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Care of a Confused Client

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Care of a Confused Client TABLE OF CONTENTS QUESTIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 ANSWERS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 CARE OF A CONFUSED CLIENT 1.- Development of a client profile and assessment of individual client need. 2.- Determine the level of assistance required to complete activities of daily living. 3.- Maintaining a safe environment. 4.- Promote client involvement in social events and therapies. 5.- Mobility including falls and pressure area care. 6.- Effective verbal and written communication with client and healthcare team. 7.- Assist clients with activities of daily living. 8.- Promote the rights of the client to dignity, privacy, independence, positive self image. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this assignment of the module Care Skills FETAC Level 5 Major Award is to expose the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired by the learner on the subject of caring, specifically in care of a confused client. Many people forget someone’s name or lose things from time to time. This kind of forgetfulness is normal. But forgetting how to get home or ask questions again and again may be signs of a problem. Confusion is a common problem in persons over 65 years of age. They may have forgotten how to perform well-learned skills such as dressing themselves or language problems. Also, orientation, visual or motor problems. It may be a symptom of delirium or dementia. Delirium is a transient global disorder of cognition and consciousness. Causes of delirium include metabolic disorders, infections and medications. Dementia is characterized by a decline in intellectual functioning to the extent that patients are unable to perform their usual daily activities. Dementia include illnesses as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, central nervous system trauma. The philosophy of this assignment is to show that caring involves not only the giving of physical care, also the giving of emotional support and understanding to the resident and family and the ability to encourage the person to gain independence. The methodology of this assignment combines class and tutor notes; research on internet and the library; and the appropriate legislation. This is the case of Matthew and his health care assistant Emma. Emma arrived at Mr. and Mrs. Haselt’s home in April and got the following ananmesis of Mr. Haselt from his wife. Matthew has been married with his wife Anna for 48 years, both are 70 years old. They have two children living in the same town. Matthew a retired history teacher began to noticed that he was having problems remembering friends’ names and phone numbers one year ago. Anna has been aware of her husband’s progressive cognitive decline, including forgetting current news from last night’s newspaper or confusing their children’s names. Anna states that problems seem to exacerbate with the time. He seems easily agitated, his sleep habits are jumbled; and he has long periods of wakefulness in the nighttime. They decided to go to the doctor. The Haselts was referred to a neurologist for evaluation. The doctor makes to Matthew differents evaluations and diagnostic testing, such as: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) evaluates the cognitive domains of orientation, registration, attention, memory and language. Less than 24 is considered abnormal. This is not diagnostic of dementia or delirium, but it does reflect the severity of cognitive impairment. The Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) assesses the cognitive domains of orientation, mathematics skill and both short- and long-term memory. Between 3 – 4 errors is considered a mild intellectual impairment. Mr. Haselt scored 21 points on the MMSE and 4 errors on the SPMSQ. The neurologist diagnosed dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (stage 2). Mr Haselt intends to remain in his home for as long as he can, so they decided to hire a healthcare assistant, Emma, to help them. Emma explained Ann Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. The confusion and the loss of functional ability are caused by brain cell death (tangles) and interruption in communication of brain cells (amyloid plaques). The symptoms and progression begin slowly and worsen in each of the four stages of the disease. Symptoms may vary in clients; some clients progress quickly through each stage, whereas others may live for years without completely deteriorating. Stage 1, mild dementia, Matthew may appear normal. He can function with minimal assistance and supervision, and usually is still living at home. Stage 2, moderate dementia, Matthew will continue in good physical health but memory loss is apparent. Stage 3, severe dementia, Matthew will not function alone and becomes increasingly more dependent on caregiver. This stage involves greater mental deterioration and decline in motor ability. Stage 4, the terminal stage, Matthew will becomes totally dependent upon others for care and will develops severe physical problems. Death usually occurs due to complications of immobility or respiratory infections. On the first day of work Emma spends the day with Matthew and identified some hazards at the house. Later on, she proposes the following objectives: • To provide a safe environment: – Remove rugs, extension cords and anything that can cause trip and fall. Avoid rearranging the furniture. – Install handrails to prevent falls. – Install locks on cabinets that contain medicine, dangerous utensils and controls on the oven and stove. – Labeling drawers with their contents. – Provide extra lighting in dark areas, especially a night-light in the bathroom. – Install raised bars to help them get on and off the toilet. – It is important for Matthew to carry appropriate identification at all times including his name, address and an emergency contact number. For example, an identity bracelet. • To participate in out-of-home activities. – The Hastle’s and their sons attend the weekly local support group meetings for Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. – Matthew has to go physiotherapy three times a week. While Ann will visit her friends. – Matthew receives visit at home and also goes to the Community center every Tuesday. • To avoid any kind of injury, such as bedsores, she recommends to Ann buying a air-filled mattress. Also to use cushions to protect bony areas and Emma inspect Matthew’s skin daily. • To resolve Matthew communications problems: Sometimes it is difficult to Matthew to find words, understand, write, read or express emotions. This inability to comprehend and process information distresses him. Emma tells the family to follow these tips for communicate with Matthew: ­- Stand in front of Matthew and look into his eyes. – Use simple and direct directions. – Stay calm and allow time for Matthew to understand and respond. – Remember that Matthew still have feelings and emotions even though they may not always understand what you are saying. – Use positive body language and touch because this is an important part of communication. – Emma does with Matthew repetitive hand activities to keep Mathew’s mind and hands busy. She uses a “rummage box” filled with soft things like washcloths and balls of yarn. Also, she uses games and large print playing cards. • To establish and maintain a daily routine to perform daily activities, such as bathing , grooming, feeding, dressing, drug delivery in an orderly, accurate and establishing schedules. It may help to Matthew to maintain and even improve his skills, giving greater security and autonomy. • To do the grooming and hygiene activities: – Emma choose the mornings for Matthew personal care as he seems calmer in the morning. – Make sure there is enough warmth and light in the bathroom – Play classical music because as it seems to relax and sooth Matthew. • To manage Matthew’s eating and nutrition needs: – Offer snacks, drinks and meals regularly, perhaps trying 5-6 small meals a day. – Serve one course at a time. – Serve foods that are familiar to Matthew. – Demonstrate chewing if this seems to be a problem, and eat with Matthew so he can copy her. – Consider nutrition supplements, particularly in later stages of dementia when he will tend to lose a lot of weight. – When Emma is not at home, she has prepared a blackboard with hours and foods that Ann will have to give Matthew. • To manage Matthew’s incontinence needs: – Watches for non-verbal clues such as pulling on clothes and increased agitation, and when this happens, she uses short, simple words to suggest Matthew go to the toilet. – Buy clothing with elastic and velcro waistbands so Matthew can easily remove and put it back on again. • To achieve 7 uninterrupted hours of sleep at night: – Do exercise with Matthew. For example, walk with Matthew and Ann in the mornings; exercies at home. – Not drinking too much caffeine. – Try that Matthew does not feel too cold or too hot. Ann and her sons are very happy with Emma because she always treated Mathew with dignity and respect. She displayed empathy and interest to Matthew. She knew his past, likes, and dislikes. She always introduced herself, called Mathew by his name. Spokes softly, in a low-pitched voice. Emma explained each task by providing short, one-step directions. Showed Matthew how to begin a specific task such as, brushing hair. Emma spent time encouraging Matthew to talk about his family and past experiences. Emma always asked Matthew what he wanted to wear, sometimes he answered and elegy, his gray suit, others simply smiled but always went out into the street with great elegance. Emma was with Matthew until the last moments of his life providing spiritual and paliative care. She adapted her work to the changes that this disease caused Matthew. She will always remember what Mattheer told her about his illness: Alzheimer’s disease acts as a thief memory. First, the disease robs my daily memory; then it undermines my ability to reason, learn, speak and act, until eventually wrest me the most basic human capabilities. I know this will be a long way to go but I will be good company and I will be careful. BIBLIOGRAPHY Creative Training (2013) ‘Creative Training Student Manual’, Naas: Creative Training. Dementia (2014) Caring for someone with dementia. PDF [Online]. Available: [Accessed 27 November 2014]. National Center of Continuing Education (2014) Confused about confusion. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 November 2014]. Nursing Care Plan (2014) A client with AD. PDF [Online]. Available: [Accessed 26 November 2014]. Myagedcare (2014) Caring for the client who is confused or mentally ill [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 November 2014]. RNAO, Nursing Best Practice Guidelines (2014) Interventions for delirium. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 November 2014]. American Family Physician (2014) Diagnostic Approach to the Confused Elderly Patient [Online], available: [accessed 26 November 2014]. Health Information and Quality Authority (2014) National Quality Standards for Residential Care Settings for Older People in Ireland [Online], available: [accessed 26 November 2014]. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
Today, the most influential initiatives of the U.S. Government in relation to the question of the national security are realized depending on the principles of the developed War on Terror. To prevent the terrorist’s activity means preserving the security of the Americans. That is why, to cope with the task successfully, it is necessary to combine all the efforts in gathering and analyzing the information which can be discussed as important for preventing the definite threats of terror and crimes dangerous for millions of people. Thus, having analyzed the problem, the authorities concluded that the information and intelligence should be shared between the federal government, and state, local, tribal, and private sector partners. The main concept following which the process can be completed effectively is the idea of collaboration. Intending to create the conditions for the public safety at the local levels and for improving the principles of national security in general, the U.S. Government developed significant programs and took the definite initiatives in order to provide the activities in preventing the treats of terror and the other crimes. From this point, it is necessary to concentrate on the importance of creating the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the State and Local Fusion Centers (SLFCs) regulated by DHS, and the National Information Sharing Strategy controlled by FBI as the initiatives the obvious effects of which can be assessed. The necessity of creating the special department for preserving the national security became obvious as a result of rethinking the threats of the terror after September 11, 2001. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security was founded in order to respond to the threats which are associated with the domestic emergencies when the Department of Defense is responsible for the military questions and issues of the state’s security in this field (Defense Intelligence Agency 2012). In this case, the threat of terrorist’s attacks is discussed as the most controversial problem which requires its continuous controlling and effective solving. Nevertheless, it is impossible to regulate the situation successfully with accentuating only the centralized control because it is significant to create the environment in which the shared information could be successfully gathered and analyzed to prevent the risky situations. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ideas on the improvement of sharing the information and intelligence between the state and local levels of government were realized with establishing the State and Local Fusion Centers. In spite of the fact the positive results of creating the SLFCs are usually stated as the system’s successes, there is no single vision of the role of these centers for preserving the national security (Fusion Center Success Stories n.d.; ODNI 2012). The Fusion Centers were organized as the practical realization of the idea of sharing the threat-related information and intelligence between the state, local, and tribal levels of government. It is possible to agree that the effective control of the situation at all the countries’ levels and territories is difficult to be realized without references to the local centers. Thus, it is important to gather, share, and analyze the information locally in order to guarantee the protection of the definite communities. This fact contributes to increasing the law enforcement in general. Nevertheless, working with the questions of the potential threats, it is important to be attentive to the problem of the privacy and to find the balance between determining the threat’s potentials, protecting security, and preserving the right of privacy. The Fusion Centers work to prevent the realization of the certain threat and often stop it with references to the information taken from the private sector (ODNI 2012). This controversial point is actively discussed by the researchers of these initiatives’ effectiveness. To prevent the threats and examine their possibilities, the methods and strategies of FBI were used. That is why, the development of the National Information Sharing Strategy on the basis of FBI was determined. Today, the necessity of gathering and sharing the threat-related information and intelligence is perceived as the important task realized by the government at all the levels. That is why, the reports of FBI in relation to the National Information Sharing Strategy are focused on the details of the projects in protecting the Americans from the possible terrorist’s attacks or the other threats (Johnson 2007). From this point, the accents are made on the responsibility of the Government and every person to contribute to the national security following the principles of the National Information Sharing Strategy or participating in the work of the State and Local Fusion Centers. We will write a custom Essay on The U.S. Government’s Initiatives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fact of sharing the threat-related information and intelligence is important for preserving the national security in the USA. To respond to the requirements of the modern situation in the world, it is necessary to pay attention to the principle of collaboration when the powers at all the levels are combined in order to reach the definite results. Therefore, the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security and the State and Local Fusion Centers is the steps toward creating the positive environment for enforcing the local officials to regulate the situation and enabling the state officials to receive the complex picture of the situation in the country. Reference List Defense Intelligence Agency. 2012-2017 DIA Strategic Plan. May 18, 2012. . Fusion Center Success Stories. Homeland Security. n.d. . Johnson, Loch K. 2007. Handbook of intelligence studies. New York, NY: Routledge. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence. U.S. National intelligence: An overview 2011. February 2, 2012. .
University Canada West Week 10 Ethics and CSR Project.

In this project, you are going to set up a fictitious business of your own in any province of Canada and take the perspective of the Chief Executive Officer to reflect on the dimensions of business ethics/corporate social responsibility (CSR) of your company. More specifically, you will:  Briefly describe your company (your industry, your main product and/or services, the scope and size of your operations). Discuss the range of ethical/CSR issues and unique challenges that your company faces. Identify your company’s stakeholders and their varying interests. Discuss how your company goes about managing ethical issues, CSR activities, and stakeholder interests in practice. 
Please provide examples for each to illustrate your points. Create a short position statement for the management of your company outlining your overall CSR strategy. What types of activities fall within your CSR strategy and what types of activities are excluded? Why? Discuss the potential implications (positive or negative) of your approach.  
The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate your understanding of the material that is covered in the course. This can best be accomplished by making use of concrete, specific examples to illustrate your understanding of how to apply the concepts. 
University Canada West Week 10 Ethics and CSR Project

Moorpark College Gentrification and White Flight Discussion Post.

I’m working on a writing discussion question and need a sample draft to help me learn.

1. Define & Discuss
What are “white flight” and “gentrification”? Define each briefly, and offer a concise explanation of how both have racial implications for neighborhoods and communities. 
2. Illustrative Example | Clybourne Park
(B) EXAMPLE: The play, Clybourne Park addresses both white flight and gentrification – both overtly and subtly, or by implication. Find a scene or exchange of dialogue in the play that refers to or explores the dynamics or consequences of either of these — white flight or gentrification — and briefly discuss the example you chose. Include a short quoted excerpt if possible, (with the page number).  
Moorpark College Gentrification and White Flight Discussion Post

Hotel Expansion Loan Analysis Room Scheduling Microsoft Excel Assignment

Hotel Expansion Loan Analysis Room Scheduling Microsoft Excel Assignment.

Project Description: The hotel at the Painted Paradise Resort and Spa is looking to expand its ability to hold business conventions. You have been asked to help in a variety of ways. First, a list of businesses has been provided to you as a comma-delimited text file. You will need to import this data into and Excel workbook so that these businesses can be contacted later. Second, Painted Paradise is considering taking out a loan to pay for the construction of new meeting spaces for business conventions. You have been asked to help develop a loan analysis for this project. Lastly, the new meeting spaces will add to the three rooms already available to the hotel. You have been asked to develop a Solver model to help determine the optimal number of events that should be scheduled in each room in order to maximize profit. You have been told that the Eldorado Room currently has two regularly occurring meetings per month.
Hotel Expansion Loan Analysis Room Scheduling Microsoft Excel Assignment

Write the bad news letter with the following scenario.

custom essay Write the bad news letter with the following scenario..

Basic OverviewYou are tasked with writing a “bad news” email. A “bad news” letter/email contains a negative message (a message that is perceived as unpleasant, disappointing, or unfavorable by the receiver).RequirementsRespond to the scenario listed belowWrite a minimum of 2 paragraphs (containing 3-5 sentences each) and a maximum of 4 paragraphs.Organize your email using traditional corporate structure with To:, CC:, and BCC, and in the correct order.Include a complete email signature using your real name, and fictitious title and company name. Utilize the guidelines for negative messages discussed in your text and in class.o Use the indirect approach, including: an opening buffer, reasons for the decision/situation, presentation of the “bad news”, and a positive closing. Watch for grammar, punctuationScenario: Profits vs. Risk to SocietyYou are an engineer or scientist charged with performing safety testing as well as obtaining approval from a regulatory agency or outside testing laboratory of your company’s product – ThingamaBob v20 (TB20). TB20 has been tested and found compliant with both voluntary and mandatory safety standards in North America and Europe.Because of a purchase-order error and subsequent oversights in manufacturing, 25,000 units of TB20 were built that are notcompliant to any of the North American or European safety standards. Under some plausible combination of events, the user of TB20 could face serious danger. Retrofitting these products to make them compliant is not feasible because the rework costs would far exceed the profit margin. Everyone agrees that because of this defect, the agency safety-labels will not be attached to the bad units, as per the requirements of the regulatory agencies. Only two options exist:(a) Scrap the units and take the loss. (b) Sell the units.An employee of the company notes that many countries have no safety standards of any kind for this type of product. It is suggested that the bad units be marketed in these countries. It is pointed out that many of these nations have little to no regulations/codes concerning products like TB20; or if codes/regulations exist, they are not enforced. The argument is thus advanced that the bad TB20 units are no worse than similar products available in these countries. Assume that no treaties or export regulations would be violated.Your direct supervisor (Mohammad Dostyar, Project Manager) has asked you to select which of the options above you support. He also agrees that the bad units should be marketed to a country with few/no safety standards. **You disagree with your manager’s stance on this very serious issue.** You need to write an email response. The following people MUST be included in your response and in the appropriate order (To/CC/BCC): Project Manager: Mohammad Dostyar; Manager’s Executive Assistant: Geoffrey Lotz; Chief Executive Officer: Lorena Sanchez Vice President, Human Resources: Gina JohnsonSenior Vice President, Safety & Design: Kaveri Patel
Write the bad news letter with the following scenario.

Nimesulide Mouth Dissolving Tablets: Evaluation

Nimesulide Mouth Dissolving Tablets: Evaluation. ABSTRACT Mouth dissolving tablets has number of advantage viz., faster onset of action, elegance, ease of administration, ease of manufacturing, ease of storage and transport. A novel attempt has been made to develop mouth dissolving tablets of Nimesulide by including clove oil as flavouring and local anesthetic agent on taste buds. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The formulated tablets were evaluated for Pre formulation and post formulation parameters and they were found to be satisfactory. The formulated mouth dissolving tablets possessed good drug releasing property, good mouth feel and improved drug availability with better patient compliance. Keywords: Mouth dissolving tablet, Nimesulide, direct compression method, superdisintegrants. INTRODUCTION Pediatric and geriatric patients, have difficulty in swallowing solid dosage forms. These patients are unwilling to take these solid preparations due to a fear of choking. In order to assist these patients, several mouth dissolving drug delivery systems has been developed. Mouth dissolving tablets can be prepared by direct compression, wet granulation, moulding, spray drying, freeze drying or sublimation methods (Biradar SS., 2006). Mouth dissolving tablets dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water, releasing the drug (Kaushik D., 2004). Some drugs are absorbed from the oral cavity as the saliva passes down into the stomach. In such cases, bioavailability of drug is significantly greater than those observed from conventional tablet dosage form (Seager H., 1998). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed for inflammatory disorders. NSAIDs exert their effect through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-II, the main form of isozyme associated with inflammation. But the simultaneous inhibition of cyclooxygenase-I and the resulting gastric and renal dysfunction limit their frequent use ( Wallace JL. 1992). Nimesulide, a model active pharmaceutical ingredient acts specifically on cyclooxygenase-II and does not affect cyclooxygenase-I.( Singla AK et al., 2000) Hence, Nimesulide exerts its anti-inflammatory action while showing a marked increase in gastrointestinal tolerability and minimal incidences of renal dysfunction. Because of its additional action of inhibiting respiratory burst of phagocytosing neutrophils, nimesulide is also well tolerated by asthmatic patients (Dapino P et al 1994) Thus, it is one of the most commonly prescribed NSAIDs for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions such as tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, low back pain, etc. Nimesulide results in poor bioavailability when administered in the form of conventional tablets because of its high hydrophobicity and poor aqueous solubility (Piel G et al., 1997) Complexation and cosolvency techniques have been useful in improving the dissolution characteristics of nimesulide (Nalluri BN et al., 2003) The main criteria for mouth dissolving tablets is to disintegrate/dissolve rapidly in oral cavity with saliva in 60 sec, without need of water and should have pleasant mouth feel(Sharma S., 2008). It has been reported that Nimesulide possess bitter taste hence the primary objective is to mask the bitter taste and further developing the drug into mouth dissolving tablets. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials Nimesulide was a gift sample from Waksman SelmanPvt Ltd, Anantapur, India. Stevia leaf powder was obtained from the medicinal garden of Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India and authenticated by the Botany department of Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India. Mannitol, Clove oil, talc, micro crystalline cellulose, Cross carmellose sodium, Cross Povidone, magnesium stearate and talc were purchased from S.D. Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India. All other chemicals, solvents and reagents were used of either pharmacopoeial or analytical grade. Methods Preparation of Mouth Dissolving Tablets: (Kuchekar B.S., 2003) All the ingredients were passed through sieve No. 60. Nimesulide, mannitol, Micro Crystalline Cellulose and stevia leaf powder were triturated in a glass mortar. Superdisintegrants were incorporated in the powder mixture and finally magnesium stearate and talc were added as lubricant. The powder mix was weighed individually and compressed with 10mm flat face surface punches using hydraulic press single tablet punching machine. The formulae of various mouth dissolving tablets were shown in Table 1. Evaluation of the prepared tablet: (Avari, N.G., 2004, USP 24/NF 19, 2000)) Pre-compression parameters Compatibilities study Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectral analysis: Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FT-IR) spectrums of formulated tablets were obtained on a Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer, (Perkin Elmer, spectrum-100, Japan using the KBr disk method (2 mg sample in 200 mg KBr). The scanning range was 400 to 4000 cm-1 and the resolution was 1cm-1. This spectral analysis was employed to check the compatibility of drugs with the polymers used. Pre compression parameters The powdered blend was evaluated for flow properties viz., Angle of repose, loose bulk density (LBD), tapped bulk density (TBD), Carr’s compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. Post compression parameters: Thickness The thickness of the tablets was determined using a thickness screw gauge (Mitutoyo, New Delhi, India). Five tablets from each batch were used and average values were calculated. Hardness test Hardness indicates the ability of a tablet to withstand mechanical shocks while handling. The hardness of the tablets was determined using Monsanto hardness tester. It is expressed in kg/cm2. Three tablets were randomly picked and analyzed for hardness. The mean and standard deviation values were also calculated. Friability test The friability of tablets was determined using Roche Friabilator. The friabilator was operated at 25 rpm for 4 minutes or run up to 100 revolutions. The % friability was then calculated by eq.1. F= Winitial – Wfinal / Winitial X 100 ……………. (1) F= friability (%), Winitial = initial weight, Wfinal = Final weight Weight variation test To study weight variation, 20 tablets of each formulation were weighed using an electronic balance (Denver APX-100, Arvada, Colorado) and the test was performed according to the official method. Drug content uniformity Tablet containing 100mg of drug is dissolved in 100ml of 0.1N HCl taken in volumetric flask. The drug is allowed to dissolve in the solvent. The solution was filtered, 1ml of filtrate was taken in 50ml of volumetric flask and diluted up to mark with 0.1N HCl and analysed spectrophotometrically at 213 nm. The concentration of Nimesulide in mg/ml was obtained by using standard calibration curve of the drug. Claimed drug content was 100mg per tablet. Drug content studies were carried out in triplicate for each formulation batch. Wetting time The tablet was placed in a petridish of 6.5 cm in diameter, containing 10 ml of water at room temperature, and the time for complete wetting was recorded. To check for reproducibility, the measurements were carried out six times and the mean value calculated. Water absorption ratio A piece of tissue paper folded twice was placed in a small petridish containing 6ml of distilled water. A tablet was put on the paper and time required for complete wetting was measured. The wetted tablet was then weighed. Water absorption ratio, R, was determined using eq.2 R = 10 X (Wa – Wb) ……. (2) Wb Where, Wb = weight of the tablet before water absorption Wa = weight of the tablet after water absorption Three tablets from each formulation were analysed performed and standard deviation was also determined. In vitro dispersion time Tablet was placed in 10 ml phosphate buffer solution, pH 6.8±0.5oC. Time required for complete dispersion of a tablet was measured. In-vitro disintegration time The process of breakdown of a tablet into smaller particles is called as disintegration. The in-vitro disintegration time of a tablet was determined using disintegration test apparatus as per I.P. specifications. Place one tablet in each of the 6 tubes of the basket. Add a disc to each tube and run the apparatus using pH 6.8 (simulated saliva fluid) maintained at 37±20C as the immersion liquid. The assembly should be raised and lowered between 30 cycles per minute in the pH 6.8 maintained at 37±20C. The time in seconds taken for complete disintegration of the tablet with no palpable mass remaining in the apparatus was measured and recorded. Mouth feel To know mouth feel of the tablets, selected human volunteers were given placebo tablets and the taste sensation felt was evaluated. In-vitro dissolution studies In vitro release studies were carried out using tablet dissolution test apparatus USP XXIII. The following procedure was employed throughout the study to determine the in-vitro dissolution rate for all the formulations. The parameters in-vitro dissolution studies were tabulated in table 5. Accelerated Stability studies: The optimized formulation (F5) was tested for stability for a period of 3 months at accelerated conditions of a temperature 400C and a relative humidity of 75% RH, for their drug content as per ICH guidelines (Remunan C., 1992) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The FTIR spectrum of Nimesulide and formulation F5 were shown in Fig 1 and 2 respectively. The results obtained for angle of repose of the powdered blends was less than 300, the loose bulk density was ranged from 0.55±0.06 to 0.59±0.01 g/cm3, the tapped bulk density was ranged from 0.64±0.05 to 0.68±0.06 g/cm3, the percent compressibility was ranged from 15.25 to 16.36 %. All these values were represented in table 2. The mean thickness values were found in the range from 2.99±0.10 to 3.08±0.074 mm, the hardness of formulated tablets were found to be 5.99±0.21 to 7.22±0.16 kg/cm2, the loss in friability was ranged from 0.44 to 0.91, the weights of tablets were found to be from 299.11±6.25 to 300.80±5.66 g. The drug content in the formulations were ranged from 98.59±0.95 to 100.65±0.19 mg and these values were shown in table 3. The wetting time was ranged from 94 ± 1.66 to 100 ± 0.48 sec, the in-vitro disintegration time was ranged from 52±5.01 to 70±4.25 s, the mouth feel was palatable which were shown in table 4. The physical parameters of optimized formulation (F5) were shown in table 5. The characteristic peaks in FTIR spectrum of formulation blend retained the peaks which were observed with the pure drug. The All formulations showed angle of repose within 300 which indicates good that showed little higher angle of repose above 300 indicating fair flow. The values obtained lies within the acceptable range and not large differences found between loose bulk density and tapped bulk density. This result helps in calculating the % compressibility of the powder. All formulations show good compressibility. The formulated tablets were eligent and almost uniform thickness. All the formulations were almost uniform in specific method and possess good mechanical strength with sufficient hardness. The weight loss after friability test was found well within the approved range (<1%) in all the formulation, indicates the tablets possess good mechanical strength. All the tablets passed weight variation test as the % weight variation was within the pharmacopoeial limits of ±7.5%. All formulations showed quick wetting, this may be due to ability of swelling and also capacity of absorption of water. All superdisintegrants have high water absorption capacity and cause swelling. All formulations showed disintegration time less than 95 seconds, indicates the swelling of disintegration substance suggested mechanism of disintegration. The volunteers felt good taste in all the formulations. As the drug is not bitter and due to presence of stevia leaf powder, which is 400 times sweeter than sucrose and the Euginol in clove oil acts as both flavoring agent and local anesthetic agent to block the bitter taste of the drug on taste buds. In oral disintegration all the formulations showed rapid disintegration in oral cavity. By observing the above results use of cross cormilose sodium and cross Povidone, in direct compression method results in hydrophilicity and swelling which in turn causes rapid disintegration. Thus these disintegrants are suitable in preparing the rapidly disintegrating tablets. This rapid dissolution might be due to fast breakdown of particles of superdisintegrants. In all formulations the drug release was nearer to 100% within 12 minutes. The optimized formulation F5 was selected for accelerated stability studies and the tablets possessed the same parameters even after the stressed conditions, indicates good stability properties of formulation. Nimesulide Mouth Dissolving Tablets: Evaluation

The Sociology of Religion Aspects Essay

Discussing the aspects of sociology of religion, it is necessary to refer to the religion as the social phenomenon when the religious groups can be determined and analyzed as any other social groups according to their specifics and goals. The sociology of religion as the sphere of knowledge is developed by sociologists in relation to their discussion of the issues of religion in its connection with the society. There are a lot of problematic questions studied by sociologists in this field of knowledge which are associated with the nature of the people’s religious beliefs and realization of their religious practices in the social life. It is important to pay attention to the fact that religion as the concept within the sociology of religion is discussed and examined with the help of the scientific methods used in the field of sociology. However, the subject matter of such an examination is the people’s religious beliefs and practices. Thus, following Johnstone’s discussion, it is possible to state that sociology of religion can be defined as the study which focuses on determining and analyzing the people’s attitudes to the sacred notions, their beliefs and practices, and their visions of the definite sacred beings and events. There are questions about the relevance of discussing religion not as the individual choice or practice but as the social phenomenon studied by sociology of religion. Nevertheless, sociologists provide many arguments to support the idea that religion should be also examined in the context of sociology and that this subject is really important (Furseth). To support the vision, Johnstone analyzes Simmel’s considerations in relation to the issue and states that “society precedes religion. Before religion can develop, there must first exist general patterns of social interaction – that is, a society – that can serve as a model” (Johnstone 30). Thus, it is possible to conclude that any religion cannot exist without society because it emerges within it. From this perspective, the subject is important because it refers to both the society as studied by sociology and people’s religious visions. It is important to concentrate on studying sociology of religion because religion develops according to the definite patterns of interactions used within the definite social group (Furseth). Furthermore, in his statement, Turner provides the answers to the questions about the nature of the sociology of religion and its importance. According to Turner, “religion refers to those processes and institutions that render the social world intelligible, and which bind individuals authoritatively into the social order. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religion is therefore a matter of central importance to sociology” (Turner 284). Religion is important for the sociological studies because it is one of the major spheres of the people’s life, and it can influence the development of the social group in relation to determining the definite religious practices and rituals along with following the certain moral presumptions. The religious visions of different groups are also different. That is why, the study of the religious practices can provide researchers with the important information about this or that group of people as a kind of the social community. According to Turner, the examination of the religious phenomena among which it is possible to determine magic and myth can be effective for developing the sociological knowledge (Turner 284). In his turn, Johnstone states that religion is closely connected with studying the group dynamics as well the social impact that is why religion can be discussed as the subject matter of sociology (Johnstone 2). Moreover, the study of the members of the group and their interactions is significant to explain their religious beliefs, practices, and rituals. To understand the particular features of the social development, it is necessary to pay attention to the ideas and beliefs which are interesting for the representatives of the social groups at the spiritual level of their perception of the world. Sociologists are inclined to determine a lot of theories according to which the religious visions were developed and perceived by the public. It is necessary to accentuate the rational choice theory as the most appropriate one to explain the origins of religion from the sociological perspective. According to Johnstone, the rational choice theory is a theory that tries “to deal seriously with not only the persistence of religion but also the observation that some form of religion appears to be ubiquitous among societies, even if some individuals deny the validity of the religions that surround them” (Johnstone 36). In spite of the fact there are many opinions that the rational choice theory cannot be discussed as relevant to explain the origins of religion because of its rationality and appropriateness to refer to the economic processes rather than to the moral and spiritual choices, this theory is effective to discuss the people’s choice of religion as the conscious act to receive some benefits from this choice (Bruce). We will write a custom Essay on The Sociology of Religion Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rational choice theory can be used to explain how people make the necessary choice in relation to their religious vision. People are inclined to act rationally in almost all the spheres of their life, basing on the definite personal or public’s experience (Corcoran). To make the choice, it is important to examine the situation and its implications with references to the positive and negative perspectives. Johnstone accentuates the fact that people make the similar rational choices also in relation to choosing the religion (Johnstone 36). This choice is based on the experience and on the proper examination of the information about different religions, their rituals, practices, and moral presumptions. Johnstone stresses that “people have a set of mental images stored in their brains with which they make decisions as rationally and sensibly as they know how” (Johnstone 36). From this point, it is necessary to concentrate on making the right choice because of the variety of the possible religious visions which exist in the contemporary world. Sociology of religion began to develop in the 19th century, and a lot of its aspects require their further discussion by researchers because of the significant controversy in vision of the main theories used in sociology of religion to explain its main ideas or the nature of the religion as a phenomenon. The characteristic feature of sociology of religion as the study discussing the people’s religious beliefs and attitudes to the sacred points is the dependence on the empirical information used to examine the main aspects of this sphere of knowledge. Thus, the religious concepts and the people’s beliefs and practices are examined with the help of the sociological methods which are rather scientific, and they allow speaking about religion as the social phenomenon which can be observed and studied with references to the definite social group. Works Cited Bruce, Steve. “Religion and Rational Choice: A Critique of Economic Explanations of Religious Behavior”. Sociology of Religion 54.2 (1993): 193-205. Print. Corcoran, Katie. “Religious Human Capital Revisited: Testing the Effect of Religious Human Capital on Religious Participation”. Rationality and Society 24.3 (2012): 343-379. Print. Furseth, Inger. An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives. USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006. Print. Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. USA: Pearson, Prentice-Hall, 2007. Print. Not sure if you can write a paper on The Sociology of Religion Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Turner, Bryan. “The Sociology of Religion”. The SAGE Handbook of Sociology. Ed. Craig Calhoun. USA: SAGE, 2006. 284-300. Print.