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CAU Neo Freudians Factors and Events that Influenced Personality Theories Discussion

CAU Neo Freudians Factors and Events that Influenced Personality Theories Discussion.

I’m working on a Psychology discussion question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

a) the factors and events that influenced their theories of personality b) their relationship with Sigmund Freud c) their major theoretical concepts as this relates to the structure and functioning of the personality d) their view on personality development e) their view of personality dysfunction f) their models of personality types g) their approaches to therapyI don’t need an specific amount of words, just to answer the questions in relation to each of the Neo Freudians(Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Karen Horney.
CAU Neo Freudians Factors and Events that Influenced Personality Theories Discussion

The concept of scientific management case study

The concept of scientific management can be defined as the exercise of the scientific technique to define the most appropriate or best way for a job to be done. Important Contributions in this field is made by Frederick W. Taylor, who is deemed as the “father” of scientific management. Taylor’s employment at the “Bethlehem Steel companies” inspired his concern in improving efficiency. Frederick W. Taylor sought to produce a mental transformation among both workers and managers by defining transparent guidelines towards improving production efficiency. Through all of these, Frederick W. Taylor was adept to define the most suitable or one best way for doing every job. Frederick W. Taylor accomplished steady improvements in productivity in the range of nearly 200 percent. He acknowledged the role of managers to plan and manage and of workers to act upon as they were instructed (Daniel, 1992) [1] . The expansion of management theories has been described by differing ideas regarding what managers do and how they should do it. It is believed that scientific management pored over management from the lookout of enhancing the productivity and competency of manual workers. Frederick W. Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management includes- carefully study every part of the task scientifically and cultivate a best method to perform that particular task..He also suggested to carefully choose workers and prepare them to perform a task with the use of scientifically developed approach (Daniel, 1992)1. Time studies as described by Taylor go ahead to the idea of the assembly procession which is suitably open up for any type of organization. The term of “Scientific management” has been originally selected as a indication to progressives’ ideals of the 1910s. Scientific management, at first the inadequacy of laissez-faire and the necessary role of disinterested elites (Haber, 1964) [2] ! The functionalist imagery used in The Principles of Scientific Management presents the Taylorist approach as a set of prescriptions to get better a few endeavors. Similarly mental transformation planned might be an appeal for a social commitment of engineers as well as controlled persons of the organization. (Daniel, 1992)1. The recent international development of new thoughts is a result of the internal revolution of firms as well as a component of interaction between between reformist actions at the turning of the century. However without believing honestly in all of too good-natured declarations of social harmony, how would the peculiarity of this discourse of modernization would be seriously taken into account and analyzed. On the opposite side Taylor saw that -the power of the skilled workers was the lack of power on the part of management. Taylor therefore extended as his goal the refurbishment of power back into the hands of management. He did not see this in terms of a dispute between social groups. In Taylor’s view, there is need of scientific study of the work process in order to enhance productivity and efficiency which would be of benefit for all. However the present system not able to provide this and therefore needed fundamental reform. Taylor believed that attempts levels and incentive systems should be determined on ‘scientific’ basis. It was not the result of bargaining and dispute between skilled workers and managers. Therefore he began to look at other ways where the production system could be restructured (Daniel, 1992)1. Taylor’s 4 Principles of Scientific Management Taylor proposed the following four principles of scientific management which he concluded after years of various experiments to determine optimal work methods:- Collaborate with the workers to make sure that the scientifically developed approaches are being followed. Distribute total work nearly equally among managers and workers, such as the managers apply scientific management ideology to planning the work and the workers essentially perform the tasks. Exchange rule of thumb work methods with techniques based on a scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically choose, coach, and develop each worker instead of passively leaving them to train themselves (Daniel, 1992)1. These all four principles were implemented in many production units as well as factories which focused on increasing productivity through a factor of either three or more principles. It is a evidence that Henry Ford applied some of Taylor’s principles in his organization and automobile/ vehicle factories as well as families and the result of the same all these started to perform their individual and household tasks basis on the outcome of time and motion studies (Daniel, 1992)1. Any discussion of scientific management needs to identify its particular contextual features. These feature gaggle Taylor in two directions. First direction which is implanted in all modem industrial systems concerns the requirement for planning of the production process. However, the other direction was focused towards a specific model of how the work process could be structured. It was based on a process of generalization of skills and deskilling. On the basis of specific American context, for a time being, it may be successful in that context but, as a more generic way, it was not commonly adopted because in other countries, privileged, managers as well as workers had different expectations of their particular roles. So skilled work keep hold of a greater significance in many more countries and sectors than Taylor would have expected (Daniel, 1992)1. Application of Scientific Management in case study Human Resource or Staffing costs take up the largest share of the budget in all major important hospitals. There should be effective processes that should be focused on managing recruitment, sickness and absence staff, which can offer considerable benefits. Required changes in practice are one thing but enabling sustainable developments which is generally considered as a more difficult challenge. Work with precious in accepting how to attain long term change and how to constantly improve standard practice should be major concern (Koontz, 1986) [3] . In the given case of Aidensfield Hospitals Trust (AHT) it is reveal that Human resource management administration is presently controlled from a central HR department, although some areas of the organization’s people management practices – such as employee selection, discipline, grievance and communication have been delegated to line management within loose group working arrangements. However, slack reporting structures, weak lines of communication, along with ill-defined limits of authority and accountability have resulted in role ambiguity within the line managers. In turn, this is mirrored in job insecurity, low morale and poor motivation at operational level (Tsoukas, 1994) [4] It also suggested that working alongside the Human Resources team at ATH must undertake a diagnostic review of current processes. To apply this initial lean implementation activity, supported with an introduction to support methodologies and waste walk, pin-pointed the main areas for improvement within the department that may include sickness and absence rates and the lead-time for recruitment to unfilled or vacant posts. It also require, the complete process flow planning of sickness and absence management identified postponements, gaps in the process and a lack of standardization (Koontz,1986) [5] . Additional focus also suggested on delays through root basis analysis supported by the team in recognizing solutions to the key issues, which may include: Case conferencing Mandatory training Performance indicators Project planning Simplified procedures and documentation Process mapping of recruitment activities are the major challenges which required to be highlighted through the system. The new requirement analysis should be done for Job design which is part of vacancy filling. These steps focus out of sequence, standards being followed and further delays may arise in Occupational Health and patients checking and diagnosis (Goold, 2002) [6] . The root cause analysis may help the team work at ATH on a number of expected solutions that may include:- Transparent performance measures Capacity matching measures Separated recruitment from job design Standard recruitment procedures Demand Building on all suggested improvement The ATH management should work with the Human Resources team to develop their internal base capability in order to sustain new improvements. All the staff should require to attain training workshop which given them skills in techniques such as general process mapping and structured problem analysis as well as solving. At ATH many role ambiguity and a degree of inconsistency regarding people management arrangements is apparent within supervisory grades in the organization should be removed. More emphasis on Delegation, communication, team-building and employee empowerment have all been problematic issues for managers, trade union representatives and employees of this health service provider. As a manager leadership is crucial to the success of ATH. A caring, competent and professional leader will earn the respect and support of all the staff. Managers who show by example that they are acting according to a sound value system and a high work ethic are well on the road to managing a successful hospital. To do this, managers need personal goals. The team must have a clear strategy for themselves and communicate this clearly to others. However teamwork that involves all levels of staff, starting with the management, developing a shared vision and purpose for the hospital within its shared core values is a way to unify people from different backgrounds and professions. To improve the HR functions at ATH is suggested that the organization to perform effectively in this highly competitive environment, senior management perceive a need to streamline the management structure, formalize reporting arrangements, clarify parameters of authority and improve the present group working arrangements. It is likely that these changes will have far-reaching consequences for both management and operational workers. Because the present management-employee relations climate is not conductive to the implementation of change, it will be necessary to create a positive team-based environment to embrace ongoing change in the future (McMahon, 1980) [7] . Q4. Using specific examples drawn from the case study discuss leadership styles and the potential behavioral responses. Leadership Styles Leadership generally defined in numerous ways by different authors, however the most appropriate one in the hospital scenario is the process of influencing all the behavior of an individual or a group in such a way that they try hard keenly towards the achievement of organization goals (Clegg, 2005) [8] . Types of leadership Autocratic Leadership The characteristics of Autocratic leadership are:- The leader primarily seeks the conformity from his group. They have to carry out the work as preferred by the leader. The whole authority is centralized with the leader and he can determine everything. The leaders can structures entire work for his employees. Communication is generally unidirectional from above downwards. Workers compliance can obtain through threats and punishments. Those who obey orders may reward and those who do not are punished. It is a carrot and stick type of leadership. All employees have very slight responsibility. All employees assured about their security. (h) Decision making is speedy and less competent subordinates can be simply employed. (i) The highly qualified professionals do not like this type of leadership as there is short of scope for growth, development, proposal and sense of responsibility. (j) Fear, argument, dissatisfaction and frustration can increase easily (Clegg, 2005)8. Participative or Democratic Leadership The characteristics of Democratic Leadership are:- Communication can make in all directions. Decision making taking more time. Experienced and capable workers feel more happy and satisfied. In this type of leadership, leader and workers share the decision making. It is not a carotid stick type of leadership. There are no punishments but corrective actions and rewards are based on goal achievements. The leader draws the ideas and suggestions from the workers by discussions and consultations. The workers are encouraged to take part in making organizational goals and the job of leader is mainly that of control. The workers have a common sense of belonging and satisfaction. Unskilled and lower level workers do not like this style (Clegg, 2005)8. Laissez-Faire or Free Rein Leadership In this type of leadership, each worker has his own ability and the leader is relatively like an information cubicle. He exercises a minimum and assumes the role of another member of the group. This is more suitable for investigate laboratories and similar organizations (Clegg, 2005)8. Epidemiology of Leadership in different conditions In order to determine the best leadership style following three factors can be obtained. The condition in which the leading takes place. The people individual lead. The personal individuality of the leader himself. Because differences take place in all three of these factors, there can be major deviation in leadership style (Clegg, 2005)8. The other differentiation of major leadership style is listed below:- Affiliative Leadership Authoritative Leadership Charismatic Leadership Coaching Leadership Style Coercive Leaders Democratic Leaders Pacesetting Leaders Behavioral Responses A Leader has an authority that motivates others towards achieve a common goal. Respected leaders focus on what they are about their beliefs and character, what they know about job, tasks, and human nature, and what they do to implement, motivate, and provide directions. Managers may manage tasks. Leaders can lead people. Respected managers have subordinates and leaders have followers. Managers are those people who do things right. Leaders are those people who do the right thing. Leadership style is the style in which manner and approach for providing directions, implementing plans, and motivating people. Leaders may vary their styles. A Leader is not strict on one style. Mostly leaders may use multiple styles to control their followers one (Golema, 2002) [9] . True leadership starts when it does an impact on the followers. Every counseling leader makes the assumption that there is individuality about individual’s skills, and that some may beat the leaders in convinced areas. Ideas are encourage able and shareable, and decisions that reflects the collective intelligence of the team members. The leader consults with their followers and smooths the system for them to do a superior job. Where a manager may give a sense of self-belief in the leader, the counseling leader gives all the team members a sense of self-belief in themselves. By installing this confidence in their work, the counseling leader set the point for what is known as “maintenance behavior,” the ability to keep things affecting on keel. In this regard, the leader may become a valuable person for the company who has ability to develop internal concord (Golema, 2002)9. The formula for a success leader is really very simple: The more leadership styles are adopted more you are able to master, so you will become the superior leader. The ability to replace between styles as situation demands wills superior the result and workplace climate. Goleman’s research exposed four more leadership styles that leaders were able to master – the affinitive, democratic, coaching, and authoritative styles – frequently provide better performance from their followers and a healthy climate in which they are working (Golema, 2002)9. Application to case study The hospital is a multipart organization, aimed to attain the patient care fulfillment. This organization is totally different from other organizations like cotton industry, toys or car production industry, all the principles of management are appropriate in the hospital atmosphere. Hospitals are labor concentrated organizations and engage a large number of professionals, who are working in a “life and death activity”, leadership is one of the areas which attach a lot of importance in the hospital management. In the hospital various types of people come across, like hospital employees, patients and the visitors. The scope is more or limited to the hospital employees. (McMahon, 1980)7. As already discussed hospital is a multipart organization aimed with various types of actions performed by different groups of employees ranging from unskilled to highly skilled and professional. Mainly the hospital employees can be divided into three groups. Medical (Professionals). Non-medical. Nursing and paramedical. Professional employees: This group consists of doctors, specialists and super specialists who are highly qualified and highly skilled workers. Even though money and materials may provoke some of them but on the whole they are provoked only after their psychological needs are met with. Their psychological needs can be met when they are participating in the decision making. As a result, they feel intelligence of belonging and achieve acclaim as well (Golema, 2002)9. Nursing and paramedical employees: This group consists of technical and semiskilled workers lower than the professional group. Primarily they require job structuring by oppressive way of leadership, they obtain so much proficiency that direction and willpower takes higher priority in motivating them and they become an important part of the unrestricted leadership (Golema, 2002)9. Non-Medical employees: This group consists of unskilled workers with very low education and very low financial status. Their inspiration comes by meeting their basic and security requirements. Simply by money and material benefits can satisfy this type of group. Since their requirements are very limited and need job security, the oppressive style of leadership is the improved way to control them (Golema, 2002)9. There are two types of situations in hospital industry. Normal situation Crisis situation Normal situation: Throughout normal situation professional, nursing and paramedical groups of workers are controlled with the democratic type of leadership. Even the hospital disaster plan can be discussed and customized according to the past experiences. The non-medical group of employees can be governed by the autocratic style of leadership even throughout the normal situations. Crisis situation: The comparatively sudden and wide spread trouble of the social system and the life of group of people by some agent or occurrence of large amount of admissions of patients and lead to the crisis situation in the hospital. Hospital disaster plan is activated in this situation and demands autocratic style of leadership (Golema, 2002)9. For achieving optimal leadership style the leader has to modify his working style according to the needs. In ancient days leadership was considered to be the natural feature and used to lead in the particular families. Due to availability of better management tools and development of the scientific knowledge, now leadership basically involves in motivating the staff and appliance of communication skills (Golema, 2002)9. Operative leadership is an essential need for higher utilization of insufficient hospital resources and higher superiority of medical care. It has already been discussed that democratic style is more appropriate for the normal situations for highly qualified and highly professional group, whereas crisis situations can be managed by way of autocratic style of leadership. The autocratic style of leadership can control the non- medical group effectively. The hospital administrator should have competency in all the styles of leadership and should select the one according to the situation (McMahon, 1980)7. Q6. Critically review the concept ‘informal organization’ and illustrate how it may apply to the case study. Concept of ‘informal organization’ The nature of organizational structure has changed over many decades. The major trend of organizational has been from mechanistic structures, hierarchies, functional specializations and management controls, to organic structures, characterized by team working, empowerment and flexibility. Organizational design reflects the systems that consider both hard and soft components, i.e. elements, association between elements, and relations as a whole to form one unit. Therefore, mechanistic and organic structures acquire different characteristics, namely: mechanistic structures emphasize the hard component of systems with minute consideration paid to the soft component; while organic structures mainly expand the soft component (that is the ‘informal structure’) relating to the interaction between the soft and hard components for the creation of organizational capability. This conceptual term paper embraces systems opinion, elaborating on the changing importance of elements within different types of organizational structure. In addition to the importance of managing the ‘informal structure’ for the goal of organizational success within the facts economy (Kotter 1990) [10] ! Informal structure is essential for organizational behavior, but, unlike formal structure, is not illustrated in the organizational chart. On the other hand, formal organizational structure can be unreliable, as many organizational activities, which symbolize the real vigor, may be undertake outside the framework of formal organizational structure; and people, who control the real future, may be well hidden beneath of the organizational chart (Roberts, 2004) [11] . Therefore, formal institutions have been analyzed and evaluated separately of informal institutions. The converse is also true: the informal institutions have largely distant from the importance of formal institutions, often viewing them as functional substitute. Some of the scholars feels that is not adequately look at the relations between formal and in-formal organizational / institutions. We challenge in somehow towards failure to amalgamate of all these concepts into a common theory has led to imperfect reasoning and considerable weakness in theories of economic organization. In this essay we analysis the both informal and formal institutions of economic organization into the most fundamental predictions of NIE. The formal and informal organization structure Organizations have a formal structure which is organized by the responsibility for managing the organization. They create the formal structures to enable the organization to meet its affirmed objectives (Weick, 2001) [12] . Frequently these formal structures will be set out in the form of organizational charts. However, an informal structure develops day-to-day interactions between the members of the organization in most organizations. This informal structure may be different from set out on paper. Informal structures develop because: Informal structures are easier to work on it. patterns of interaction are formed by friendship groups and other relationships people does not like to work on formal structures people find new ways for doing things in easier way and save the time Many times the unofficial structure might be conflict with the formal or official one. It can be noted that where these case the organization might become less efficient towards meeting its stated objectives. In spite of this, in some cases the informal or unofficial structure might ascertain to become more efficient while meeting organizational aim because the formal organizational structure might be set out very badly. It is supposed that managers require learning to work with both formal and informal structures. It may be a flexible manager who may feel fundamentals of the in-formal organizational structure that might be formalized for sake of understanding by accommodation the formal organization structure to fits in developments that may results from daily working of the in-formal structure. All of the organizations that appear in the Times 100 will have some form of formal structure which is usually set out in organization charts. As the managers foster these in-formal teams and mould all of them in-to the formal organization which can lead to high intensity of motivation for the staff concerned. However, these organizations also benefit from informal structures based on friendship groups. By analyzing how the informal and formal organizations might be complementary, balanced and integrated, the requirements of an organization become clear and practical solutions present themselves. On the other hand a formal process makes sure that particular works that might be efficient and primary informal set up that can be organize individuals quickly as well as effectively towards put an end to issues that might not be addressed in system itself. On the other hand proper performance bonus may inspire top sales people and gives pride in better negotiation behaviors that might inspire the larger group of low or middle performers (Watson, 1986) [13] . Application of ‘informal organization’ to case study Few hospital trusts and health authorities steadily do better than others on different paths towards performance. In this case study of ATH, there are some proof related to management matters, however the combination of individual clinicians and teams. In this case it is found that the link between the organization and management of services as well as quality of patient care can be criticized theoretically and methodologically (Miles, 1978) [14] . A larger and debatably more precise body of work presents on the performance of hospital in the private sector, often conducted within the disciplines of organizational behavior or human resource management. Some studies in these traditions have towards the decentralization and participation as well as innovative work rehearsal on outcome of variables which may include job satisfaction, good feeling and performance. The main objective is to identify a number of reviews and research traditions that might bring new and innovative ideas into future work towards finding out hospital performance. This may be the case where preferably furthere research might be more theoretically in-formed which may use parallel rather than horizontal designs. The use of some statistical methods and techniques which include multilevel modeling that allow for the inclusion of variables towards various levels of analysis that would enable rough estimation of separate involvement that structure, process make to hospital outcomes. (McMahon, 1980)7 For a medium sized hospital as ATH, it might not be sure why, but over the last few years it was found it more and more difficult to be effective people management in the traditional ways. It was almost as if ATH management spent all of their time trying to swim upstream. Things that used to be obvious and easy became difficult however ATH management couldn’t understand why. This problem unfortunately is a fairly common problem within same companies or hospitals. ATH management failed to understand and manage the informal organization structure within these functional teams. As this can be a fatal flaw to all managers which may include senior ones! All company in generally having two organization structures, the first one is called formal structure. This is the one everyone talks about. It can be seen on official organization charts. It shows who reports to whom, who is responsible for what and how everyone is supposed to communicate with each other. But then there’s another organization that few talk about but is at least equally important (Clarke, 1998) [15] . It’s the informal organization within the company. It’s the structure which can be following when the management/ authorities like ATH management don’t have the time to do it the right way. It’s based on who knows what, who gets things done, who has influence and power, who must agree before an idea can be effectively implemented. Formal structures are the way a hospital wants things to work. Informal structures describe the way they really work. (McMahon, 1980)7. Efficient and effective companies recognize this and management makes sure they are never very far apart. They understand that if they are too far apart for too long something is going to break. The problem is that it is difficult to predict what will break. In this case it is found that there is problem that ATH management failed to include and listen to other key executives, some of whom management thought had nothing to do with what he was changing, as he moved forward with an important series of initiatives (Evans, 2000) [16] . There are two lessons to be learned from ATH management experience. The first is rather obvious, every manager and employee should understand that informal structures exist in companies, that they are not much bad and must be understand and used as required appropriately. It is found that Ignoring all of them is done at ATH management own risk. Similarly another lesson which seems more fundamental (Mintzberg, 1993) [17] ! ATH management need to periodically look at how things are done, how they are organ

Recruitment and Selection Strategies in HRM

essay help online Strategies are made according to objectives of an organization. These are set of activities towards objectives. Corporate objectives These are the statement of intent that basically provides a firm direction for the activities an organization performs in the pursuit of its mission. Usually in organizations there is confusion and overlapping between the terms, objectives and the company goals. This confusion is easy o solve only if the company tends to think of the objectives as a statement of intents and the goals as the quantifiable targets. Sales Strategies Sales strategy can be defined as the planned approach to the account management policy formation, prospect identification and qualification, sales presentation, and order generation aimed at achieving a firm’s sales quotas or targets. Following are sales strategy Objectives: Helps in improving client loyalty Increases the closeting ratio by knowing clients hot buttons Helps in shorting the sales cycle with outside recommendations. Proper sales strategy helps in offering best solutions to outsell the competitors Helps in targeting and penetrating the most promising and profitable sectors and markets Helps in refining and maximizing the competitive advantage and product differentiation to increase the market margin and share. Helps in establishing a specific plan to strengthen and enhance the lead generation source: (Businessdictionary) P-9: Devise appropriate recruitment and selection procedures. Recruitment: It is the process of attracting, screening and selection qualified people for the Job. Selection process: Screening Applicants Read all applications submitted. The selection of the top candidates for interviewing must be based on the Job Description and specifications. New criteria cannot be introduced to assess the candidates at this stage as it would be unfair. It is the responsibility of the persons conducting the interviews to complete the short-listing and to ensure the process remains free of unlawful discrimination. If a committee is used, the entire committee should agree on the short list. If a committee is not used, it is desirable that a second person also participate in the short-listing process. The criteria used to select the top candidates and all appropriate notes must be returned to Human Resources and Employee Development for filing and are retained for a period of 6 months. It is good practice that all employees that apply for a position within their department be interviewed. Former employees who have been dismissed for misconduct cannot be considered for appointment. Former employees who have since retired must meet certain qualifications due to their retirement status. If there is a question about whether an applicant can or cannot be considered contact Human Resources and Employee Development. Arranging the Interview The persons responsible for the interviews is responsible for scheduling dates and times for interviews directly with the short listed candidates and notifying the candidates of any selection tests that will be used. Federal law prohibits certain questions in an employment interview and the application for employment has been developed to comply with Federal guidelines. Examples of such illegal questions might refer to the applicant’s age, disability, religion, ages of children, etc. Interviewing guidelines are provided to the employing department upon referral of applications. To assure consistent treatment of each applicant, a patterned interview might be developed by the department. Such might include specific questions of job related functions, skills required, and how the applicant’s educational background, previous experience, etc. might be useful in the position if selected for employment. The Interview The purpose of interviewing is to appoint the best person for the job based solely on merit and suitability. The Valdosta State University recruitment and selection process achieves this using methods that are systematic, thorough, fair, unbiased and based on rational, objective, job related criteria. At the interview, each candidate should be treated consistently. To achieve this the panel should: Ask the same initial questions of each candidate Supplement their understanding of the candidate’s responses by following up questions as appropriate Be consistent in allowing access to presentation material, notes and so on Not allow any discriminatory questions, harassment, or any other conduct which breaches the equal opportunities policy or code of conduct Ensure that in the case of disabled candidates, the necessity for any ‘reasonable adjustments’ that would be required on the job are explored in a positive manner. Assessment of disabled candidates should be based on their expected performance in the job, given that any reasonable adjustment required was provided. Keep in mind that information obtained throughout the selection process is treated as confidential and is known only to parties involved in the selection process Keep records of interviews and the reasons for decisions – each question should receive a grade, and a grade for overall impression. The candidates will be ranked from highest to lowest based on the scores given and the position negotiated or offered to the highest ranking candidate. The scoring sheets and all documentation of the interviews must be given to Human Resources and Employee Development for filing Panel members must be aware that it is their responsibility to ensure recruitment/interview documentation is stored securely and confidentially whilst in their possession. Selection Tests Where selection tests are a valid method of assessing a candidate (i.e. effectively measures the job criteria, is relevant, reliable, fair and unbiased – also considering the predictive capacities of tests), they are an extremely useful tool and are recommended for use. Supervisors should seek advice from Human Resources and Employee Development on the use of such tests. Hiring Decision In selecting the successful candidate, the panel must make a decision based on the merit and eligibility of the candidates as judged by: Content of application and qualifications Performance at Interview Outcome of any selection tests Reference Checks As part of assessing the merit of each candidate, persons selecting candidates must satisfy themselves that the information the candidate gives is authentic, consistent and honest. This includes being satisfied about information regarding the candidate’s: application — work history qualifications (where a qualification is a requirement, supporting evidence or certification must be obtained from the candidate and recorded) evidence presented at interview Reference checks; references must be called and information recorded for the file a) Identify yourself immediately, explain your position within the organization and tell the person why you are calling about the applicant. b) Ensure confidentiality c) Ask if he or she is free to discuss the situation d) Try to establish rapport e) Tell the person the position the candidate is being considered for f) Let the person talk feely g) Ask the references the same questions for each of your candidates h) Always end the call with: would you rehire this person?” Should any of these not meet the required standards, Human Resources and Employee Development must discuss the issue with the Supervisor/Director. Use the Employment Reference Check and Education Verification form located in Appendix 10 and Appendix 11. Criminal Background Checks. In an effort to provide a safe and secure workplace, to comply with Board of Regents Policy and to minimize the potential litigation associated with “negligent hiring processes,” Valdosta State University will require background checks on the top two candidates for the position. Employment shall be conditioned upon the execution of a consent form for criminal record disclosure and upon consideration of one’s criminal history. The Valdosta State University Police Department, upon receipt of the Consent to Criminal History Release Form, shall conduct the background check and report results to the Department of Human Resources. The department will notify the applicants whose criminal history report prevents their employment. The applicant can be referred to Human Resources and Employee Development if they have questions on the process The applicant is allowed seven calendar days to initiate corrective action of any inaccurate report. Proof of an error in reporting shall not disqualify the applicant and the position will not be filled until this time period has expired. If no action is initiated, and if the report is factual, the hiring department may resume the employment process. P-10: Evaluate the role of motivation, remuneration and training in enhancing sales performance. Role of Motivation in sales performance. Whether you are a sales person or someone in a position who manages sales people, you need to know the importance of motivation. Although many it would be great to just hire self motivated people who don’t need any help from you to take action and make sales, you need to realize that sales is a tough job and that there are people who can really become great at it with some encouragement. Being in sales can either pay you very well or can make you go broke. The better you are at sales, the more money you will make. So where does motivation come into play? Well, the main reason that most people don’t like sales is because of having to deal with rejection. No one likes to be rejected but if you’re in a sale, that’s all part of the game. The more rejections you get, the closer to a sale you will be. Now just because you expect your sales people or yourself to go out there and make those sales calls like a machine, it doesn’t mean motivation should be neglected. If you are a sales person, take the time to read and listen to motivation material. By doing this, you will constantly be feeding your mind with positive and encouraging thoughts that will help you get through those days where everyone prospect seems to be in a bad mood. For sales managers, providing your team with motivation is critical. Just look in the world of sports. Those athletes are the best in the world at what they do yet when they are losing and feeling discouraged, a simple pep talk from their coach can fire them up to the point to turn the game around. This same thing can be used on your sales people to help them see more of themselves instead of beating themselves up mentality for not making as many sales. Motivation is important because it causes people to take action. Without action, nothing happens. The key to achieve any goal is to take action. The more action you take, the closer to your goals you will be. In order to continually take action, you will need to come up with ways to motivate yourself to do what you need to do everyday in order to reach those goals. So whether you need to motivate yourself or your team, motivation plays an extremely important role in building success. Source (Wikipedia) Role of Remuneration in Sales Performance Remuneration is wages or salary, typically money that is paid for services rendered as an employee. How do you decide what remuneration packages to adopt? How do you ensure that your Remuneration packages incentives and motivate the right people? How do you make sure that the amount of pay helps your staff with their lifestyle requirements? These questions are vital ones to anybody trying to run a sales team or customer service team, when you have a look at how you can actually reward personal effort as well as maintain service. In looking at any remuneration package, it’s worthwhile to consider a set of scales. In any job description, there is an opportunity to analyze the work required into service aspects whereby these things have to be done to maintain the client, or maintain the client relationship, such as receiving orders, implementing orders, handling queries, general items of customer service, and also perhaps even merchandising or helping with displays, as well as ensuring that stock levels are adequate, these can be called service areas or service responsibilities. On the other hand, a sales person or customer service representative could influence the value of the sale through their personal sales skills, personality, and training, to either make the sale happen, add value to the sale, or sell some specific items that are on special or on bonus, at the point of communication, either by phone, by web, or face-to-face. This particular activity is known as personal contribution. A relatively easy formula to follow is by adopting the scales of remuneration, you can then analyze the input from the people involved. If there is high service requirements and service levels in the performance of the job, and little opportunity to add personal influence, then a wages or base salary system will be the most cost efficient to make the results work. If there is a high personal input, whereby the sales person can strongly influence the amount of the sale or the profitability of the sale, then you can reward that personal effort by special commissions, share of profits, special incentives, and special rewards, for the sales as they occur after the event, and lessen the base salary or wages that need to be paid by increasing the risk factor, which of course the personal touch will overcome. Role of Training in Sales Performance The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize today [update] the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Source (Wikipedia) P-11: Describe two techniques used to co-ordinate and control sales output. Sales out put control Outputs can be triggered manually or automatically in the sales document. Automatic determination requires maintenance of output condition record. Print programs and layout sets control content which Should be displayed in the output. controls output determination using condition Technique. Output determination procedure is determined on the basis of sales document type (sales order type, delivery type, billing type). Standard output determination procedure for sales order (OR), Delivery (LF) and Billing (F2) is V100000. Output procedure contains output types, which can be processed when that sales document is created. One document can have Output types like Delivery note and Packing list in delivery. Output controls Medium (Like Print, Fax, EDI) Time of sending the output -e.g. immediately or in a batch Which partner function of Business partner it can be sent Language Criteria for which output condition record can be maintained for automatic output determination It offers flexibility of changing the key controls in the Sales documents. Example – If order confirmation for a customer is scheduled to be printed in a batch but the customer wants it immediately then time of dispatch control can be changed in the sales order. P-12: Use given information to recommend appropriate organization structures and procedures. Team One of the newest organizational structures developed in the 20th century is team. In small businesses, the team structure can define the entire organization. Teams can be both horizontal and vertical. While an organization is constituted as a set of people who synergize individual competencies to achieve newer dimensions, the quality of organizational structure revolves around the competencies of teams in totality. For example, every one of the Whole Foods Market stores, the largest natural-foods grocer in the US developing a focused strategy, is an autonomous profit centre composed of an average of 10 self-managed teams, while team leaders in each store and each region are also a team. Larger bureaucratic organizations can benefit from the flexibility of teams as well. Functional structure Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible. As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost. Coordination and specialization of tasks are centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable. Moreover, efficiencies can further be realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are sold and distributed quickly and at low cost .For instance, a small business could start making the components it requires for production of its products instead of procuring it from an external organization. But not only beneficial for organization but also for employees faiths. P-13: Identify and give three examples of the differences in the nature of sales tasks and skills in a variety of context. Sales Skills Effective communication Ability to listen Ask revelent questions Problem solver Well-organized Self starter and self finisher Positive self image. Well mannered and courteous Naturally Persuasive Person of Integrity Sales Task Specified amount of sales that a management sets for achieving or exceeding within a specified timeframe, and allocates required resources. Sales targets are apportioned among different sales-units such as salespersons, franchisees, distributors, agents, etc. Three Types of Sales Task Personal Sales Task A salesman of Jazz has to sell 100 connections/Sims per week Team Sales Task Peshawar region has to sellout 2000 connections in a month Organizational Sales Task Ufone has to cover 5 cities per year. P-14: Explain the role of sales staff operating in an international environment. International sales staff have very important role in an organization. To improve firms image To improve brand image Bring International talent to domestic market Bring new Ideas and knowledge Create good relationship between nations To integrate the different cultures Brining International harmony while working with different people of the world Bringing new skills and talents With all above international sales staff is the sign of Globalization. P-15: Explain the purpose of trade fairs and evaluate their contributions. Trade fair A trade fair (trade show or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities. In contrast to consumer fairs, only some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives (members of the trade, e.g. professionals) and members of the press, therefore trade shows are classified as either “Public” or “Trade Only”. Purpose of Trade Fairs Generating sales leads Generating actual sales at the show Enhancing your image and visibility Reaching a specific audience Establishing a presence in the marketplace Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of your marketing efforts Personally meeting your customers, competitors and suppliers Prospecting for new customers Introducing new products and services Demonstrating your product in ways not possible using other marketing channels Recruiting distributors or dealers Educating your target audience. Contribution of trade fairs to Firms Establish meaningful goals, masterfully plan your strategy, and measure your return on investment. Implement powerful marketing initiatives before, during, and after the event that engage potential buyers and generate sales. Choose the best exhibit display booth that meets your marketing needs and budgetary requirements. This includes evaluating different sizes, designs, and configurations of trade show displays. Identify the most effective graphic elements for your exhibit that portray your key messages and fulfill your brand communications needs. This includes establishing design parameters for banners, custom exhibition stands, brochures, and other materials. Learn about unique and appealing booth ideas that create buzz on the exhibition floor and attract visitors to your trade show display area. Effectively use exhibit accessories, signage and lighting techniques to heighten visibility. This includes selecting quality booth materials, high-impact portable display boards and booth fixtures that support your brand positioning. Select cost-effective giveaways and promotional products that have high-perceived value among your target prospects and complement your company image. Ensure team members who are staffing your booth project a professional appearance and are well-trained to represent your company, generate leads, and secure sales. source: (Businessdictionary) M-4: Evaluate the recruitment and selection procedure of the selected organization. Recruitment at Ufone Before recruiting a new employee, management checks whether there is a need to hire a new employee for that particular job or whether it can be incorporated into an existing employees job. Recruitment in Ufone may be of internal or external nature. Internal Recruitment In the case of internal recruitment people from within the organization are promoted to fill the vacant vacancy. The HR department and the relevant department in which the vacancy exists, analyze whether there an employee within the organization exists, who most appropriately meets the requirements of the particular vacancy. If more then one employee is eligible for the vacancy; then that employee is chosen who has the most outstanding record. After the promotion the employee may be sent for further training. The effect of internal vacancy is that it motivates the employee to perform their best and produce maximum output. It also creates a healthy competition amongst the employees. The hiring from within may have a trickle down effect i.e. the opportunities spring not just from the first vacancy but from the vacancy created when a person in the company fills that vacancy. External Recruitment If the organization feels that none of their current employees can fill out the new vacancy then they hire from external sources. In this case the human resource management considers other departments in the organization that might be interested in the appointment in order to make it a joint effort. They talk to relevant supervisors and especially to the people the new person will work with. A set of expert panelists is then selected from each relevant department to interview applicants Direct Applicants Ufone maintains a data base system i.e. HRMS (Human resource management system) for its internal employees as well as the employees which they will recruit in near future. In some case certain some people just drop their CV’s at the head office. And whenever there is an opening or a vacancy occurs, the organization may call them for an interview. Referrals By advertising a post internally Ufone gains an added benefit, which is; the current employees may pass the information on to any interested friends and relations. Word of mouth is also a valuable recruitment method for them and they draw on all appropriate contacts they have Advertisements Since most of the posts are of a specialist nature, they intend on advertising in the journals of professional bodies and the trade press. Their next step is to find out how much adverts cost for varying amount of space and decide what they can afford. The HR management has hired the services of Interflow, an advertising agency, to propagate their service and company for them. They are also using the services of a web designer, Eveready media, to post the advertisement of the company on the Internet. Private Employment Agency The private Recruiting agencies collect information from unemployed as well as employed people about their skills and experiences. These agencies attempt to find some one suitable using its computerized inventory database of suitable individuals. These agencies charge Ufone for the referrals. Through Vendors (Outsourcing) Ufone also do outsourcing for the purpose of recruitment they hire firm, which will provide employee Ufone to work in the organization, but the employee will remain employee of that firm not Ufone, and this is the most common method followed by most of organization these days. Lower management at Ufone is comes through outsourcing. Electronic Recruiting The growth of information superhighway has opened up new vistas for organizations trying to recruit talent. Ufone is make full fledge use of this new technology, and it uses its own web page to advertise for new job openings. Another aspect of the electronic recruiting is that individuals don’t have to physically go to the head office to drop their CV’s. They now can simply use the e-CV format provided by Ufone on its home page. The e-CV is then transferred to the relevant database or the HR department. Recruitment Procedure The HR management decides on the length of the short-list, which includes five or six people at the most. Following the advert they need help to sift through the applications. Everything is computerized and on-line which makes it easier to handle large numbers of replies. In case they run short of time, they get the help of other staff, supervisors and managers in the organization. Apart from the question of time, they do this to get second opinions. They look out for the following when reading an application: How well-matched is the candidate to the requirements Any unexplained employment gaps The quality of presentation How tailored the reply is to the particular job and Ufone as an organization. Replying To Candidates The candidates that do not match the job are contacted as quickly as possible and dealt with courteously since the HR management believes in the philosophy that these people, and their relatives and friends, may be future customers or acquaintances of potential, future applicants. Those that match the job are called over to undertake an on-line evaluation test. Scheduling Interview The candidates that pass the on-line evaluation test are then called for interviews. A date and a time are arranged and the candidate appears for the interview. The questions of this interview are designed especially for gauging the personality and ability of the candidate. Screening Process The results are screened by a set of panelists in order to minimize chances of error in selecting the candidates. The HR management sometimes keeps a small number of candidates in reserve. M-5 : Highlight the motivating factors being used by the selected organization also determine the remuneration and training programs used by the organization for enhancing sales performance. Training at Ufone Training

Health Sciences homework help

Health Sciences homework help. This is an assignment that focuses on the importance of community health nursing concepts and principles. The paper also discusses the impact of social determinants of health.,Importance of community health nursing concepts and principles,Aim:, The aim of this assignment is for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of important community health nursing concepts and principles, including: analysing community data, the impact of ,social determinants of health,, identifying vulnerable community groups, identifying health problems/needs and relevant evidence-based health promotion interventions/programs to address those needs., This written assignment addresses all three of the course learning outcomes., Instructions:, There are two parts to this assessment item: Part A and Part B.,Part A: (150 words), Firstly, create and populate a table (Use the Appendix A: Assignment /Table 1 guide provided below): a) Analyse Appendix B: Community Data for Analysis table. Consider the social determinants of health and note any differences between the Inala data compared to state and national data. b) Based on your analysis, choose three (3) data categories and identify one (1) row of data for each (Choose data that are known determinants of health and that are often associated with each other). c) In Column a) name the category and the row of data chosen, e.g. ‘People’, ‘male’,d) In Column b) provide a summary statement that compares the Inala data to state and national data, including percentages/median where relevant e) In Column c) based on your understanding of social determinants of health, provide a brief statement (inference) as to how these differences might suggest health problems in the community.,Importance of community health nursing concepts and principles,Part B: (1050 words), Secondly, write an essay in which you address the following points: 1. Briefly introduce the community and outline topics covered in the essay (75 words) 2. Based on the data you selected for Table 1 in Part A, discuss how each of these three social determinants impact health. (300 words) 3. Based on your response to dot point 2, link these 3 social determinants to identify a vulnerable sub- group in the community that is likely to have health issues/unmet health needs. (50 words) e.g. Males, aged over 75 years, living alone 4. With reference to relevant literature identify and also discuss one important health problem/need relevant to this vulnerable cohort. (250 words) 5. With reference to relevant literature:,a) identify and describe one existing evidence-based community health promotion intervention/program designed to address this health problem/need in the vulnerable group, b) describe the intervention/program components (content of the program) and delivery method (when, where, how, who delivered it), and c) explain how the intervention/program effectiveness was evaluated. (300 words for section 5) 6. Briefly summarise topics covered in the essay and also conclude. (75 words), Important tips:, In Part A, try to choose 3 social determinants that relate to each other. In Part B, make clear links with the data selected and discussed in Part A. Ensure that all your answers relate specifically to this community/vulnerable group, and the data provided,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Health Sciences homework help

Financial Evaluation of Alternatives for City Hotel Limited Coursework

Table of Contents Introduction Outline of options Yamamadori room price reduction recommendation Summary of results Discussion of results Discussion of sensitivity test and risk assessment Recommendations References Introduction The management of the City Hotel Limited seeks to evaluate various alternative options that are recommended with an aim of improving performance. The company has faced a drop in performance since its inception. This can be attributed to the competition and deterioration of the condition of the rooms. The options proposed by the management seek to increase the occupancy of the room and conditions of the room. Three options have been proposed by the management. The paper seeks to analyze the viability of these options. Various financial analysis tools and techniques for evaluating projects will be used (Powell