Get help from the best in academic writing.

Causes of the Decline in Voter Turnout

“What explains the decline in voter turnout in most democracies in the last few decades? In your answer, consider one or two explanations that you consider most important and empirical evidence supporting or rejecting them”. According to Dalton (1988) “citizen involvement in the political process is essential for democracy to be viable and meaningful”. They suggest that “limited political involvement is a sign of weakness because it is only through dialogue and participation that societal goals are defined and achieved in a democracy. Voting, though it requires little initiative and cooperation with others, is the most visible and widespread form of citizen involvement”[1]. Over the past three decades, voter turnout in the UK and other democratic countries has decreased significantly, I will discuss what I consider to be two of the most important explanations for the decline in voter turnout across various democratic countries. These being political disengagement and dissatisfaction and the reduction in the value of voting. I have chosen these due to the fact there is significant empirical evidence supporting both explanations, as will be explored below. The first part of this essay will explain some statistics regarding the levels of voter turnout, following this, I will discuss the idea that political disengagement and dissatisfaction could be considered one of the most significant contributors to the decline in voter turnout and how the depleting value of the vote can cause people to refrain from voting altogether. A democratic country is defined as being a country in which “all eligible citizens have the right to participate in the political system, either directly or indirectly when it comes to making the decisions that will affect them”[2]. The decline in voter turnout throughout democratic countries in the last few decades is fast becoming a problem due to the fact democracy depends on voter participation. The decline in voter turnout can be noted in the UK where voter turnout reduced from 75.3% in 1987 to 68.7% in 2017, suffering substantial dips throughout this period, as was found in 2001 in which voter turnout dropped to 59.4%. Figure 1. A line graph showing the decline in general election turnout since 1945. Taken from: Voter turnout at UK general elections 1945 – 2017 | UK Political Info. [online] Available at: The same thing can be seen in other democratic countries. For example, voter turnout in the US during Mid-Term Elections has decreased from 60.89% of registered voters voting and 41.07% of voting age voters voting in 1986 to 54.16% of registered voters voting and 39.51% of voting age voters voting in 2014. The same cannot be said for Presidential elections, where we see an increase from 76.98%/56.28% voting in 1988 and 78.76%/60.52% voting in 2016. However, the most recent statistics do show a decline from 2004 onwards. One possible explanation for this could be the voters feel as though a Presidential election is more important, it gains more media coverage and affects the whole country. Therefore, it would be useful to consider some of the reasons for this selective decline in voter turnout. Figure 2: Levels of voter turnout in US midterm elections from 1982 to 2014. Taken from: [online] Available at: Figure 3: Levels of voter turnout in US presidential elections from 1980 to 2016. Taken from: [online] Available at: The first of my proposed explanations for the decline in voter turnout is the public’s political disengagement and dissatisfaction. Before I continue, it is important to distinguish between voter apathy and voter alienation in order to determine whether there is a decline in voter turnout due to an increased laziness throughout the public or due to the public feeling as though they can no longer relate to their politicians, my first point of discussion focusses on the latter. Crewe et al (1992) suggested that apathy indicates a lack personal responsibility, a “passivity, and indifference for political affairs. It denotes the absence of a feeling of personal obligation to participate. However, voter alienation implies an active rejection of the political system”. The alienation the public are feeling when it comes to politics was found by Dr. Ruth Fox to stem from the fact that the parties we have to choose from are “all the same, the politicians are all the same, they are not like us”[3]. This could mean that the public can no longer identify with the candidates they are voting for. Politicians have become so detached from the average person, that the public cannot find any logical reason to want to vote them into power and consequently, do not vote at all. This could be considered one of the most crucial factors to contribute to a declining voter turnout because the aim of an elected Government is to represent the public’s views in Parliament to ensure that the decisions made, and laws created, benefit the country in the most inclusive way possible. Therefore, when the public feel as though they are not being accurately represented in Parliament they can feel alienated which in turn, promotes disinterest and a feeling of disengagement among the public with regard to politics. The British Academy stated that “British society has become, for the most part, disengaged with politics…In the case of British voters, it is important to understand the scale and depth of their disenchantment”. This can be considered important because if we can engage the public in politics through their MPs and other representatives, this would subsequently improve voter turnout. The second of my proposed explanations for declining levels of voter turnout is the idea that the public no longer places any value in voting, believing that their votes will not make a difference. The House of Commons Political and Constitutional Committee found this especially “when the member of the public lived in an area in which there was a safe seat, that is, where the party of the elected representative was unlikely to change[4]”. The value of voting can be considered an important explanation for the decline in voter turnout because if the public does not feel as if their vote will make a difference, or produce the outcome they prefer, they will be less inclined to even try. It was suggested by Ioannis Kolovos and Phil Harris that voters “weigh up the costs and benefits of their actions, meaning that the public will turn up to vote when they consider that the benefits of such an action outweigh the costs[5]”. An example of how the public have been made to feel disengaged with politics can be seen in the last election in which the Green Party and UKIP had significant support, resulting in a considerable number of votes. Under a different political system, these parties would have won 85 seats. Unfortunately, for the people that voted for them, the Green Party and UKIP only gained 1 seat each. Therefore, it appears that when people see that a significant percentage of the electorate are completely ignored due to the current political system, they give up on voting entirely due to the fact they think that their votes will not make a difference leading them to believe that the act of voting had little benefits. This could explain the decline in voter turnout in most democracies in the last few decades. There are many factors that can explain the decline in voter turnout in most democracies over the last few decades. In this essay, I have focused on and provided empirical evidence for what I believe to be two of the most important; political disengagement and dissatisfaction and the reduction in the value of voting. The need for politics to be more inclusive and for the public to feel as though they can relate to their representatives would considerably help the rates of voter turnout as they would feel as though their vote means something and would contribute to an outcome that would benefit themselves as well as others. They would also feel more involved in the political process which, in turn would allow them to restore the value of their vote because as the public begins to feel more engaged and satisfied with their representative in Parliament, they would place a value on their vote as they would know that it could potentially make a difference. REFERENCES: 1) Anon, (2018). [online] Available at [Accessed 9 Jan. 2018]. 2) Crewe, I 1992, ‘Changing votes and unchanging voters’, Electoral Studies, 11, 4, p. 335-345, Scopus®, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 January 2018 3) Dalton, Russell J., Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, 5th edition (Washington DC: CQ Press, 2008), p. 37. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, “Voter Turnout Database”, International IDEA website. 4) E-International Relations. (2018). Why is Turnout at Elections Declining Across the Democratic World? [online] Available at [Accessed 9 Jan. 2018]. 5) Hooghe, M,
Skills to Become an Architect. Garrett Leman It takes a lot of work to be accomplished in any field of work. If you want to be an architect you need to graduate high school and get a bachelor’s degree. A Bachelor of Architecture usually takes about 5 years to get. You need to pass all your classes and do your best work. If you get a pre-professional bachelor’s degree in architecture studies that usually takes about 4 years. Design classes would be good to take, or building classes. If you were trying to train to become an architect some on-the-job experience from another architect would be very helpful. In all you need Bachelor’s Degree (5 years) and 3 years of internship, accumulating 8 years of education and training. An architect needs to be creative, analytical, good at communicating, have good visualization skills, and be organized. You would need to be aware of common building/construction knowledge, and know what best works. Architects work in the designing aspect of construction, and may also be involved in every step of the process even construction. You need to know how to make a structure appealing to the eye and also be safe and functional. Each day you might be looking for new projects to do. In addition to designing buildings you would also help to restore old buildings. Once you get a project you work on designing and mapping out blue-prints with the exact specifications needed. Architects may work hand-in-hand with the customer, or may just be given guidelines and work from there. Throughout the building process, the architect’s job is checking prints against construction and managing time.They need to make sure the construction crew isn’t making any mistakes. When creating the prints needed an architect needs to be able to make logical drawings that can easily be measured and converted. They need to go over all the specifications and be very precise. Being knowledgeable of real world buildings and how to make a building safe and functional is a very big part of your work. Qualities attributed to an architect are: an eye for details, drawing skills and be able to work with 3D art, inventive and imaginative, be passionate about buildings and the environment, and care about the people you are designing for. A certificate that is not necessarily required but is a sign that you have met the highest standards is the NCARB certificate. If you are becoming an architect you must register for and get a license to even call yourself an architect. You need to be certified in safety and the license is required if you want to legally design a structure for someone or something. You must have 3 years of experience before seeking licensing. You can serve as an intern for a more senior architect for more experience. All architects must past the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) to become certified. There is a projected 14.76% increase in architecture. This is statewide, while nationwide there is only a 6.9% increase. The average wages of an indiana architect is around $64,970. They can make up to about $114,000 dollars. That is a good paying job. I am interested in this job because I think it sounds intriguing, and also matches my skill set. The fact that it interests me while giving me good money is a huge bonus. Not many people get both, or are not able to. Since my job is engaging to me, I would do my best work, and be able to excel farther. Benefits of this occupation are numerous. The people I would work with would show the same kind of passion that i do, and also have the same interests. Architecture is a fast-paced career. It can be very fascinating, and is beautiful work. The work that you do is shown off to the world, and everyone gets to see it. One personal benefit is the fact that you would get to travel. I love traveling. The best architects need to know their environment and the styles they are working with. Most architects travel to see the other cultures and types of architecture. They need to see how other buildings and countries work and flow and how all their things are structured different than ours. After working in architecture for a while you will learn new aspects of design. You pick up new skills and ways of going about. You will appreciate other buildings and structures more than you previously did. As I said before, a thing you could achieve after being an architect would be to earn your NCARB certificate. This shows that you really know what you are doing and have been doing that for a while. Some negative things associated with being an architect is that you have to spend a long time getting an education. It can take 8 years! Another downfall of being an architect is the pay and hours. The pay isn’t awful, but comparing all the education you have to get the median pay of an architect is not that good. Also, as deadlines surface you may be working long hours trying to finish a project, or seal a deal. One major downfall is that architecture is based on how the economy is running. If everything is going good, the economy is running smoothly, people have lots of money buildings will be put up and money will be made. This is a good time to be an architect. On the other hand, if the market is running low, and people don’t have as much money, no more buildings will be built. This is bad for architects and funds will be cut, and people will be laid off. This career may affect my home life in many ways. On regular day, when work is running smoothly it would be good. The money would be good for the family. When work is bad, this would negatively affect my family’s morale. Nobody would be happy. My pay would affect how and where I lived. I would try to live in an urban city or some place where the work would be active. I would try to be considerate with the house and car due to the fluctuations of money that may occur. Being able to afford nice things would be a luxury once in awhile. Being an architect may affect my friends by determining the time I’m able to spend with them. Architecture takes time and long hours. I may not be able to go out with them all the times they wanted. My family would be the same way. Trying to spend as much time as I could with them would be a big priority. The affect on my social life may be huge. I would get to meet many new people through work. An architect travels a lot in order to see new cultures, new buildings, and clients. Sometimes I may be able to bring the family along on my trips. Traveling the world would be a huge bonus of this occupation. I would be able to interact with many new people and see many new places, though that time would be cut short because they are business trips. If I choose to pursue this career from this day forward, in about 10 years I would be attending college getting my education to become an architect. I would spend a lot of time in college and getting degrees for architecture. It takes a lot of time and experience to become an architect. After college I would work as an intern for an architect. Hopefully in 20 years I would be working for a big architecture company or have my own. That would be a big goal for this. Being an architect isn’t for everyone, but I think this may be a job to pursue. Skills to Become an Architect
Auburn University Improve Sustainability of Climate Change with IT Discussion.

I’m working on a management discussion question and need support to help me understand better.

Discuss how information technology can be used to improve the sustainability of either (1) climate or (2) air quality. Remember to use your own words to write the post, use citations in the post, and have the bibliography at the end of the post. For citations in the post or paper: (lastname, year) or (lastname, lastname, year) or if more than 2: (lastnname, et al., year) – for example: (Jones, et al. 2019)For references at the end of the paper (sample): Amoroso, D., Lim, R. & F. Roman (2019). Corporate Social Responsibility in Organizations. International Journal of Technology Diffusion, 12(4) 123-140.
Auburn University Improve Sustainability of Climate Change with IT Discussion

Reimbursement Methods and Managed Care Discussion

Reimbursement Methods and Managed Care Discussion.

I’m working on a management question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Read Chapter 8 in Basics of the U.S. Health Care SystemRead Chapter 6 in Fundamentals of Medical Practice Management.Using the OCLS or the Internet, find an article discussing a current topic that is related to managed care or reimbursement methodologies. Note: CMS recently implemented a new reimbursement methodology for skilled-nursing facilities called the Patient Driven Payment Model. The PDPM is also a topic for consideration.The article can be from professional, scholarly, or popular media. The article must have been published within the last three (3) years.Navigate to the threaded discussion below and provide:A short summary of the article.An explanation of how the article relates to the reading.A link to the article. Alternatively, you may post a copy of the article.Your initial response should be 150 to 200 words in length.
Reimbursement Methods and Managed Care Discussion

Suppression of Evidence Essay

help writing Suppression of Evidence Essay.

Suppression Just For State Actors?Evidence is suppressed if a judge believes that the evidence in question was obtained illegally by law enforcement agents. This is known as the “exclusionary rule.” The judge may also rule that evidence the prosecution improperly or intentionally hid from the defense can not be shown in court. Hiding evidence from the defense is a violation of the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution. It can result in a mistrial. Even if evidence is suppressed, it doesn’t mean that no one else will know about it. While it cannot be used as direct evidence at trial, the judge can consider the evidence when determining a sentence for the defendant. It can also be used in civil or deportation cases, or to impeach or discredit a witness who testifies at trial. There are other types of evidence that you can have suppressed at trial. The “fruits of the poisonous tree” doctrine states that additional evidence discovered as a result of illegally obtained evidence is excluded at trial. For example, if an officer illegally searches your car and finds a piece of paper with the address of where you hide your illegal drugs on it, the drugs can not be used as evidence at trial. The illegal search and the piece of paper are the “poisonous tree” and the illegal drugs are the “fruit.” However, there are some exceptions in which evidence that was obtained illegally may be used in court. These exceptions are:Inevitable discovery – this means that the police would have inevitably found the evidence, with or without the illegal searchIndependent source – the discover of the evidence involved a combination of legal and illegal means, but the evidence could have been discovered by a reliable sourceGood faith – the officers who discovered the evidence has no reason to believe their search was illegal (i.e., believed the search warrant to be valid when it was not)Attenuation – if the connection between the illegal search and the evidence is sufficiently weak, the evidence may be considered untainted.However, as you remember, suppression of evidence only applies to evidence obtained by the State actors or by individuals acting at the State’s direction. 1) Do you agree with this concept? Why or why not?2) Could there be a benefit to eliminating the suppression rules?3) Should suppression rules be expanded to private actors as well?
Suppression of Evidence Essay

Characteristics of Different Types of Bears

Characteristics of Different Types of Bears. The Bear is a mammal belonging to family Ursidae and is characterised by shaggy coat, a short tail and walk with both heel and sole touching the ground. Bears are exploring, intelligent but potentially dangerous animals and are killed each year by people If we show respect to bears and learn proper behavior once in their kingdom this will help if you encounter a bear. Bears tend to avoid humans. But it is dangerous to meet a bear suddenly in the forest as bears do not like surprises. Many bears live in Alaska and many people enjoy the outdoors, but surprisingly few people even see bears. Make noise, sing, talk loudly while moving in the bear country. Travel with a group as groups are noisier and easier for bears to detect. Always avoid thick bush. The presence of these mighty beasts acts like a defence against the forest destruction. Avoid trails and roads and never set up camp close to a trail that might be used by bears. Avoid areas having carcasses, waste food matter as bears may be in these areas and bears do not like surprises. If a bear approaches while you are fishing, stop fishing. Dont give food to bears or leave food unattended as the smell of these may compel a bear to reach the place. Bears eat aggresively as they have only six months to build up fat reserves for their winter hibernation. ASIATIC BEAR The Asiatic bear also known as the Himalayan black bear, the Tibetan black bear species lives in Asian countries like Afghanistan, Malaysia, Cambodia, China, India, Iran, Russia and Taiwan. They are American black bear’s closest cousin and both are believed to be evolved from a common European ancestor. It can be found in areas with elevations as high as 4, 700 m (13, 776 ft), but in lower lands as well. In some parts of its range, the Asian Black Bear shares its habitat with the larger and stronger Brown Bear. Asiatic bears have the following characters- black color having a whitish or creamy colored ‘Y’ on their chest, large ears, extra long and fluffy hair around neck and shoulders. Asiatic black bears grow four to six feet long. Males weigh from 220 to 480 pounds, while females range from 110 to 275 pounds. The Asiatic black bear is listed as vulnerable on the World Conservation Union’s (IUCN’s) Red List of Threatened Animals. The main threats are habitat loss and deforestation. These bears are more fierce than other species and will attack humans if threatened. In the summer they make “nests” in trees for sleeping and use twigs to make comfortable beds in the snow in winter. The Asian Black Bear is an omnivore which consumes a great variety of foods and are opportunistic and seasonal in diet. Asiatic black bears take advantage of a variety of foods, primarily from plants. In winter, they ate chestnuts, walnuts, and other fat-rich resources. In spring, new plant growth provides a bounty for the bears. Other plants offer food in summer, including raspberries, cherries, and grasses. Insect food, especially ants, augments the summer diet. Asiatic black bears will eat carrion, and sometimes attack livestock. Asiatic black bears do not usually breed until three or four years old. Young stay with their mothers for two to three years, and females with first-year young do not usually breed till the next season. These bears migrate seasonally stay at higher elevation in summers and inhabit lower places in winters. Besides habitat destruction, Asian Black Bears are also threatened by hunting, especially for their gall bladders to obtain bile, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. THE POLAR BEARS Polar bears belong to the class mammals and found in the North Pole, Tundra, Greenland and Norway. The polar bear or the sea/ice bear are the world’s largest land predators. The white brown color of their fur gives them this look. They are very powerful animals and can weigh up to 800 kg. The head is smaller in appearance. Polar bears inhabit one of the planet’s coldest environments and depend on a thick coat of insulated fur which protects them from cold. Today, 25, 000 to 40, 000 polar bears roam the Arctic. Male polar bears may grow 10 feet tall and weigh over 1400 pounds. Females reach seven feet and weigh 650 pounds. In the wild polar bears live up to age 25. Around the age of four or five the female Males are bigger in size than females. Polar bears have different structure of their feet as compared to those bears which live on tropical parts as they have to move on glass like sliding surfaces. Polar bears are nomadic predators who roam extensive areas for the purpose of eating. A polar bear keeps on shifting from one place to other. They have very good swimming ability and can swim many miles without any halt. Polar bears have strong respiratory body organs which enable them to stay beneath water for long periods. Polar bears prey on seals mainly but at times they eat wolves and reindeers and also consume carcasses, such as those of dead whales. They have strong smell sense and can identify the flesh from as long as 30 miles. The mating occurs in mid-summer. The number of bears born to female bear is generally four to five. The females take the responsibility of their young ones and receive no help from their solitary male mates. Females aggressively protect their young. The cubs are protected by their mother until they become able to survive by themselves. Polar bears are treatened because of habitat loss. Oil spills can be very dangerous. A bear with oil on its coat cannot regulate its body temperature properly. If the bear eats the oil while grooming it could die. Man made pollution is also a cause of death. At each stage of the food chain, pollutants get more concentrated. By the end when the polar bear eats the seal and it could be lethal. BLACK BEAR The American Black Bear is about 5-7 feet in length, weighing between 125 and 400 pounds. Its body is large, with a short tail, a long snout, round ears, and small eyes. Its shaggy fur is generally uniformly black colored all over the body apart from its muzzle, which is brown in color, and light colored markings that sometimes occur on the chest. Their lifespan can range from 20-30 years in the wild, although most of them do not live beyond their 10th year. Being the smallest amongst the three species of bears that occur in North America, the American Black Bear can be found practically all over the continent, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and from Canada in the north down to Mexico in the south. While it usually walks on all its four legs, the American Black Bear can walk and stand on its hind legs. Despite the American Black Bear’s strength and size, it is quite agile and deliberate when it moves. While they will eat just about anything, the black bear has a preference for nuts, berries, honey, plants, and grass, and also is known to feed on fish, small animals and carrion. Occasionally, they also kill the calves of moose or deer for food. With the onset of fall, the American Black Bear will start gaining a lot of weight by eating enormous amounts of food, so that its body fat reserves sustain it through the hibernation period in the winter. Although, when there is a lull in the cold weather, it will awaken and make brief forays outside to feed. Being highly adaptable, the American Black Bear can be found in a wide variety of habitats. Although it prefers wooded areas that is rich in ground vegetation and has plenty of nuts and fruits, it also occurs in the tundra regions of the north, and sometimes they will even be found foraging in meadows or fields. Except for the mother and her cubs, the American Black Bear has a tendency of being solitary creatures. They will usually be found foraging singly, although if food is available plentifully in an area, they will feed in groups. The survival of the cubs depends completely on the mother’s skill of teaching them how and where to find food, what is edible, where to make their den, and where and when to find shelter from the weather or danger. Although they prefer avoiding man and are regarded as non-aggressive, except when the animal feels threatened, or in order to protect its young, or if it has suffered an injury, many people think wrongly that the black bear is a vicious animal, and hence kill them on sight when they encroach and occupy their habitat and come across them. Another serious threat that menaces the American Black Bear these days is the demand for their paws and gall bladders, which are used for medicinal purposes in Korea, Japan and China. Several states in the US list the American Black Bear as endangered, threatened, or rare (although they continue to be hunted in some states as game). Nevertheless, they are still in danger. The name black bear is not a very accurate name for this species of bear. They can come in many colors such as black, brown, gray, silvery-blue, and cream. Most black bears are, in fact, black but often a black colored bear will have brown cubs and brown colored bears may have black cubs. The black bear’s habitats range from the far northern tundra of Canada and Alaska to the forests of Central America and Mexico. They are considered to be large to medium sized (males weighing between 56. 7-226 kg or 130-500 lbs. ), males being larger than females, and the different sub-species are similar in their body shape, footprints and diets. They like nutrition and protein rich foods like termites, bees and moths. They eat berries, nuts, acorns, honey and fruit. Because bears are not active predators they prefer to eat carrion. Carrion is especially important for bears that have just come out of hibernation and are in great need of protein. Black bears have been given the reputation of attacking people. This is not true. Black bears, like most other bears, will rarely attack humans. They will try to scare off danger by standing on their back feet, baring their teeth, and growling. They may attack if their cubs are in danger but only as a last resort and sometimes not even then. Mating happens in spring but the females have an ability called ‘delayed implantation’, which allows the egg to be fertilized later. This is so that the cub, or cubs, will be born during hibernation. The Kermode bear is found only in British Columbia, Canada, and is black, most of the time. About 1 out of every 10 Kermode bears is pure white. They are not Polar bears, nor are they sub-species of the Polar bear. These rare white bears are called Spirit Bears. In every other way they are like all the other black bears except that they carry a special gene that causes their hair to be white rather than black. BROWN BEAR The Brown Bear is a large bear distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It weighs 100 to 700 kg (220-1, 500 pounds) and its larger populations such as the Kodiak bear match the Polar bear as the largest extant land predatorWhile the brown bear’s range has shrunk, and it has faced local extinctions, it remains listed as a least concern species, with a total population of approximately 200, 000. Its principal range countries are Russia, the United States (especially Alaska), Canada, and Finland where it is the national animal. The species primarily feeds on vegetable matter, including roots, and fungi. Fish are a primary source of meat. It also eats small land mammals and occasionally larger mammals, such as deer. Adult brown bears can match wolf packs and large felines, often driving them off their kills. The largest populations are in Russia, with 120, 000, the United States with 32, 500, and Canada with 21, 750. 95% of the brown bear population in the United States is in Alaska, though in the West they are repopulating slowly but steadily along the Rockies and plains. The brown bear is Finland’s national animal. Brown bears were once native to Asia, the Atlas Mountains in Africa, Europe and North America, but are now extinct in some areas and their populations have greatly decreased in other areas. They prefer semi-open country, usually in mountainous areas. Brown bears live in Alaska, east through the Yukon and Northwest Territories, south through British Columbia and through the western half of Alberta. Small populations exist in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of northwest Wyoming (with about 600 animals), the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem of northwest Montana (with about 400-500 animals), the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem of northwest Montana and northeast Idaho (with about 30-40 animals), the Selkirk Ecosystem of northeast Washington and northwest Idaho (with about 40-50 animals), and the North Cascades Ecosystem of north-central Washington (with about 5-10 animals). These five ecosystems combine for a total of roughly 1, 200 wild grizzlies still persisting in the contiguous United States. Unfortunately, these populations are isolated from each other, inhibiting any genetic flow to occur between ecosystems. This poses one of the greatest threats to the future survival of the grizzly bear in the contiguous United States. In Arctic areas, the potential habitat of the brown bear is increasing. The warming of that region has allowed the species to move farther north into what was once exclusively the domain of the polar bear. In non-Arctic areas, habitat loss is blamed as the leading cause of endangerment, followed by hunting. North American brown bears seem to prefer open landscapes, whereas in Eurasia they inhabit mostly dense forests. It is thought that the Eurasian bears which colonized America were tundra-adapted. The brown bear is primarily nocturnal. In the summer it gains up to 180 kg (400 pounds) of fat, on which it relies to make it through winter, when it becomes very lethargic. Although they are not full hibernators, and can be woken easily, both sexes like to den in a protected spot such as a cave, crevice, or hollow log during the winter months. Brown bear are mostly solitary, although they may gather in large numbers at major food sources and form social hierarchies based on age and size. They are omnivores and feed on a variety of plant products, including berries, roots, and sprouts, fungi as well as meat products such as fish, insects, and small mammals. Despite their reputation, most brown bears are not particularly carnivorous as they derive up to 90% of their dietary food energy from vegetable matter. Their jaw structure has evolved to fit their dietary habits. Their diet varies enormously throughout their differing ranges. Brown bears also occasionally prey on deer, elk, moose, caribou, and bison. When brown bears attack these animals, they tend to choose the young ones because they are much easier to catch. . On rare occasions, bears kill by hitting their prey with their powerful forearms which can break the necks and backs of large prey, such as bison. They also feed on carrion and use their size to intimidate other predators such as wolves, cougars, tigers and black bears from their kills. Bears become attracted to human-created food sources such as garbage dumps, litter bins, and dumpsters; they venture into human dwellings or barns in search of food as humans encroach into bear habitat. Yellowstone National Park, an enormous reserve located in the Western United States, contains prime habitat for the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), and due to the enormous number of visitors, human-bear encounters are common. The scenic beauty of the area has led to an influx of people moving into the area. While the black bear is found only throughout NorthCharacteristics of Different Types of Bears

West Coast University Anatomy and Physiology Hearing Presentation

West Coast University Anatomy and Physiology Hearing Presentation.

You will be creating a PowerPoint presentation about a physiology topic. Your instructor will provide more guidance on topics. While the list below may differ from what your instructor may want for topics, it does provide you with potential ideas about what you may be discussing.Potential Physiology TopicsPowerPoint Presentation Requirements:Present the anatomy and physiology of your topic.Anatomy should be briefly covered and physiology should be explained in depth.You will be expected to refer to and explain the images, terms, and key points on your slides.Include clear, well-sized, unlabeled images (Choose images without labels, or remove the labels).You will be expected to explain the images in your own words.Include key points and terms (use bullets, not paragraphs).Show the anatomy briefly and progress to show physiology.Your slides should be creative and visually appealing.Include four (4) references cited in current APA style and Include at least one non-Internet source.Use the notes section for each slide to fully explain your topic.
West Coast University Anatomy and Physiology Hearing Presentation