceive the advertisement affects your attitude of the promoted product? Do you agree with assumption that religion, culture and traditions affect the ways in which you perceive advertisement? Do you agree with assumption that due to personal beliefs some forms of advertisement may create negative perception of a promoted product? If so, if the advert is perceived in a negative way, would you still consume the promoted product or not? Sex appeal in Advertisement Are you aware of the use of sex appeal in advertising? What is your overall perception of sex appeal in advertising? What would you say prevails? Would you say that sex appeal in advertising would make you want to purchase the product? Do you think your culture, standards, religion affect the ways in which you perceive sex appeal in advertisement? Do you think sex appeal in advertising is an effective approach? What do you think are the most effective advertising approaches? Do you see sex appeal in advertisement being considerate towards people who come from different background? Would you agree or disagree that sex appeal in advertising could be offensive? Tom Ford advertisement How does this advertisement make you feel? Would you say it causes positive or negative attitude? Immediately after exposure to this image do analyze this image in accordance with your personal beliefs and standards? Would you say these images make you want to purchase these products? Could you please think of advantages and disadvantages of this advertisement? Who do you think is likely to respond positively to this advertisement and why? Who do you think is likely to reject this form of advertisement as it may be deemed as inappropriate? Do you think there is another form of advertising that would be suitable for these products? Which ad did you like the most and which ad did you like least? Method: Interviews were carried out for the purpose of collecting data about Tom Ford advertisements from a heterogeneous sample group of people belonging to different religious, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. The same set of questions was presented to ten participants of the sample group after they were subjected to the visuals in the Tom Ford advertisements for male perfume. The responses were tabulated and analysed according to their attitudes towards use of sex appeal in advertisements; their attitude towards the Tom Ford visuals and their attitudes towards the products these advertisements promote. Evaluation: From the given data set it can be concluded that people irrespective of their gender and age group are influenced by their personal, religious, traditional and cultural beliefs. Their attitudes towards products depend largely on the way they were brought up and the exposure they had towards sexuality in a social context. Tom Ford advertisements for male perfume have been appreciated for the novelty and boldness of the images though most of the participants felt negatively about the use of women as sex objects and would probably not endorse the products. Participants from more conservative cultures were averse to the use of female nudity and the inappropriate use of the woman’s body to endorse a luxury product like a perfume. Many participants have suggested that luxurious settings and expensive and designer clothing and jewellery on elegant women would have been a better way of advertising the products. Some feel that provocative nature of the images reduces the brand value of the product and makes it appear cheap and “trashy”. Most participants agree that the sex appeal in advertisements meets the purpose of advertising as they attract attention. The images, colours and layout of the advertisements enhance the visual appeal of the products. Most young people are active receivers of advertisements and will probably respond positively to this approach. However, the study also reveals that traditions, cultural and moral values play an important role in the way consumers respond to the visual stimuli prompted by these advertisements. People with strong cultural and religious roots tended to be judgemental about the products based on their perception of the advertisements. Most people observing the advertisements through their cultural lens were put off by the use of women as sex objects and felt that such extreme use of sex appeal in advertising products degraded and dehumanized women. The results of the interview of the “atheists” reveal that they do not analyse the advertisements based on personal or traditional beliefs as they look at the visuals as merely advertisements promoting luxury products. Both participants are from approximately the same region and have been brought up in an environment open to expressing sexuality plainly. Their responses were rational and not judgemental and they were both willing to try the products as they found the Tom Ford advertisements attractive.
Engineering homework help
Engineering homework help. Hello, I need a personal narrative essay that tell a personal lifestyle experience story. The essay needs 3 papes I DO NOT want the essay that talk about some fantastic story or go so far. And I attached a sample essay from my professor. You have to see it. It will give you an idea of just one way to approach this essay assignment.TOPIC:We have read Gary Soto?s ?Looking for Work,? which is a short, personal account of a specific period in Soto?s childhood, where he reveals his family life and various perspectives as he works through these experiences. ÿI have also emailed you ?Salvation? by Langston Hughes and ?American History? by Judith Ortiz Cofer, which are great examples of the personal narrative essay. ÿIn class, we have discussed a variety of other perspectives on family. ÿFor this narrative essay, think of a specific, pivotal moment in your childhood or adolescence. ÿNotice that all three stories read in this class focused on ONE day. ÿBe sure to stay centered on an important moment that can be explored in 3 pages. ÿExplore how this moment/day changed your perspective, life circumstances, or affected your growth in some way. ÿMake sure to use specific, vivid details of your incidents and experiences to illustrate to the reader of the pleasures, perils, chaos, or responsibilities, of this time. ÿUse your story-telling skills and make it captivating! ÿAlso, be sure to write about a time that you are comfortable describing; you will need concrete details to explain and support your main point. ÿAs with storytelling, your narrative essay will contain a plot, character, setting, climax, and ending. ÿSince this is a narrative, it will likely follow time-order organization. ÿAlso, your main point should be expressed early on in the essay. ÿÿESSAY FORMAT:Essay #1 must be at least three full pages long, double-spaced, using MLA style. ÿYou will lose points if you don?t fulfill the minimum requirements. ÿYou will be graded on strength of main point carried throughout, focus/organization, specific details/support, and grammar/punctuation/sentence structure. ÿThere should be an introduction that catches the reader?s attention. ÿAnd while this assignment is specifically dealing with personal experiences, this essay still must have a clear point and must stay on-topic throughout. ÿBody paragraphs should have topic sentences and contain vivid details to support the main argument. ÿThis is a time to tell stories about childhood experiences and relate these details to the overall essay. ÿQuick Grading Checklist:1.Introduction: Does it have a compelling opening that catches the reader?s attention? ÿDoes it have adequate background information to lead up to thesis/main point? ÿDoes it have a clear focus/thesis that provides a guideline for the direction of the narrative essay?2.Body/Narrative: Does each paragraph stay on-topic and flow together smoothly with transitions and clear sequencing? ÿIs there a unique and compelling voice telling the story? ÿDoes the style fit the content?Are there enough solid, vivid details and specific examples to support the thesis? ÿIs there reflection on these moments to tie them into the rest of the essay? ÿAre the stories relevant to the assignment given?Is the narrative centered around only ONE pivotal moment? ÿÿ3.Conclusion: Is there a sense of closure or reflection of how this moment impacted the writer?s perspective or childhood?ÿ4.Editing/Proofreading: Is the essay completely free of spelling/grammar/punctuation/format errors?I look forward to reading these!Engineering homework help
Civil Society Role in Combating Corruption Essay
Introduction This essay answer the question posed concerning the role of civil society in combating corruption. Corruption has been escalating at a high rate in many countries in the world. Various sectors and government agencies have embarked on the war to fight corruption. This is because of the harmful effects of corruption to individuals as well as the economy as a whole. The civil society also has not lagged behind in fighting corruption. The civil society comprises of diverse groups but all have a role in fighting corruption in one way or another. These groups include citizens, religious organization groups, NGOs among others. As stakeholders in the quality of governance and institutions mediating between the government and the public, civil society plays a key role in fighting corruption. At the country level as well as internationally, this statement is unchallenged. But what does it mean in practice? To what extent is the statement true? These are some of the question this paper addresses and go further in highlighting the nature of civil society involvement. The first part of this essay defines what corruption is and highlights few causes of corruption. The second part of this paper explains how civil society has evolved giving more focus to the third world countries. It also highlights the various roles that the civil society can take to combat corruption. Initiatives taken to empower the civil society have also been highlighted including the role of the media. In conclusion this essay acknowledges the fact that civil role has key roles to play in combating corruption and these roles should be enhanced. What is Corruption? According to Botchwey (2000), corruption is defined as the act of obtaining advantage via dubious means or means that are not legitimate immoral, and that are inconsistent with the rights of others or the duty of the perpetrator. Corruption also exists where people may apply public powers for their own or private gains. Corruption exists in our society and has always existed. The act is evil and unacceptable and has many negative consequences. Corruption is an impediment factor to economic growth and may cause economic downturn where it is severe. Most of the democratic institutions like legal institutions have suffered or suffer most where corruption is prevalent. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some of the gangrenous effects of corruption may include low supply of public goods and services, embezzlement of public funds, downgraded infrastructures among others. There factors are detrimental to economic growth and development and calls for immediate attention wherever they exist. For war against corruption to be won, efforts must move beyond a narrow response to a broader approach of addressing its underlying causes (Al – Shuaibi, n.d). Dealing with these problems will require a multi-pronged strategy tailored to the specific pattern of corruption in each specific country. Corruption impedes sustainable development which is key in the economic development of every country. Causes of corruption can be summarized as follows: The lack of political will to combat corruption at the leadership level; The weak judicial system and the absence of the rule of law; The weak parliamentary role; Incomplete rules and regulations and public monitoring; Weak media and inactive civil society. The role of combating corruption should not be left to the official bodies and the legislative authority alone. Civil society should take an active role in enhancing and demanding democracy and human rights (OECD, 2003). They should commit themselves to the objectives of ensuring integrity and accountability in response to need for enhancing a system of good governance. Civil Society’s Role Combating Corruption As highlighted earlier civil society include the no-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community based organizations (CBOs).Some are progressive while others are conservative. The community and the social organizations fight corruption through religion and humanitarian agencies that fight for human rights. Together as a society they discourage vices such as dishonesty and bribery that characterize corruption. In deed these societies campaign for democracy. These groups including professional bodies and business associations participate in the fight against corruption while conducting their civil roles. Reports from the third world countries indicate that civil society was in active (Bardhan, 1997). The reason for this is because it has been marginalized. We will write a custom Essay on Civil Society Role in Combating Corruption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although the ability to effectively scrap off corruption following independence has been narrow, the civil society has given recognizable contribution in the fight against corruption. Roles taken during this period include: Condemnation of official corruption by professional bodies, student and trade unions as part of protest against economic mismanagement by the government. Exhortations against corruption by religious organizations leaders. These include leaders from all religious circles. Too much focus on corruption scandals that have already been exposed by the political leaders in the opposition side of the government. In this case the media take the role of giving the issue much publicity. The efforts raised above are considered to be reactive rather than been pro-active. They are inadequate in stemming out corruption and more pro-active actions should be devised by the civil society. An establishment of a more vibrant civil society is the way to ensure pro-active approach. Karkling (2005) in his arguments maintains that society has inspiration that is adequate to fight the vice. Corrupt persons are likely to find their way out of the when it comes to the laws of the country. The government therefore needs support from the civil society in the campaign for a corruption free society ( Olabimpe and Sesan, 2006) This will ensure well founded initiatives that will check on the vice. Unless this is done the war against the vice will be lost. The civil society is aware due to the changes that have occurred with increase in information. They are major actors in putting checks and balances in the political and socio-economic fields (Kidd