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Care Planning in Geriatrics

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp INTRODUCTION It is always best to provide an intervention to every issue that is seen. In relation to the common Geriatric problems, there are different approaches in the planning of care depending on the needs of every individual. Personalized care is being promoted and executed to further and better assist every individual who goes through such kinds of condition. In the planning of care for the Geriatric patients, there are two kinds of approaches. These two are the Person Centered Approach and the Non-Person Centered Approach. The Person Centered Approach focuses on the basis of individuality regardless of the persons’ cognitive status, age, race and even gender. In this approach, every elder is subject to the care they need and what is due to them. The healthcare provider in this case should thoroughly identify and gather data to ensure that proper treatment and therapeutic approaches are being executed. What I best int his approach is that, there is no standard criteria for someone with a geriatric condition to be able to fit in. This is basically open to those who need it. On the other hand, the Non-Person Centered Approach has different goals and perspective. They focus on something in general rather than the person as a whole. Their intention is to help alleviate the condition of those elders with Geriatric problems, However, their approach is not directly on the elders. Rather, it depends on the mission and vision of their agency. Aside from the different approaches in handling Geriatric problems, there are principles that Healthcare providers must observe. The importance of these principles and the impact it can create in the development of the elders with geriatric problems. In this research, techniques and abilities will also be discussed. The different kinds of techniques that can be used to benefit the elders will be elaborated. This will gain advantage on both the Healthcare provider and the elders. Considering the equality and Cultural aspects of the community, this will surely make an impact to elders with Dementia or other common Geriatric problems. Because this can create an impact on the lives of these elders, it is best to be aware of such things. TASK There are different principles involved in the person-centered approach for elders with Dementia and other common Geriatric conditions. These principles will aid every individual that is involved in the management of such conditions. Individuality In individuality, histories are being thoroughly reviewed in order for the healthcare providers to specifically know the kind of treatment or therapeutic management the elders might need. Data are being gathered from the significant others regarding about the specific lifestyle an habitual behaviour of the elder. Since this is individualized, the planning of treatment in this case is basically personalized. What may work for elder 1 may not work for elder 2 because both elders may have different experiences and environmental factors that caused their condition. Also, each elder have different needs and it is the duty of the health care providers to determine the appropriate approach. Rights We certainly consider that every individual has their own rights regardless of their status. In this approach we promote that despite the elder’s condition, we should take into consideration that they deserve to be treated right. And in this way, elders with Dementia or other common geriatric conditions are being protected and they receive the treatment that they truly deserve. Despite their condition, these elders are still human thus, they needed to be treated well. Choice The facility in this kind of approach gives the elders the right to choose what they think is best for them. They’re being given the option to choose for themselves. In this way, they have the freedom to voice out their own preferences. The elder’s choice be a large undertaking or small undertakings. In the large undertakings, for instance, elders may choose to sign the “Do not Resuscitate” waiver. They have every right to do that for themselves. On the other hand, the small undertaking may include choosing what to wear for that day, the colour of shirt they prefer, whether or not they want a jacket or a raincoat on a rainy day. In this way we are giving the elders to be responsible and make them feel that they are not worthless. This will help them feel that they have the control over their life. Privacy Privacy is not disclosing any information outside of the Health care institution. Information is only being discussed within the circle of the involved health care practitioners. Families are given the assurance that whatever condition the elder has will only be made known to those professionals involved in the treatment. Practitioners may only disclose some information once the family has given them the consent to do so. Independence Independence is one of the goals in the management of elders with dementia and other common geriatric conditions. Some people may think that this is quite impossible to attain, but with the constant assistance elders get from health care practitioners, this is achievable. Health care providers must identify certain situations in which elders may find themselves dependent. Once the health care provider has figured out the elders dependence, it is where the health care provider will make a strategy to assist the elder in achieving his/her independence. This may take a long process that’s why it is best to set goals that are attainable. Dignity Another goal in the management of elders with dementia is the promotion of their dignity. Healthcare providers must promote that despite the elder’s situation they still need to be respected as human beings. Promotion of dignity makes them worth as a person. Respect Respect is very important in the management of elders with dementia. They should be treated with transparency to further avoid the deterioration of the elder. This will also help ensure that elders are not confused. Respect is the summation of all the person-centered approach. Autonomy Every person is subject to their own preference. Since we all have this kind of rights, even elders with dementia should have autonomy. In this way, we are guiding them in deciphering what kind of outcome they want for themselves. The non-person centered approach to dementia and the Institutional Perspective and the Bio-Medical Perspective. The Institutional perspective focuses on the policies, rules and regulations in order to maintain the normal function of the physical aspect of the elders with dementia. Aside from the physical aspect, this approach is also taking part in the social and spiritual aspect of the person. On the other hand, the Bio-Medical Perspective’s main focus is the disease process. This perspective is concerned more of the prevention and alleviation of the common geriatric conditions. They are not in any way relating their efforts to the family or to any healthcare providers. They are more concern of the medications that elders needs, the diagnostic tests to further detect the progression of the disease or even the treatments needed to aid the elders with their condition. To maintain the condition of elders with dementia, there are techniques that are being used. Among are the following: Reality-orientation Approach This approach focuses on what is going on around the world. The objective data that clients must know such as the date, time, day, year and even the weather. To confirm this to the client’s we must provide evidence such as newspaper, television news and all the like. Validation Approach The focus of this approach is to validate the emotional content of the person. Healthcare providers are looking into what the client is feeling about a certain given situation. It is here that we can check if the expression matches the content of his/her emotions. Assistive Technologies It is in this approach that clients are being assisted in a way that health care provider brings the world to them. Due to their condition, most often they already forgot how it was to live a life that is normal. Through this kind of approach, the elders will gain more hope, better self-esteem thus resulting to sociable elders. Reminiscence Techniques This will help the clients exercise their memories. In this technique, the clients are given the chance to share their experiences in life. The things they’ve gone through and the memorable events in their lives. This is a good measurement of the retained past memories of the elders. Holistic Approach This approach focuses on the person as a whole. This includes the different aspect of the person’s life. The physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual aspect of the elder is given importance. These four aspects are being given attention and goes hand in hand in the process of holistic approach. The Public Health has attributed a lot in the management of Dementia. In the Public health, the government funds the programme that is being presented. In a way, this funding will result to an evidence-based practice. This will further develop the management techniques for elders with dementia and other common geriatric health conditions. By doing this, both government and the public and the Institutions will know what is effective and what is not. Also, they are making the public know and become aware of what is happening in the world of the elders with dementia. Making the public become aware of dementia’s nature will help distinguish the early signs of it and prevent it from worsening. Awareness of this condition is their way of making it known to everyone that Dementia is something everyone should never neglect because this just doesn’t affect the person having it but it makes a great impact in the community. Also, health promotions have been made to help reduce the incident of complications of dementia. The healthcare provider’s attitudes should be taken into consideration. They should instil in their minds that positive attitude attracts positive results, so as negative attitude attracts negative ones. Healthcare providers exist to provide the care that elders with dementia need but not to worsen their condition by the way they treat the elders. Providers must be patient enough and smart enough to think that these elders don’t intend to complicate the situation but it’s simply a given fact that elders with these kinds of conditions aren’t aware of the things they do. Healthcare providers are in demand in this case due to the massive growth of older adults. Older generation are being outgrown by the new ones. And it’s now time to pay back to these elders what they’ve done. The code of practice and other published standards has created a great impact in the lives of those individuals with dementia and other common geriatric health conditions. This benefited most on the person centered approach. The impact created was directly received by the recipient, the elders with dementia and other geriatric conditions. The code of practice has impacted the elders in a way that despite their condition, they are still being protected. We are all aware that elders who possess these kinds of condition are primarily affected on their brain, specifically their memory. Without memory, they are all like physical humans who just wander and don’t know where their lives are leading. But because of the concern and initiative of others for these elders, they’ve set standards for them that while they’re losing their memory they’re not losing their humanity. This won’t give impact to the elders now but also to the next generations of growing elders. This has made a way for everyone to be aware that every human has their rights and that no one being left behind. The health sector standards have gained the cooperation of every healthcare provider in providing the right management to elders with dementia and other common geriatric conditions. Moreover, the code of practice has benefitted both the residents and the healthcare providers. To the residents, the code of standards has become their protection from any malpractices. While on the other hand, the code of standard is the guide of the health care providers to do things in the right way and to avoid committing any malpractice that will affect the condition of the elders. These health sector standards and code of standards and other published standards has benefited the person-centered approach because the standards’cncern are primarily for the purpose of the residents safety as well as the health care providers. This is the only approach that it’s only the resident and the health care providers that are involved. Unlike other approaches which does not directly involves the residents. CONCLUSION In conclusion, this paper has enumerated the different principles involved in the person centered approach that gives benefit to both the residents and the health care providers. This paper primarily focuses about the protection and rights of the elders with dementia and other geriatric conditions, how the different approaches work and the benefits it has for the elders. Aside from the primary focus of protecting and promoting the rights of these elders, the healthcare providers are at the same time being guided on how to do things right and possibly rule out malpractices to happen. One way or the other, both parties can benefit from the different approaches, range of techniques, the different public health promotions and attitudes to health and the demand for more health care. RECOMMENDATION This paper will increase the awareness of the principles of the person centered approach, non-person centered approach, range of techniques used to meet the needs of persons with dementia, the impacts of public health and attitudes to health and demand for healthcare to those individuals whose family members has been affected by these common geriatric conditions. However, it’s not enough to make the awareness limited to those individuals that are being affected by this phenomenon. It’s always best to make it known to the public because no one knows who’s going to be the next victim. As what they always say the “prevention is better than cure.” Being aware is a way of making a step of preventing things to affect you. Although we don’t always have the control over things, but at least, having the knowledge of these kinds of things will lighten up the load and will help managing easier. These information ill help anybody know how things work especially to elders with dementia and other geriatric health conditions. BIBLIOGRAPHY/ REFERENCES Halura, M. (2002). Dementia in New Zealand: Improving Quality in Residential Care. Retrieved from Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Assassination has been utilized as a political tool

Introduction Assassination has been utilized as a political tool since the beginning of recorded history, marking, altering, or determining the course of events through murder. Even today, assassination and its forms, including terrorism, continue to plague most nations throughout the world. Additional acts of violence, such as ethnic tensions and coups, executions, and civil wars, continue to frequent societies and political systems in the 21st century. Unique to assassinations, whether or not the act is successful does not always reflect failed consequences; all too often, attempted assassinations are equally impactful as complete, or deadly, assassinations. Assassinations and assassination attempts, particularly upon heads of state, are often highly ranked in terms of political violence and significance. Besides affecting or killing the victim, assassinations have direct consequences upon critical political institutions and the targeted individual’s nation as a whole. As studied and discussed by political theorists and analysts, assassinations and assassination attempts of important political figures have far-reaching political and societal repercussions. Obviously affecting the targeted government or nation, the sudden and unexpected murder of a head of state or high-ranking official not only interferes with a nation’s political effectiveness, but also promulgates terror and unrest within a government. Most significantly, assassinations and attempts to assassinate often disturb or change the focus of domestic and foreign policy within a nation. As previously mentioned, terrorism is closely related to assassination and no discussion on the latter would be complete without a discussion of the former as well. Besides an obvious systematic and deliberate act of murder, terrorism can also be referred to as either a mass assassination, or a terroristic assassination. Terrorism, according to one source, is “assassinations contrived to create a fear sufficient to destroy a whole system. Terrorism implies a movement whose objective can only be achieved by repeated assassinations over relatively long periods of time, for fear dissipates when pressure is relaxed or exercised intermittently. Similar to assassinations, terrorism has plagued and continues to plague many (if not most) nations, often resulting in political chaos or upset. Furthermore, as with assassinations, terrorism is also saturated with politics; however, unlike assassinations, terrorism is employed through strategy, fueled by religious or ecological motives, and carried out with the ultimate goal of power. Although united by a common denominator, murder, the conceptual differences between assassinations and terrorism are profound and worth separate examination, for the purpose of this study. The Concept of Assassination The violent act of assassination is defined as the murder of a (most likely) political, royal, or public individual. The term is derived from the order of the Assassins, which was an 11th and 12th century Muslim sect that advanced its political goals by murdering high-ranking officials. The origin of the word is assassiyun,Arabic for fundamentalist, from the word assass, foundation. The suicide squad of the Assassins, which was a militant arm of the Islamic Isma’ili sect, was founded by Hassan Sabah and operated from the Alamut cliff top fortress in the Elburz Mountains of Persia, now known as northwestern Iran. The Assassins, according to legend, were called hashishiyun, “smokers of hashish,” by their enemies as the hashish was believed to be the source of their visions—which commanded their violent acts. Marco Polo even wrote of the sect and an impregnable fortress in the mountains of Persia when detailing an account of his travels. However, although the term assassination was not defined until the Muslim sect materialized in the 11th century, their method or tool of political murder had been in use since as early as 900 B.C. The ancient Greeks and Romans did not have a word that corresponds with our word assassination. “A killing was simply a means to an end; its moral significance depended entirely on the nature of the person killed” [italics original]. An individual who killed a public figure was either a murderer or a tyrannicide, and the latter term was a synonymous word for “liberator,” one who freed his country. According to Cicero, some of the most celebrated figures in Greek and Roman history were tyrant-killers. Brutus, who murdered Caesar, was born of a long line of tyrant-killers. Undeniably, assassins make history. The Concept of Terrorism For the purpose of being thorough, it is worth examining the earliest uses of the word terror. The word terrorist first appeared in modern politics in the French Revolution, when revolutionists occasionally applied the term to their actions. The revolutionists characterized terrorism as “good” when implemented against individuals deemed to be enemies of virtue and modernity, according to one source. Eventually, upon the defeat of the Frenchman Robespierre and his military force in 1794 (known as the Reign of Terror), the term terrorist became a pejorative. Thus, although the term initially was meant to conjure or reflect what “good” a government could do to achieve and ensure the acceptance of a revolution, within a century and a half, the term had evolved into an evil principle of terror. Russian communist Vladimir Lenin acted upon the belief that “the purpose of terror is to terrorize,” and his orders during the Russian Civil War are reflective of how terrorism can be utilized as an instrument of states. As with assassinations, terror tactics have afflicted or been a part of societies since the beginning of time. However, terrorist campaigns, defined as “the prolonged, systematic use of terror to secure a political objective, [have been] by comparison, conspicuously rare, and the true terrorist enters history late.” As previously referenced, the first example of terrorism can been seen in Medieval Islam with the Ismaili sect. The instances of terrorism thereafter multiplied, resulting in almost every country in the world having experienced an act of terrorism. Ultimately, the development of modern terrorism is too complex to be detailed here, but for the purposes of this study, it is worth noting that terrorism evolved immensely in both strategic and tactical principles in the twentieth century—emerging as the most wielded tool for political murder. Problem Statement Without a doubt, assassinations and terrorism, whether successful or unsuccessful, remain one of the most devastating acts of political violence. The fact that the United States and other world-renowned democracies have not been immune to these two types of violence, assassinations and terrorism, illustrates the very severe nature of the problem. The various assassination attempts that have been made against leaders (primarily presidents) within the United States is indicative to onlookers (or speaks) of a national security issue—opening up questions of vulnerability or enticing a violent act. Essentially, any violent attack against a president or his nation disturbs the social and political stability of the targeted country. Regardless, the impacts of these acts of violence ripple across the world and are felt by other nations, whether directly or indirectly. A critical analysis of the available body of information and related discussion portrays assassinations (complete and attempts) and terrorism as violent acts which not only have the inherent ability to heighten national security, but also interfere with the foreign policy of the United States. The fragile balance that exists between the United States and other world nations, particularly the Middle East, also exemplifies the latter. Research Objectives This thesis/study seeks to evaluate the impact of political assassinations within the United States, as well as the impact of terrorism in the United States. The specific objectives include the following: To evaluate the consequences of political assassinations upon policy* To examine the consequences of terrorism or terror tactics upon policy To compare and contrast the impact of both violent acts, assassination and terrorism, upon the United States Hypothesis In addition to impacting the timing of political action in the United States, the assassinations of presidents and public figures such as civil rights leader Martin Luther King and Black Muslim leader Malcolm X has had the effect of catalyzing public concern and activating the politicization of major policy issues. In essence, broadening support and paving the way for major policy initiatives. Furthermore and most significantly, this study posits that although both assassination and terrorism have been of major consequence within the United States, the brutal act of terrorism has had the greater impact than all U.S. assassinations combined. Terms and Functional Definitions For operational terms and concepts, the following functional definitions were employed in this study: The victim is defined as the intended target of the assassination or act of terrorism. The method is defined as the weapon of assassination, or the tactic employed in an act of terrorism. The result is focused upon the intended victim. The impact is focused upon the effect of an assassination or terrorism upon policy The venue is to identify the location of an assassination or terrorist attack. The assailant is defined as the individual or individuals who planned, carried out, or ordered an assassination or act of terror. For example, an accomplice would also be identified as an assailant. The motive represents the reasoning, when known, of why a victim was targeted by either assassination or terrorism. In this study, policy change is meant to reflect the different judicial, executive and legislative decisions that were made after each act of assassination or terrorism. The following terms are used repeatedly throughout this study: Assassination is defined slightly different according to various sources, but is universally agreed upon as being the sudden, premeditated murder of a political figure, due to the victim’s perspective, prominence, or some combination of the two.Many sources classify an attempted homicide as assassination, so for the purposes of uniformity, this study shall follow the same classification. However, the realm of attempts does not include written or verbal attempts, stalking of a victim, or mass demonstrations. The latter actions are more often, depending upon the situation, characterized as foundational or threshold acts to assassinations rather than as acts of assassination alone of themselves. Generally, assassination is defined as the murder of a public figure by an assailant who aims solely at the death of the victim. For further clarification, a historical event can be described to showcase the employment of terms within an assassination situation. Guiseppe Zangara, for example, attempted to assassinate Franklin D. Roosevelt in Miami, Florida, but hit and killed Anton Cermak, the Mayor of Chicago instead. This example illustrates how the latter event is classified as an assassination attempt upon the President and the murder, not assassination, of Anton Cermak—a bystander victim. In this study, terrorism is defined according to a definition that has remained sound for over a quarter-century: “[T]he deliberate and systematic murder, maiming, and menacing of the innocent to inspire fear for political ends.” The latter definition was proffered by analysts in 1979 at The Jonathon Institute at Jerusalem (a conference on international terrorism) and has been widely employed by scholars and analysts since then. While other definitions exist, all agree that terrorism is the use or threat of use of murder to infuse fear. Contrary to assassinations, victims of terrorism are not always specific targets. For the purposes of effectively analyzing the true impact of assassinations on policy in the United States, assassinations of only those individuals in political public life were considered for this study. Literature Review The violent act of assassination has been commonly presented as the premeditated execution of an important political, religious, or social figure. Contrary to regular homicides, assassinations strategically target important individuals who maintain a prominent position of power and influence in society. In addition, such acts are motivated by clearly defined objectives. For instance, victims can be assassinated for political, economical, or ideological reasons. In the case of complete and attempted assassinations against American presidents, another category of motivation exists: revenge. The majority of presidential assassinations within the United States fall within this category, with the act most often being the work of an unstable, lone assailant and politically aimless. To the assailant, their victim is seen as an obstacle in the realization of a personal goal or established agenda. Although any individual can be the victim of an assassination, the available body of literature that was surveyed for this study depicts political leaders as a high-risk group. Undeniably, the political aspect of assassination has often been depicted as the most complex dimension of the violent act. Politically motivated assassination, regardless of whether an attempt or successful, is always considered an act to murder political leaders. A crucial defining characteristic of these political assassinations is their fundamental objective to advance political interests. The underlying assumption of every assassination is that political figures are individuals upon whom huge responsibilities rest, such as the ability to implement major domestic and foreign policy decisions. For illustration, the presidencies of John Eisenhower, Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy were particularly viewed by the communist world dictatorial regimes to be an obstruction in the advancement of the United States’ political and socioeconomic interests. As seen after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack upon the United States, President George W. Bush declared a “war on terror” policy that remains in effect today, although it has changed dramatically with the introduction of current President Barack Hussein Obama and his administration. But notably, the act of terrorism on September 11 led to a policy in which suspected terrorists within and outside the United States were to be tracked and dealt with accordingly. Throughout history, the key targets of political assassination have included Mahatma Gandi of India, Fidel Castro of Cuba, and Patrice Lumumba of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Within the United States, the first attempt to murder a political figure through assassination occurred in 1835, when Richard Lawrence attempted to assassination President Andrew Jackson. Since the nineteenth century, a handful of U.S. presidents have been the victims of this type of political violence. Included within this group are Presidents Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy. Their deaths have continued to be a topic of unparalleled debate amongst political analysts, scholars, and the general public, due to the concerns that assassination poses to then security of political figures, particularly a president, of the United States. Although as previously mentioned, the majority of assassinations and assassination attempts against U.S. presidents have been classified as random, politically aimless acts committed by a lone individual, the general contention is that they were well-planned and executed. The latter results in the prevalence of conspiracy theories, which contend that within the realm of U.S. assassinations, each act was meticulously planned by individuals working together and with a defined motive in mind. Instead of classifying one factor as the primary cause of assassination, conspiracy theories posit that such violent acts stem from numerous factors. For example, many conspiracy theorists believe that Lee Oswald, the murderer of President John F. Kennedy, was functioning as a component of a network of conspirators. The Politics of Murder: Assassination in the United States The act of assassination can be described as one of the oldest techniques to perpetuate the politics of power. The phenomenon of assassination in the United States has received increased attention in the 20th century, with having only received notable research and attention since the infamous trio of assassinations in the tumultuous 1960s. Nevertheless, the available body of information and research reveals that assassination dates back to when civilization and the concept of formal governments became an entrenched aspect of society. The murder of kings such as Gedaliah and Julius Caesar can perhaps be termed as the earliest assassinations to be recorded in history. However, within the context of the United States, the act of assassination became markedly more common in the 19th century. Such acts of political violence were not expected to happen. The rationale behind such a mentality was due to the United States being a democratic state whose executive authority was responsible and responsive to the will of the popularity majority. Thus, between 1789 and 1835, when the first assassination attempt occurred, no significant protection details (on behalf of either federal or local enforcements agencies) were dedicated to U.S. presidents. Perhaps this rationalistic and optimistic mentality regarding human nature and America’s system of government serve as an explanation for why the politics of assassination have been largely under-explored until the 20th century. For extended periods, prominent political leaders continued to underestimate the threat that assassination posed to U.S. presidents. William H. Seward, who served as Secretary of State under Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Jackson, once remarked, “Assassination is not an American practice or habit, and one so vicious and so desperate cannot be engrafted into our political system. This conviction of mine has grown so strong since the civil war began. Every day’s experience confirms it.” Ironically, only three years after making the latter statement, President Lincoln was assassinated in what appeared to be a carefully constructed plot. And the optimistic Seward barely survived an assassination attempt on himself during the murder of Lincoln. It can be posited that Seward’s expressed certainty regarding assassination was not unique unto himself, but rather demonstrative of the general mentality of the U.S. populace as well. President James McKinley solidified this rationalistic viewpoint when he declared, “Assassination can no more be guarded against than death by lightning; and it is best not to worry about either.” Sadly, McKinley would later regret his overconfidence in a morally sound and rational society—an admirable trait, but one that enabled his death. The Politics of Assassination CHANGE TITLE! While the murder of any political leader of a society is going to have repercussions upon said society, the assassination of a president precipitates significant social and political transformation. In the past, the assassination of a political head was viewed as an appropriate method to eradicate oppressive tyrannical leadership. However, in today’s societies, such acts of violence are hardly condoned as an ideal strategy for catalyzing political change, nonetheless positive political change. Conversely, assassination attempts and assassinations have the impact of destabilizing social and political structures, as the murder of a president or highly-ranked political leader is regarded as particularly detrimental to social and political harmony. Despite the reality of assassination and widespread acknowledgement of its threat, negligible attention has been given to the impact of such acts, particularly upon domestic and foreign policy and the American way of life. The available body of research postulates that assassinations and assassination attempts upon U.S. presidents and political figures have had considerable social and political consequences. Political analyst Sheldon Appleton maintains that the “impact of assassinations on America and the world is incalculable.” He also posits that the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was arguably the most outstanding act of violence in terms of (American) societal impact. However, it must be noted that in regards to assassinations, Appleton’s argument does hold water; but in regards to acts of violence upon American soil, it can be argued that the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, resulted in the greatest impact upon society. Other political analysts have concluded that presidential assassinations activate a crisis in areas that are related to authority. Furthermore, it is agreed upon that presidential assassinations have the effect of triggering countermeasures, particularly those that elicit changes in the arena of presidential security. Such beliefs are not unfounded, as presidential assassinations inevitably result in negative consequences due to the extreme importance of the office of the president. Thus, assassinations are likely to spark significant social and political upheavals, even demonstrations, strikes and riots. However, such reactions to an assassination can be described as minor in comparison to other manifestations. One political analyst states: “Beyond these relatively minor reflections of domestic malaise, the sudden and violent death of a leader may also embolden dissatisfied groups to push for greater political change, in extreme cases leading to coups, revolution, and even civil war.” Interestingly, factors that play a role in the influence of an assassination can also serve to mitigate its social and political impact. Political analysts Iqbal and Zorn report recent empirical data that notes that “assassinations are less likely to occur in systems that provide a regular, institutionalized means of leadership turnover.” They also state that a nation’s political structure and its method of executive turnover to be instrumental in the reaction of said political system’s reaction to an assassination. Simply, nations such as the United States, who have a “regular and (mostly) nonviolent” executive turnover, will inevitable react differently to assassinations than countries that do not. Ibqal and Zorn also analogically postulate that assassinations create a “power vacuum” within a political system—of which the suction strength will vary dramatically from nation to nation depending upon the strength of the targeted political order. It can be argued that within the context of the United States, the strength (or impact) of a power vacuum—implemented through assassination—would be notably weaker than Methodology In completing the objectives of this study, the various aspects underlying the topic of political assassination and terrorism, particularly within the context of the United States, were explored. More specifically, this study follows the various presidential assassinations and acts of terrorism that have occurred since the 19th century. Crucial information regarding the consequences of these violent acts was collected and analyzed, with the goal of making appropriate deductions. The information that was required to properly address the objectives of this study was primarily collected from online academic resources, both secondary and primary, as well as various works by political science or historical scholars. This method enabled the acquirement of information that was relative to the impact and nature of political assassinations and terrorism in the United States. The information collected was directive in achieving the objectives of the study and provided thorough analysis of the subject of inquiry. The principal technique used in assembling information related to assassination was content analysis, whereas the subject of terrorism received not only the latter approach but was researched from primarily post-2000 dates. A qualitative approach was utilized to determine the relevance of gathered materials, with said approach taking into consideration the strengths of the arguments presented, as well as their weight. To guarantee the authenticity of arguments and their conclusions, only accredited sources were considered or used. These included books, peer-reviewed political science or history journals, and former studies completed on the subject of either assassination or terrorism. The hypothesis that was previously advanced was tested against the articulations of researchers and scholars, with the objective of achieving a consistent and valid conclusion for this study. A qualitative method was implemented to interpret and analyze the data gathered. This enabled individual analysis of the various instances of political (primarily presidential) assassinations and acts of terrorism in the history of the United States. While doing so, both contrasting and concurring opinions and conclusions expressed by analysts and scholars were considered. The primary expectation in this study is that both political assassinations (attempts or complete assassinations) and terrorism have not only impacted the society and social conscience of American society, but also empowered the adoption of sweeping policy changes. The latter claim will be realized through examination of the response and reaction of society and the political class after a violence act of assassination or terrorism. To consider the impact of assassinations, this study discusses the attacks against U.S. presidents since 1865. The core factor of interest is the degree of policy changes and transformations that took place after an act of violence, beginning first with assassinations, and then acts of terrorism. In this study, policy change is meant to reflect the different judicial, executive and legislative decisions that were made after each act of violence. The various events that took place after each assassination or act of terrorism were reviewed, with special attention given to how each event influenced U.S. domestic or foreign policy. The underlying premise in the various instances of assassination and terrorism is that each violent act had significant political repercussions, but that of these two types of acts, terrorism has achieved the greatest impact. Edelman, Murray, and Rita James Simon. “Presidential Assassinations: Their Meaning and Impact of American Society.” Ethics, 35, no. 2 (1969), p. 199. Rapoport, David C. Assassination and Terrorism. Toronto: T.H. Best Printing Company Limited, 1971, p. 3. Harmon, Christopher C. Terrorism Today. (2nd ed). New York: Routledge, 2008, p. 5. Laucella, Linda. Assassinations: The Politics of Murder. (1st ed). Los Angeles: Lowell House, 1998, p. xi. Ibid xi Rapoport, p. 7. Harmon, p. 4. Ibid 4 Lacquer, Walter. The Age of Terrorism (Boston: Little Brown

Diverse Perspectives in Physics Classrooms

assignment writer The School of Science invited the esteemed Dr. Sylvester James Gate, currently a professor at the University of Maryland, to give two talks on Tuesday March 21,2017. The first talk “What unique perspectives does a minority student bring to a physics classroom?”, given in Mayo Concert Hall as the second annual Barbara Meyers Pelson ’59 Lecture in Faculty-Student Engagement, focused on Gate’s experience as an educator and his observations on how minority students bring diverse perspectives to physics classrooms. The event began with Janet Morrison introducing Dr. Gate who is an intellectual pioneer in string theory, super gravity, and super symmetry, has authored over 200 research papers, is the director for String and Particle Theory Center in Maryland, and was honored with a membership in the National Academy of Sciences. He received the National Medal of Science from President Obama for is contributions to scientific research in 2013 and became the first African America to hold an endowed chair of physics at a major United States research university. In addition to is impressive academic achievements, Gate has also been a lifelong advocate for diversity in the classroom; even being the first physicist to write to the United States Supreme Court to argue the importance of minority students in college classrooms. This letter to the Supreme Court and an article published in response to a judge’s question about his position was the corner stone of his lecture. Gates opened his talk by giving a short summary of his career regarding physics and public outreach through documentaries and commercials. This lead to him discussing his first documentary in the 1990’s where he explored how the sciences were starting to be accessible to minorities communities in ways, such as professor positions and research opportunities, that had not been possible before. This lead to allegory on diversity, starting with all things music, that eventually made its way to the Supreme Court. Gate argued that “life is enriched from different musical style” (Gate) and I doubt anyone would disagree that their life is poorer due to having more than classical music to listen to. This theme of diversity enhancing a topic or product, Gate argues, can be found throughout the scientific disciplines. In biology, diversity in biomes creates life that is more adaptable to change. In biomedical engineering, the use of genetic modification not only increases yields in food harvest but also decreases the use of environmentally harmful pesticides. It is this argument, rather than the “moral argument” (Gate), that Gate bases his position on. He states that, while it is correct morally to ensure individuals from all backgrounds have access to the sciences, it is imperative for science as a discipline to ensure diversity to survive. “So what does diversity do? It enriches the experiences. It gives us a bigger set of choices” (Gates) and these choices are the future of scientific development. While Gates never mentions the terms situated knowledge or standpoint theory his arguments and stance about diversity in the classroom and academia are dependent on these theories. He stated during the question and answer part of the talk that “the outsider viewpoint which is therefor intellectual diversity which I’m talking about. …In the example that I talked about, it was the presence of the minority…that caused the majority…to be more careful in their analysis and that’s what suppressed the grown of [economic] bubbles. So yes, in that case it is the actual ethnic diversity that did that” (Gates)1. Earlier, he also stated that minorities, whether they are ethnic minorities or gender minorities, have a different way of thinking and viewing the world due to their minority statues. This all directly relates to situated knowledge and standpoint theory in the idea that the position of these individuals gives then different perspectives that allows them to better understand the problem at hand. He never outright stated that this perspective is superior to the majority perspective but it was, in my opinion, heavily implied which leads to his arguments being more based in situated knowledge than standpoint theory. I found the talk to be informative but slightly disorganized and the speaker to be open and not afraid to speak his mind even if his opinions were unpopular. During the talk, I learned some very interesting information such as Einstein’s history of social justice work and current research on diversity in different disciplines; however, the speaker chose to use an allegory type of storytelling that, if one did not listen intently to, was easy to lose track of. Throughout the talk and while answering questions, Gate was forthcoming on his personal views and beliefs whether the audience agreed with him or not. I believe this was especially relevant during the last question after the talk. The person asking the question seemed to be implying that ethnic diversity did not matter as long as there was “intellectual diversity”, which essentially reminded me of a person arguing that someone was “making something all about race”, and I believe Gate gave a wonderful answer which not only spoke on how ethnic diversity caused intellectual diversity but how it was essential for intellectual diversity. As a teacher, I am hoping to decorate my classroom with diverse scientists, not the same old white guys everyone thinks about when they think of science, and this talk provided me with even more anecdotal and research evidence of the importance of ensure my students see diversity in science. Note This is in reference to a study Gate mentioned that focused on the growth of economic bubbles in stock markets. The study found that the presence of minority traders suppressed the growth of bubbles in the stock market, like the housing bubble that caused the 2008 United States crash, and that these results could be reproduced in white majority nations and Asian majority nations. Work Cited Gates, Sylvester J. “What unique perspectives does a minority student bring to a physics classroom?” Barbara Meyers Pelson ’59 Lecture in Faculty-Student Engagement, The College of New Jersey, 21 March 2017, Mayo Concert Hall, Ewing, NJ, Lecture.

AGRC 7050 UQ Agribusiness Value Chain Management Greenline Company Case Study

AGRC 7050 UQ Agribusiness Value Chain Management Greenline Company Case Study.

I’m working on a biochemistry report and need a sample draft to help me study.

Please complete the assignment according to the requirements in the word file and TASK2(task2 is a outline)Task Description:undefinedYou are required to build on the approved proposal (Task 2) and analyse the value chain management practices based on a selected case study chain. Write a report outlining your findings and support your arguments using literature. The report should include the following sections:undefined Title Page Executive Summary – Concise summary of the entire case study, main findings and recommendations Introduction – A brief outline of the firm/industry, its structure, operations and its competitive environment; main commodity/product(s) or service(s) for which the value chain analysis is done; purpose or objectives of the analysis Value chain Analysis – A short description of research method(s), target market(s) and consumers, mapping the current state of the chain; provide specific examples and/or evidences and analyse the critical dimensions of value chain management of the firm/industry. Support your arguments using literature and the discussion of a desired future state of the chain. Conclusion: What can you conclude from the current practices and analysis of the chain? Recommendations – Discuss the potential improvement opportunities. References: Use Harvard Style or APA 7th Edition
AGRC 7050 UQ Agribusiness Value Chain Management Greenline Company Case Study

do a case about investment portfolio management

do a case about investment portfolio management.

I’m working on a business case study and need a sample draft to help me study.

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do a case about investment portfolio management

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