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Care of Complex Physical and Mental Health Illness across the Lifespan

Consider the impact on an individual of living with a long term condition and critically analyse the wider implications for society and health care provision. Consider a long term condition, such as ‘diabetes or hypertension’ and critically analyse how the disease/ illness affects physical and mental health. Develop reasoned and logical arguments which should be supported by appropriately researched literature. The pathophysiology of the disease/ illness should be identified and explained in relation to complex physical and mental health. The author aims within this piece to examine their knowledge of and appraise the contemporary political health and social care agenda in relation to the evidence based management of long term conditions. Whilst examining the aforementioned, it is the writer’s intention to develop cognizance of the pathophysiology of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and discuss the presentation of the same. In order to evidence this understanding the author will synthesise the physical, psychological and social aspects associated with long term conditions. Furthermore examine the nurses role in promoting self care for patients and families. In the meantime substantiating their ability to support people experiencing long term conditions and plan their care effectively; as part of the multidisciplinary team by reflecting on the medical and nursing management of a long term condition from practice. Further it is also the author’s objective to analyse the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-professional and inter-agency communication and working amongst care providers and outline the role of key workers. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in defining health pursue complete wellness through physical, mental and social well being, and do not simply concentrate on the lack of presence of disease or malaise (2015). This provides some clarity but does not provide for people who are dealing with a long term condition but are generally well. So using this definition the WHO actively discriminates against large proportions of the population (author unknown, Kings Fund, 2013). The definition above could be seen to limit the mindset of practitioners, as to observe a patient in health crisis does not mean that they will be acutely unwell. In fact the opposite is more likely when considering care planning to patients with long term health management needs (author unknown, Kings Fund 2013). Historically PTSD has been something that has not been readily recognised and instead the sufferer has been described as being ‘spent from battles’ (Dryden, 2010). There is very little recent data to consider when looking at Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, it is often considered in the round with mental health generally. Mateos (2000) estimated the global burden of PTSD was 0.6% of a year lost due to the disease. This according to his research is extrapolated to estimate 3,230,000 lives per year (Mateos, 2000). When considering this research, it is important to note that the sample size was 32,946 and was not limited to one specific area/ country. This allows for a wide range of variables to be in place, and in turn for more consideration to be made of social determinants and causative effects. In the United Kingdom specifically however, in consideration with regards to traumatic events and differing categories of the same, the differentiation between major trauma such as a road traffic accident or through witnessing the same and armed conflict bringing PTSD about, it is important to note that the data collected is generic limited to that key term and in fact far from accurate and that is insufficient information available to develop a differentiation between causes of PTSD (Barker, 2009). Therefore the efficacy of research is easily challenged and the lack of rigourous research detracts from the findings (Barker, 2009). In America 44.68 million people develop PTSD as the result of one or more traumatic events in their lives with somewhat higher rates of this disorder in African Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans compared with Caucasions in the US (Heal my PTSD, 2018) In analysing the data there is no up to date statistics relating to the prevalence of PTSD in the United Kingdom, this could be for a wide of reasons, from the lack of credence that governments pays to PTSD sufferers, to the lack of evidence from research into the disease. Where questions asked or symptoms examined do not get to the root of the problem then inconclusive evidence leads to inconclusive treatment. Members and veterans of the British armed forces get support from their welfare officer and regiment/ corps for a limited amount of time (Ministry of Defence, 2018) but because it is not necessarily understood/ prioritised this support quickly dwindles away and therefore the PTSD patient is in a position whereby their benefits/ support and welfare is only available upon application (Department of Health, 2017). Whilst the armed forces of the United Kingdom offer support, it is very much a short term measure and only designed for acute aspects, it is not a management tool but a short measure prior to signposting to mental health services either on a private funded basis or through the National Health Service (Ministry of Defence, 2018). The Joint Services Needs Analysis (JSNA) shows national, local and regional in one table relating to the social determinants of health in a specific area for individual diseases or trouble areas, as not every area has the same issues to resolve. For example, Blackburn with Darwen has life expectancy at birth of 76.5 years for a male and 80.8 years for a female, this in comparison with Lancashire is 78.5 years for males and 82.1 years for females and England is 79.5 years and 83.1 years respectively (JSNA – Lancashire, 2018). There is no that the author could find in relation to mortality or indeed instances of crisis on a local level or nationally. In Lancashire there are support groups available for sufferers of PTSD, but they are not designed with the intention to treat (PTSD UK, 2018). They are very much a signposting service provided by volunteers and fellow sufferers. Counselling on a private funded basis is available however, no government funded assistance is provided (PTSD UK, 2018). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) set out a policy for PTSD. The policy is designed for the guidance of any care provider of people with a diagnosis of PTSD, as well as those with responsibility for services provision and care planning for people with a diagnosis of PTSD and their carers (2005). This policy is a small step to ensuring provision remains, however, it is vastly outdated and in need of updating because the care provision of long term mental health conditions does not stand still and constantly changes on a person by person basis (NICE, 2005). National policy and trends are derived by Public Health England and also a safeguard but very much working hand in hand with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). There are few policies relating to PTSD and instead the mental health policies appear to be broad brush or blanket policy provision, this in one aspect ensures parity of provision, however, on the other it is a systematic failure to provide individualised person-centred care. The guidelines relating to PTSD are in the process of being updated and during 2016 multi agency contributions formed the initial development of update (NICE, 2017) To date, some two years later, such policy has not been updated. The physiology of stress disorder relates to the hippocampi and the processing of a memory (Bailey et al, 2013). Bailey said that the psychological impact of experiencing a traumatic event, means that PTSD often leads to changes in the anatomy and neurophysiology of the brain (2013). Therefore the resulting reduced size of the hippocampus likely both a predisposing factor as well as being a result of trauma (NHS, 2018). The processing of emotions and modulating the fear response within the amygdala, could be argued to be overly reactive in patients with PTSD (Bailey et al, 2013). The inhibitory control of stress response and emotional reactivity of the amygdala by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is physically smaller and not as responsive or reactive in individuals with PTSD (Bailey et al, 2013). There is also commentary from experts such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists that alterations in neurohormonal and neurotransmitter functioning also occur (2016). Individuals with PTSD have been identified to have lower than normal circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol, despite their ongoing stress and elevated levels of Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) (Bailey et al, 2013). The lower levels of this hormone, leads to decreased production of CRF (RCP, 2016). Therefore, if cortisol is low it leads to CRF continuing to be high and stimulates a norepinephrine release and adrenal fatigue follows, this in turn has an impact upon the body’s homeostasis and a physical symptoms becomes more apparent (NHS, 2018). Individuals with PTSD demonstrate hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system, as evidenced by changes in heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance level, and other psychophysiological measures (NHS, 2018). Further insight into the pathophysiology of PTSD may be found in the Dual Representational Theory (Brewin et al, 1996). This understanding highlights the presence of two separate systems for memory. Verbally accessible memory, first recorded in the hippocampus and later in general brain memory storage is able to be modified by reflection (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2016). This is characteristic of most non-traumatic memories. Situationally accessible memory, on the other hand, is non-verbal and associated with very strong emotions and the amygdale (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2016). Traumatic memories tend to be stored as situationally accessible memories, which are harder to process, are readily triggered by associations, and more likely to cause emotional distress when activated (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2016). Individuals may struggle to integrate these traumatic experiences with the rest of their life narrative thereby resulting in the traumatic memory having a significant impact on their views of the world and themselves (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2016). In the case of pathophysiology when considering Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) it is important to note that very little is observable in a person suffering with this (Bailey et al, 2013). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder causatively linked to very stressful, frightening or distressing events (NHS, 2017). Therefore the observable aspects are likely to be feelings of shame or guilt, difficulty controlling your emotions, periods of losing attention and concentration, this is known as dissociation, physical symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, chest pains and stomach aches, cutting yourself off from friends and family, relationship difficulties, destructive or risky behaviour, such as self-harm, alcohol misuse or abuse and even suicidal thoughts (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2016). PTSD is an insipid vacuous illness that saps hope, feelings of self worth and confidence of the individual (Barker, 2009). During the allied conflict with Germany of 1914-1918 soldiers were shot dead for deserting their post or for wandering around in a state of confusion, this we now know is PTSD, they were considered to be cowards or suffering from shell-shock, later when men came home to their pre war lives, they found talking about their experience daunting and embarrassing (Barker, 2009). There was huge stigma around being ill of mind or shell-shocked (Barker, 2009). PTSD is on the face of it a mental health condition and therefore there is a certain amount of stigma around mental health. The aim of care provision for sufferers of PTSD should be to empower the patient to help themselves and to understand triggers to their crisis or flashbacks, this is heavily dependent upon the type of trauma that the person has experienced (NHS, 2017). Within healthcare in a hospital, the role of the nurse is pivotal. Nurses are providing twenty four hour care to patients whereas other disciplines simply dip in and out depending upon the patient’s needs (Lubkin
PHYS 1 SUNYESC False Color Composite Images & Perceiving Wavelength Discussion.

Hello,I was wondering if you would be able to help me with my physics discussion. The directions are posted below, thank you!!False-color composite images are frequently used in astronomy. NASA has an awe-inspiring galley of false-color composite images on the following website: http://www.nasaimages.org. Perform some background research and discuss the following aspects of astronomical false-color composite imaging:What are the advantages of the technique?In what ways is the technique implemented?What wavelengths can be detected?How are the various wavelengths detected?What do the different wavelengths mean?What types of optical and camera technology are used?Choose a question or two and post your findings to the forum. Let’s build a knowledge base of this powerful imaging technique.Note: In addition to addressing some of the questions above, I would like each student to post an astronomical false-color composite image. Identify the object, the cameras/detectors used, and the meaning of the colors in the image.
PHYS 1 SUNYESC False Color Composite Images & Perceiving Wavelength Discussion

The Cold War refers to the conflict that prevailed after World War Two between the two hegemonic powers in the world system at the time, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. The Cold War is named so due to the cold nature of conflict between the two nations, never coming into direct conflict with one another, but instead fighting proxy wars through their support of different sides in otherwise domestic conflicts. The differing ideologies of the two states and the political rhetoric used during the conflict has led to many commentators viewing the Cold War as an ideological struggle. The main question which arises from the study of the Cold War is whether it was in-fact an ideological struggle rather than a conventional struggle for security between the two hegemonic powers of the time. When one views the Cold War from a post-revisionist stance, it can be seen that it was not solely an ideological struggle between the Communist ‘East’ and the Capitalist ‘West’ but rather should be viewed as a conflict concerned with the balance of power and economic influence exacerbated by the ideological differences and rhetoric of the time along with other factors such as mis-interpretation and the question of leadership. The Cold War should not be viewed in the rhetoric of the United States at the time, as a battle between the Liberal forces of the ‘free world’ and the oppressive Communist ideology, but as a struggle for security between the two hegemon powers at the time exacerbated by the deep routed ideological suspicions of either side, inhabiting itself in the misinterpretations of either sides foreign policy, each seemingly confirming the others suspicion. However, this is not to say that ideology did not play an important role in aggravating the Cold War, but rather the conflict should be viewed in terms of a struggle for security rather than as a battle between two opposing ideologies. The procedure of peace-making following World War Two lead to the first area of dispute between the USA and the USSR on how best to achieve security, with the USA support of a universalist approach and Stalin’s insistency on the establishment of spheres of influence. The Kremlin perceived that the only way to achieve security was through the establishment of spheres-of-influence, seeking the establishment of Soviet friendly regimes across eastern Europe. Historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr. argues that this was very much in line with Stalin’s primary goal of ensuring Russia’s security remarking that “above all the Russians were determined to protect their frontiers”[1]. This idea of establishing a sphere of influence was not a novel goal of Stalin and cannot be viewed in terms of an ideological based dispute with its new enemy neither was it an exclusively Communist goal and by establishing this sphere of influence Stalin would in-fact be achieving an age-old dream of the tsars.[2] In 1939 Stalin agreed on the Soviet-Nazi Pact already setting out an agreement on the USSR’s necessity to establish a sphere of interest as a major criterion in achieving security. Furthermore, it can be seen that if (as the United States feared) this was part of the USSR’s goal of achieving a world communist revolution, the USSR would be unlikely to support the establishment of a western sphere of influence. In 1941 Churchill and Stalin agreed a sphere-of-influence deal supporting one another’s claims for their own sphere of influence. If Stalin had been hellbent on the establishment of a world communist revolution he would be unlikely to support Britain’s need for the control of Greece, and would have seen the civil war that prevailed between the communist forces and the Greek army between 1946 and 1949 as an ideal opportunity to further his perceived goal of a global communist revolution. For it can be seen that Stalin’s continued importance placed on ensuring a sphere of influence should not be interpreted as a means for spring boarding a global revolution but out of what he viewed as necessity to ensure his power. Despite Stalin’s apparent ideological dedication, it can be seen that Stalin’s primary concerns were to consolidate power within the Soviet Union leading him to be inherently cautious in much of his policy. Historian Vojtech Mastny stressed this point in his work Cold War and Soviet Insecurity stating that “revolution was for him [Stalin] a means to power rather than a goal in itself”[3]. In their work Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War: From Stalin to Kruschev, Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov argue that the reason for such abandonment of revolutionary goals was due to Stalin’s achievement of power forcing him to act “according to geopolitical realities, national conditions, [and] the logic of power itself”[4] The issue of security can also be seen as a major driving force in Stalin’s opposition to the Bretton Woods Agreement, and the Marshall Plan of 1947. The USSR did not withdraw from the Bretton Woods Agreement on any ideological stance but rather over concerns their authority would be subordinated to that of the USA. When one reviews the documents written by Gerashchenko regarding the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, presented in Harold and Marzenna James’ work ‘The Origins of the Cold War: Some New Documents’, it can be seen that the main areas of discern for the USSR were not ideological ones but concerns over apparent subordination to United States authority; “In practice our participation in these institutions would increase their authority”[5]. Furthermore, it can be seen that Stalin’s opposition of the Marshall Plan should be viewed in regards to the issue of security in the Soviet sphere of influence. Stalin’s opposition to the Marshall Plan arises from the stance that he perceived it as an attempt by the United States to economically penetrate his sphere of influence by providing states with particular appeal to communism with funds in attempt to prevent further communist revolutions. This necessity for security was also a major driving factor behind much of the United States’ policy, but in contrast to the USSR they perceived the only way of achieving this goal by the containment of Soviet influence and policy rather than the establishment of their own sphere of influence. [6]While this correlation between the appeal to security and the containment of Soviet influence may have ideological influences, it was not as simple as an opposition to the ideology of Communism. The United States’ goal of containment was primarily driven, like the policy of the USSR, by the concern for security and geopolitics rather than as a war against the ideology of Communism. For all the political rhetoric of the United States of presenting the conflict as a battle between the forces of the free world against the oppressive nature of Communism, the United States’ foreign policy was primarily driven by the need for security and promotion of its’ economic interests. However, this is not to say that the ideological differences of the two powers had no influence in the hostilities that prevailed following the Second World War. It can be seen that in the USSR, the ideological stance point meant that any action of the United States was unlikely to be viewed in a pragmatic way based solely on the concerns of security. Stalin’s dedication to the teachings offered by Marxists-Leninist’s ensured that any action taken by the United States, or any capitalist nation alike, would be inherently viewed in a very negative light. The teachings of Marxism and Leninism, the base for the ideology of Communism, viewed capitalism and ‘communism’ as mutually exclusive in the world system and this deep routed belief that the outside world remained hostile can be seen as a major driving factor in much of Stalin’s insistency on the issue of security. Due to this deep routed belief in the ideology of communism that capitalism would only be appeased by the destruction of Marxism, Stalin and his associates were destined to view any foreign policy of the leading capitalist power, the USA in the light of an attempt to encircle and destroy the USSR.[7] However, one should question just how prominent ideology was in driving Stalin’s actions. Although it can be seen that the Marxist-Leninist ideology gave Stalin a very suspicious view of the United States, when one examines much of the policy of the United States it would lead one to perhaps see reasoning behind this. While the security concerns and suspicions of Stalin perhaps had an ideological basing, it can be seen that he had very real rationale behind it. While Stalin’s dedication to the revolutionary nature of communism, a global communist revolution, is questionable through the study of his foreign policy; the United States appeared to fulfil the role to which communist ideology ascribed to the capitalist system, seeking to limit its spread as much as possible. The Marshall Plan of 1947 is an example of just this. By offering European nations grants and loans for its rebuilding following the Second World War. After a particularly harsh winter of 1946-7 the United States hoped to improve the conditions within much of Europe, which was leading many nations to see the capitalist system as failing and giving rise to the gaining popularity of the communist movements across Europe. [8] In fact, for all its talk of promoting the ideals of freedom and promoting Liberalism, the USA’s commitment to opposing the spread of Communism would often take president over the spread of the ideals of freedom and the promotion of liberalism. For it can be seen that the United States support of Greece, Turkey, and South Africa, all in turn being included in what became known as the “free world”, was not due to the nations appeal to the ideals of freedom and democracy but rather their acceptance of the capitalist economic system and their anti-communist sentiment. Th fact that the United States was to incorporate South Africa, a racially oppressive regime, into the ‘free world’ highlights the importance of anti-communism over its commitment to spreading the ideals of freedom. This leads one to question the motives for the United States aggression towards communism. The United States inclusion of authoritarian and oppressive regimes into the ‘free world’ leads one to believe that the United States policy was driven by purely economic factors, with its desire to open the world to free trade, providing the United States with new markets for its trade in goods and services. Furthermore, it can be seen that the USA’s week commitment to the ideals of freedom and security leads one to question whether the Cold War was truly an ideological conflict or rather a power struggle between the two hegemonic powers of the time. In conclusion it can be seen that the Cold War should not be viewed as an exclusively ideological struggle between the forces of neo-liberalism and communism but should deny any single motive narrative. The Cold War was a result of a combination of factors, but should be viewed in the of a power struggle between the two major powers of the time motivated by the promotion of each sides interest with the two opposing ideologies of either side only serving to exacerbate the conflict. This is not to say that ideology played no role in the onset of the Cold War, but that the conflict should not be viewed in a solely ideological light. Bibliography Foner E. Give Me Liverty: An American History. 4th Ed. (W.W. Norton

I need this done by tomorrow night, directions are listed.

I need this done by tomorrow night, directions are listed..

Outline Study Questions below as if they were an essay you
were asked on the exam.  You can bullet
point them or provide a formal outline. 
Answer each with a thesis, what evidence you would use to support your
argument, and the basic issues at hand for each question.
1. 
What significant differences are there between the
religious groups of Britain that settled in America?  Why were they unable to form a unified
presence in the colonies?
2. 
Explain the different wars in Europe played out on
American Soil (see chart on p. 112).  Why
did European events have such a large effect on the colonies?
3. 
Trace the development of the Navigation Acts, Townshend
Acts and Intolerable Acts as motivations for the start of the American
Revolution. 
4. 
What role did the philosophes and the new political
thoughts in Europe have on American political movements?  (use the powerpoint slides for further info)
5. 
Discuss early democratic experiences by settlers in
America through religious, social and regional political structures. 

I need this done by tomorrow night, directions are listed.

Identity Project

programming assignment help Identity Project.

You must identify the everyday details that illustrate your unique family and cultural communities. You will share personal and cultural details which include:1. family pictures,2. your birthplace,3. description of your home (physical characteristics),4. birthplace of your parents,5. names of family members,6. languages you are surrounded with (what you hear and speak on a daily basis),7. common sayings by parents and grandparents (words of wisdom shared with you),8. everyday items (things you use every day),9. everyday foods,10. foods for special occasions,11. type of music enjoyed,12. family stories.Using photos in digital form, you will create a slideshow or PowerPoint (more than 15 slides) in order to share your cultural heritage.Above I put the instructions by the professor. Attached is my ppt that is icomplete, pls use that information to complete the ppt, some parts are in spanish, pls complete everything in english. Thanks
Identity Project

University of Wisconsin Madison Michelle Singletary in Love And Money Essay

University of Wisconsin Madison Michelle Singletary in Love And Money Essay.

I’m working on a social science writing question and need an explanation to help me understand better.

As a way to synthesize the materials for the week, please write a 300-500 word paragraph that engages the important ideas and themes for the module. You are required to cover the following areas:In your post, you must include reference three of the materials for the week — two of the three starred materials for the week are required as material you are references, plus one other video, reading, podcast etc. of your choice, which could be the third starred source. Please BOLD the names of the readings/concepts in your post. (Academic citation is NOT necessary in this Weekly Post)A significant connection of one of these concepts to your individual life must be included.Proper grammar and spelling is required.In a SECOND section of the post, at least one key term must defined in the writing using your own words (simply copying and pasting a definition from a reading or lecture is not acceptable).In a THIRD section create a discussion question that engages module concepts and invites people to think critically about connections with other material or their lives. You will post this discussion question (and only the discussion question) to your assigned group discussion board for other classmates to respond to.SOURCES ARE ATTACHED BELOW
University of Wisconsin Madison Michelle Singletary in Love And Money Essay

Affect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells

Affect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells. The Affect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells Abstract The concentration of the solute and size dictates the direction osmotic effect will occur. The experimental objective is to observe rabbit red blood cells in various solution of different tonicity, isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic, and if hemolysis can occur or not. Eight organic solvents were used to observe hemolysis, Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Urea, Thiourea, Glucose, Arabinose, Xylose, Sucrose, Glycerol, Monoacetin, Triacetin, and Diacetin. The time it took for hemolysis to occur for each solvent were plotted on two graphs, one molecular weight vs. time and the other lipid-water partition coefficient vs. time. The result of these findings suggest that smaller molecules hemolysis faster as compared to larger molecules and the stronger the lipid-water partition coefficient the fast hemolysis can occur regardless of the size of the molecule. Introduction The plasma membrane is a biological membrane that allows separation of the exterior environment from the interior environment of a cell (Cooper GM, 2000). The plasma membrane comprises of a lipid bilayer which has embedded proteins that allow regulated movement of small molecules and atoms across the membrane for selective permeability (Cooper GM, 2000). This movement can either be classified as passive or active (requires energy) (Cooper GM, 2000). Passive transport can be done by osmosis and diffusion which exists in organic and inorganic systems (Cooper GM, 2000). Diffusion is instigated by the movement of molecules and atoms from high concentration to low concentration (Cooper GM, 2000). Diffusion continues until a uniform dispersal of the molecules is present in the solution (Odom, 1995). In liquid solutions there is constant random motion even though it is slow compared to gas diffusion which is fairly rapid (Cooper GM, 2000). The rate of diffusion is influenced by the temperature, increase in temperature increase the collision of the molecules, and the concentration gradient which also has proportional effect (Odom, 1995). For passive diffusion the molecules travel across the phospholipid bilayer without the need for any membrane proteins but instead it is controlled by the concentration of the outside and the inside of the cell (Cooper GM, 2000). Only small hydrophobic molecules can diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer, such as O₂ and CO₂ (Cooper GM, 2000). Larger molecules are unable to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane but instead can through the use of facilitated diffusion, active transport and channel proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). This allows amino acids, carbohydrates, polar/charged molecules, ions and nucleosides to travel across the cell membrane (Cooper GM, 2000). This form of diffusion is done by the concentration gradient to allow the molecules to travel across the member but the unlike passive diffusion, that allows the molecules to dissolve in the phospholipid bilayer, this is accomplish by proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). There are two kinds of proteins that allow facilitated diffusion to occur, channel and carrier proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). Channel proteins allow diffusion through pores in the membrane for specific charge and size of a molecule that open and close (Cooper GM, 2000). Carrier proteins require a confirmation change through the binding of a substrate that allows a molecule to travel across the membrane from one side to the other (Cooper GM, 2000). Sugars, nucleosides and amino acids primarily cross the membrane through carrier proteins (Cooper GM, 2000). Another form of movement by molecules and atoms is through osmosis (Borg, 2003). Osmosis is the phenomenon where a solute of low concentration can travel across the semi-permeable membrane to an area of higher concentration (Borg, 2003). This allows us to understand the attraction of water, the most permeable, to other solutes in terms of osmosis (Borg, 2003). This is simply due to the theory of hydration, where the molecules of the solute are surrounded by water because of the attraction present between them (Borg, 2003). This phenomenon allows the water to move from one side of the cell to the other through a semi-permeable when there is not enough water on one side to allow for the solute-water attraction (Borg, 2003). The factors that govern this are: solute concentration, dissociation of the solute, plasma membrane permeability as well as the temperature of the solution (Borg, 2003). However, this is mainly governed by the plasma membrane permeability and it only last until an equilibrium is achieved between the concentrations of the environment outside and inside of the cell (Borg, 2003). The red blood cells are used to understand the functions of the plasma membrane in terms of diffusion and osmosis, as it relates to hemolysis (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Hemolysis is the rapture of red blood cells (erythrocyte) that causes hemoglobin to be released from the red blood cells into its surrounding aqueous solution (Animal Physiology I, 2018). This rapid hemolysis can be attributed to the membrane holes that appear after osmotic hemolysis has started (Seeman et al., 1973). Another reason hemolysis can occur is if the red blood cells are exposed to hypotonic or hypertonic solutions, which is the objective of this experiment (Sowemimo-Coker, 2002). The objective is to understand three known phenomena of solutions – isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic – in eight different organic solutions (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Isotonic is when the solution maintains same volume inside and outside the cell having the same osmotic pression that is across the cell membrane (Animal Physiology I, 2018). When the volume inside the cell increases then a hypotonic (swelling of the cell) solution is expected while if the volume inside the cell decreases a hypertonic (shrinkage of the cell) solution is observed (Animal Physiology I, 2018). The eight different organic solutions are split into three different groups (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group A consists of Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Urea, and Thiourea (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group B consists of Glucose, Arabinose, Xylose, and Sucrose (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Group C consists of Glycerol, Monoacetin, Diacetin, and Triacetin (Animal Physiology I, 2018). It is hypothesized the larger molecules will have a slower time to hemolysis compared to smaller molecules. Methods and Materials The experiment was conducted as per the lab protocol for Lab 1, Animal Physiology 1 SC/BIOL 3060. See lab protocol for Lab 1 (Animal Physiology I, 2018). Results Table 1: All the organic solutions used with their corresponding hemolysis time, lipid-water partition coefficient and molecular weight. Organic Solution Time to Hemolysis (min) Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient Molecular Weight Ethanol 0.03 0.04 46 Ethylene glycol 0.25 0.0007 62 Urea 0.17 0.0002 60 Thiourea 0.5 0.002 76 Glucose 0 0.00003 180 Arabinose 0 0.00003 150 Xylose 0 0.00003 150 Sucrose 0 0.00003 342 Gylcerol 0.58 0.00007 92 Monoacetin 0.012 0.01 134 Diacetin 2.5 0.09 176 Triacetin 0.03 0.9 218 Figure 1: The time taken for each organic solution to undergo hemolysis compared to their lipid-water partition coefficient for their respectively. The lipid-water partition coefficient: Group A consists of Ethanol (0.04), Ethylene Glycol (0.0007), Urea (0.0002), Thiourea (0.002), Group B consists of Glucose (0.00003), Arabinose (0.00003), Xylose (0.00003), Sucrose (0.00003), and Group C consists of Glycerol (0.00007), Monoacetin (0.01), Diacetin (0.09), Triacetin (0.9) Figure 2: The time taken for each organic solution to undergo hemolysis compared to their molecular weight respectively. The molecular weight: Group A consists of Ethanol (46), Ethylene Glycol (62), Urea (60), Thiourea (76), Group B consists of Glucose (180), Arabinose (150), Xylose (150), Sucrose (342), and Group C consists of Glycerol (92), Monoacetin (134), Diacetin (176), Triacetin (218) The factors investigated are: lipid-water partition coefficient and molecular weight, both plotted against the time it takes for the organic solutions to undergo hemolysis (Figure 1 and 2 respectively). The lipid-water partition coefficient and time for hemolysis (in minutes) correspondingly are: Group A consists of Ethanol (0.04 and 0.03), Ethylene Glycol (0.0007 and 0.25), Urea (0.0002 and 0.17), Thiourea (0.002 and 0.5), Group B consists of Glucose (0.00003 and 0), Arabinose (0.00003 and 0), Xylose (0.00003 and 0), Sucrose (0.00003 and 0), and Group C consists of Glycerol (0.00007 and 0.58), Monoacetin (0.01 and 0.012), Diacetin (0.09 and 2.5), Triacetin (0.9 and 0.03). The molecular weight and time for hemolysis (in minutes) correspondingly are: Group A consists of Ethanol (46 and 0.03), Ethylene 3Glycol (62 and 0.25), Urea (60 and 0.17), Thiourea (76 and 0.5), Group B consists of Glucose (180 and 0), Arabinose (150 and 0), Xylose (150 and 0), Sucrose (342 and 0), and Group C consists of Glycerol (92 and 0.58), Monoacetin (134 and 0.012), Diacetin (176 and 2.5), Triacetin (218 and 0.03). For the first figure the equation of the line and R² is: Group A the equation of the line y = -6.7979x 0.3104, R² = 0.4533 and Group C the equation of the line is y=-0.93x 1.013, R² = 0.1184. For the second figure the equation of the line and R² are: Group A the equation of the line y = 0.0158x – 0.7247, R² = 0.964 and Group C the equation of the line y = 0.002x 0.4712, R² = 0.0085. Discussion and Conclusion The R² is used to correlate the relationship between two variables plotted on a graph. For Figure 1 the R² for Group A is 0.4533 and Group C it is 0.1184. This indicates that the lipid-water partition coefficient for Group A has a relatively strong correlation with the time it takes to hemolyze, Group C does not have a strong correlation since the R² value is small. For Group A the relative strong correlation is due to the polar compounds that are in that group which allows them to diffusion into the red blood cells to cause hemolysis (Burgen, 1962). For Group B there is no relationship between the two as the time to hemolyze is zero for all of the organic solutions in that group. The reason for this is all of the organic solutions are sugars. Sugars require facilitated diffusion and do not readily diffuse into a cell unless the need occurs (Cooper GM, 2000). They are also known to decrease the osmotic pressure inside the cell since sugar molecules to do not readily diffuse through the membrane and thus the hemolysis rate is non-existent or is significantly lower as compared to the other groups (Grosicki and Husas, 1954). Group C molecules have a higher lipid-water partition coefficient than the other groups which indicated they are more willingly to diffusion through the membrane of the red blood cells. The reason behind this is because organic molecules are known to have an attraction towards solvents where predominately a non-polar hydrocarbon structure exists (Jacobs, 1950). Therefore, greater the partition coefficient is between the organic solvent and water, the more easily the organic solvent is able to enter the cell (Jacobs, 1950). Although for polar solvents it is the opposite effect in terms of permeability into the cell (Jacobs, 1950). So, there is an increase in the rate of diffusion into the red blood cell as the lipid solubility increases even though the molecular weight is higher (Jacobs, 1950). For Figure 2 R² for Group A is 0.964 and Group C it is 0.0085. There is no R² value for Group B since the organic solvents in that group did not undergo hemolysis. This shows that the molecular weight of the organic solvent has an impact on the time it takes to undergo hemolysis after the blood suspension was added, the smaller the molecule the faster the hemolysis occurs (as shown in Figure 2). This is due to the simple fact the plasma membrane is generally more permeable to smaller molecules as compared to larger one as they enter the cell effortlessly (Jacobs, 1950). So, the hemolysis rate is dependent on the size of the molecules (Shalel et al., 2002). Although the permeability of red blood cells varies from species to species for small molecules (Jacobs, 1950). For Group B in both figures no hemolysis had occurred (see Table 1). This can be attributed to the chance that the concentration of the cell and the solution is the same which would create an isosmotic solution, preventing hemolysis from occurring since there is no diffusion taking place. This can be prevented by changing the concentrations of the sugars to either higher or lower than the stated concentration to see if there is a possibility of hemolysis to occur or not. In conclusion, the larger the lipid-water partition coefficient the organic molecule has the more readily it can diffusion into the red blood cell and cause hemolysis, regardless of the size of the molecule. For the molecular weight of an organic molecule it is found the larger the molecule the harder it would be to diffuse through the cell membrane of the red blood cell as compared to a molecule with a smaller molecule weight the time to hemolysis is smaller. References – Animal Physiology I. Laboratory 1: Properties of Membranes. SC/BIOL 3060, 2018. York University. – Borg, F.G., 2003. What is osmosis? Explanation and understanding of a physical phenomenon. arXiv preprint physics/0305011. – Burgen, A.S.V., 1962. The structure and function of cell membranes. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology, 40(9), pp.1253-1260. – Cooper GM, 2000. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; Transport of Small Molecules. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9847/ – Grosicki, T.S. and Husas, W.J., 1954. Isotonic solutions. III. Amino acids and sugars. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 43(10), pp.632-635. – Jacobs, M.H., 1950. Surface properties of the erythrocyte. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 50(8), pp.824-834. – Odom, A.L., 1995. SecondaryAffect of Molecular Weight and Lipid-Water Partition Coefficient on Understanding Hemolysis with Rabbit Red Blood Cells