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Caribbean Intern Cafe Date: November 14, 2012 1. There are many issues that Mr. Grant should consider before proceeding with the CIC. There are several things that Mr. Grant should examine before even looking at the projections given to him. Total capital is $2,250,000, $1,000,000 in investments and $1,250,000 in the form of a long-term loan. $1,573,000 is immediately spent leaving $677,000. If he has no customers, he can afford to remain open for 3 months.

As well, they are not attractive to individuals who seek to use the Internet for longer periods of time and the customer base that they are attempting to attract is the more affluent and educated of the population. They are also the most likely to either already own a computer or will be purchasing a computer in the near future. Mr. Grant must have a business plan that is either for the short-term or able to readily adapt to future circumstances as he expects private usage to increase in 3 years. Mr. Grant should also examine factors external to his business.

These issues include his mention of the relatively low demand for coffee in Jamaica as well as changes in levels of private Internet usage. His management plan should include contingencies to replace coffee if it is not making a profit as well as plans for the computer area when future demands for Internet cafe’s start to decrease. A final issue that Mr. Grant should also examine is the terms of agreement for the long-term loan. If CIC is very profitable they may want to pay off the loan as quickly as possible instead of incurring unnecessary interest. 2.

The fixed costs remain constant within a relative range of finished products produced. The fixed costs amount to an annual rate of $2,479,400 and the break down of each fixed cost is shown in Appendix 1. The fixed costs include the manager, employees, rent, telephone and utilities, link to Internet, insurance, advertising, interest on loan and miscellaneous administration and maintenance fees. The start up costs amount to a one-time fee of $1,573,000 and the breakdown of each cost is shown in Appendix 2. It should be noted that in all cases start-up costs were amortized in the first ear. The variable costs are those that are accrued on a per customer basis and are shown in Appendix 3. This amounts to a weighted average Variable Cost of $104 per customer. 3. The costs of the first customer may be calculated by adding the fixed costs, start-up costs and variable costs for the first customer. The variable cost was calculated using a weighted average of based on the estimated usage of the Internet. Assuming that the fixed costs are calculated on an annual basis and are set for the entire year then the cost for the first customer will be $4,052,504. . The contribution margin may be calculated for each customer as: C/M = R – VC. A weighted average was used because it is estimated that 40% of the customers will use the computer thereby increasing variable profit by $60 ($120 revenue, $60 variable cost). A breakdown of the variable costs and revenue are shown in Appendix 4. The contribution margin is $144 per customer. 5. In order for the CIC to break even they must cover their fixed costs, variable costs and start-up costs. This can be solved using the formula: B/E Pt. (Fixed cost + Start-up cost) / contribution margin B/E Pt. = (2479400 + 1,573,000) / 144 B/E Pt. = 28,142 Therefore, they will need to have 28,142 customers that at minimum meet their average consumption expectations of computer usage, food and beverages in order to reach their break even point in the first year. 6. Using the same formula as question 5, except that there are no longer any start-up costs but fixed costs ($2479400) and contribution margin ($144) remain the same so Mr. Grant will require 17,219 customers in order to reach his break-even point for the second year. . Based on the projected given to him we can calculated the expected contribution from each scenario (Table 1). Scenario| Customers| Net Contribution (Revenue–Variable costs)| Optimistic| 50000| $7,200,000| Realistic| 24,000| $3,456,000| Pessimistic| 12,000| $1,728,000| As Internet usage becomes more common competition will increase and his business plan will most likely have to be reviewed. Therefore, in the first three years Mr. Grant should expect to make a significant profit in these years for the project to be worthwhile.

Projected net profits (losses) for each scenario are shown in Table 2. Scenario| Year 1 ($)| Year 2 ($)| Year 3 ($)| Total ($)| Optimistic| 3,147,600| 4,720,600| 4,720,600| 12,588,800| Realistic| (596,400)| 976,600| 976,600| 1,356,800| Pessimistic| (2,324,400)| (751,400)| (751,400)| (3,827,200)| Table 2 shows the net profit (loss) for the first 3 years based on each scenario. All start-up costs are paid for in full in the first year only. Based on this these scenarios Mr. Grant would have a very difficult decision to make.

Firstly, the net profit does not take into account the $500,000 investments that were made by both Mr. Grant and JTL. Secondly, the terms of the long-term loan are not made clear nor did the negotiations include an amortization schedule. As well, a long-term plan has not been made based on expected increases in private Internet usage. Finally, the probability of each scenario being realized is a very important tool to determine the expected value of Mr. Grant’s decision. If each scenario is equally likely to occur than Mr.

Grant will have an expected profit of $3,372,800. 01. Although simplistic, we can determine that the CIC has made an expected $1,122,800 in three years if the loan is fully paid off years and all investments are recuperated. If the CIC were to then dissolve, each investor would make a profit of $561,400 a return on investment rate of 28. 52% compounded annually as well as revenue generated from sale of capital (excluded from further analysis for simplicities sake). In conclusion, based on the information available, unless Mr. Grant can find another investment hat will provide a greater return on investment than 28. 52% compounded annually for the next 3 years, he should give the CIC the green light. Appendices Appendix 1: Fixed Costs Expense| Cost per year ($)| Manager| 480000| Rent| 360000| Telephone and utilities| 180000| Link to internet| 120000| Insurance| 120000| Advertising| 120000| Employee Wage| 374400| Misc. admin and maintenance| 600000| Interest on loan| 125000| Total| 2479400| Appendix 2: Start-up Costs Expense| Cost ($)| Telephone and utilities| 7,000| Advertising| 20,000| Other up-front costs| 120,000|

Equipment costs| 1,426,000| Total| 1,573,000| Appendix 3: Variable Costs Expense| Cost ($ per customer)| Food| 50| Beverages| 30| Internet Usage| 60| Total Average Variable Cost*| 104| *Calculated using a weighted average based on the assumption that 40% of customers will use the Internet for 1 hour Appendix 4: Variable Revenue Revenue| Revenue ($ per customer)| Food| 60| Beverages| 140| Internet Usage| 120| Total Average Variable Revenue*| 248| | | *Calculated using a weighted average based on the assumption that 40% of customers will use the Internet for 1 hour.

Pharmacology – Lack of New Antibiotics

Pharmacology – Lack of New Antibiotics.

This assignment is an opportunity to explore a particular issue of interest to you. You will write a paper on a pharmacological issue that relates to this topic. Its purpose is to assess your understanding and demonstrate your practical application of the pharmacological process that occurs in nursing.

The essay topic is the lack of new antibiotic. The topics covered for any given drug must include Drug facts, side effects, why they are given (its purpose), to whom they are given to, indications and counter-indications, what care should be exercised for any given patient – are there age considerations, pregnant, on other types of medication, and any other considerations. Please do it in APA format with 5 references. Paper should include: Introduction and definition of topic and issues related, description of the normal process associated with this topic with an emphasis on pharmacology, Explanation of the controversy related to the topic. Description of possible solutions. Identification of health care workers role in the solution and a summary. Topic – Lack of new antibiotics

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