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Capella University Safeguards to Protect Health Information Paper

Capella University Safeguards to Protect Health Information Paper.

Different third parties have varying needs for access to PHI; some do not need access at all, while others will see many items of identifying information about patients. When a third party needs access to PHI, HIPAA kicks in, imposing security and privacy requirements on the organization. Therefore it is important to know what information constitutes PHI, so you can determine how a third-party contractor must be managed. In addition, you need to know what safeguards must be in place if access to PHI is granted. In this assignment, you will develop a decision tool to determine if access to PHI is required and what types of safeguards must be in place before a business associate is given access to PHI. To protect patient privacy and information security and to avoid HIPAA compliance violations, a covered entity should give the third party only as much access as it needs to perform its function.InstructionsPreparation: Research as needed to determine which data constitutes PHI. Use the video in the Resources as an overview of security procedures related to HIPAA. Review the other resources for information on security requirements.Develop a decision tool that can be used to determine a third party’s need to access to PHI. Your tool should adhere to the following requirements:List which information is defined as PHI.Provide the criteria to determine if safeguards are required under HIPAA.Indicate which safeguards must be in place if a third party uses PHI.Decide if a business associate needs access to PHI based on the service they provide.Explain the three types of safeguards (administrative, physical and technical) required to protect health information.references:https://luxsci.com/blog/hipaa-compliance-checklist-what-you-need-to-do.htmlhttps://www.truevault.com/blog/how-do-i-become-hipaa-compliant.htmlhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hNUBMLVr9z4&feature=youtu.behttps://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/for-professionals/security/laws-regulations/index.htmlhttps://prsa.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/IAS/IAS5330/190400/Scoring_Guides/u04a1_scoring_guide.html
Capella University Safeguards to Protect Health Information Paper

BLAW CSU Northridge Wk 11 Responsibility Management in Amazon Discussion.

I’m working on a business Discussion and need an explanation to help me understand better.

1) When examining RM (Responsibility Management) for leading corporate citizens, Waddock presents Table 7.1 on page 233 to summarize RM Core Values and Concepts. Find TWO news article/paper that discusses a company that engages in one or more of these values on concepts found on the righthand side of the chart. 2) Post TWO hyperlink to the news article/paper (One hyperlink for each article).3) Write at approximately 250 words summarizing the article, analyzing it and explaining its findings to your classmates.( For each Article/news).
BLAW CSU Northridge Wk 11 Responsibility Management in Amazon Discussion

San Diego Miramar College Rural America Voted for Trump Essay.

The below instruction for this assignments is just copied/pasted and could be confusing. Please first check the “Modules” attached file to get more clear idea. All other documents are attached too. I will share with you the textbook and syllabus.Introduction-2 In this module, we’ll review the readings for the week & discuss them. It will be as clear as I can make it, and more weeks than not should follow this pattern for us. As you read the chapters, make note of the techniques they discuss. Keep in mind the features we’ve discussed of rhetorical analysis. As we read the sample essays, make sure you are using both of those sources to evaluate the essays. What rhetorical features do they have? What do they do well, and what do they do badly? Readings For this module, make sure read Chapter 2 (starting on page 30) “Her Point Is” and the three readings for the module (from pages 219-268): “Why America is Self-Segregating,” “The New Jim Crow,” and “Hillbilly Elegy.” If you can, please take notes in your book, particularly of rhetorical features you notice in the essays, and techniques from the chapters that the writers use well or badly. If you’re not able to write in your book, consider sticky notes. Discussion of Rhetorical Analysis Paper/Concept Paper This is the place to discuss and ask questions about the rhetorical analysis prompt and rhetorical analysis example essay. Everybody must write one of these essays. Lastly, this is the place to discuss the Concept papers. If you are going for an A or B, you will need to write this paper. You can find the Concept essay prompt and Concept essay example. “Why America is Self-Segregating” What is Danah Boyd arguing? What would she like us to do? What rhetorical features does her essay include? Is she using any techniques from Chapter 1 or 2? How well are these features working? Is she persuasive? What questions do you have? “The New Jim Crow” What was the “old” Jim Crow? How does Alexander explain her growing understanding of this issue? Is she using this explanation to accomplish a purpose? What rhetorical features do you see? Do you see any techniques used from chapters 1 and 2? How persuasive is she? What is she arguing must happen? “Hillbilly Elegy” In what ways does this essay echo (or contradict) the last essay? What could the two authors agree on? What might they have trouble agreeing on? What rhetorical features do you see here? What techniques from chapters 1 and 2 does he use? What would he like you to do? How persuasive is he? If he is (or isn’t) what parts of the essay, make you feel that way and why? Introduction-4 This week, we will look at the “art of quoting,” and, as we will every week, some more example readings.Before you proceed further, please read Chapter 3 (pages 43-52), and the example essays on pages 269-295. Other than concept & rhetorical analysis papers from students who have chosen readings due this week (which have separate modules at the bottom of the modules page), all this module will consist of will be discussions of the various readings. “As He Himself Puts It” What questions do you have, or insights do you want to share on this chapter? Quote Relevant Passages–the most important point here is that the quote must be meaningful. It’s not just that it must share some key words with what is being written about, but it must advance the discussion the writer is trying to have. Frame Every Quotation–here, it’s important that you tell us who said the thing (are they someone who would grab our attention or respect?), why their opinion, in particular, matters on the topic (at least the first time you mention them), and how this quote fits in to the context of the discussion. Blend the Author’s Words with Your Own–this is the idea of the “integrated quotation”–a quote that your sentence flows smoothly into and out of, with minimum distraction for the reader. reading the book will help you understand how to do this (as with all the concepts). Can You Overanalyze a Quotation? (What does our text say?) …and How Not to Introduce a Quotation (doing what they say not to here will mean you’ll get to rewrite your paper, so, again, please read & remember). “Minority Student Clubs: Segregation or Integration?” This essay was written by a student in a class equivalent to this one. How well do you think she did? Do you think your writing is as sophisticated as hers? If not, that may mean she got an earlier start than you did, but not that she is a naturally better writer. What’s one thing she does you could be better at? How will you go about getting better at that skill (I will help you if you’re serious, as will the writing center)? What is her “they say”? How does defining terms help her argument? How does she use counter arguments? Does this seem a serious & fair paper? Does her use of the word “I” damage that in any way (your teacher does not think so, but he does not require that you agree)? “Why Rural America Voted for Trump” Where do we start? What are Leonard’s qualifications, and do they lend him credibility? Who was the original audience for this piece? How does he distinguish his views from others? “A Tax System Stacked Against the 99 Percent” What are Stiglitz’s qualifications? What “they says” does he use?What is his response to them? In paragraph 17, Stiglitz begins with an argument he doesn’t agree with.How does he distinguish his own ideas from theirs? How and where does Stiglitz respond to the “so what” response so many readers have to all arguments?
San Diego Miramar College Rural America Voted for Trump Essay

Do not use any other sources, You may only use my sources. And finish this 7 pages paper. Can you help me understand this Political Science question?

Formatting Requirements: All essays must be in 12 point Times or Times New Roman font, double spaced, with one inch margins. Name, class information, and title blocks on the first page must be single spaced. Headers and footers on subsequent pages must be no more than one line.
Citations and Works Cited: Use parenthetical citations including lecture date or page number as is appropriate (Magagna Lecture DATE; Yao 2002 at 14). Works cited pages are not necessary unless citing material other than lectures or books listed in the syllabus’s required reading section.
Length: Essays shall be no longer than 7 pages. We will stop reading at the 7th page. There is no official minimum length. We do grade, however, on your ability to sustain arguments about complicated topics about which whole books are written so you should really not be surprised if your essay that ends with one word on the sixth page gets positively destroyed by the graders as showing insufficient argument or detail.
Topics: Please choose one of the following topics.

Compare and contrast western and East Asian systems of law and justice
explain Confucian moral theory a practice explain the five constant virtues and the concept of ren
explain Confucian political economy and its lasting legacies
explain Confucian law
explain Confucian ritual theory
explain the characteristics of modernity and apply them to Confucian East Asia

Good luck
Do not use any other sources, You may only use my sources. And finish this 7 pages paper

“Less than Conquerors: How Christians entered the 20th century” by Douglas Frank Essay (Critical Writing)

Frank was brought up in a missionary family and is a graduate from Wheaton College. Today he has authored a number of books including Less than Conquerors: How Christians entered the 20th century. The book explores and criticizes the manner in which evangelicals in the United States sought to control their destinies and their circumstances for the better part of 19th and 20th centuries1. The book has examined the spiritual importance of these events mainly by comparing them to a biblical comprehension of the word of God. This review explores the tactics devised by evangelicals to regain their lost status and power2. From the start, the author pointed out some personal postulations regarding the history of evangelism. The author seems to hate the theology or gospel of prosperity3. In addition, he abhorred seeing Christianity as a strong cultural force, and seemed to detest the industrialization aspect. Other criticism are spread throughout the book: Frank is against prosperity, hates people who make big businesses and terms naïve people who are optimistic about the history of the world, and enjoys suffering images of prophets. He understood faithfulness as a form of mysticism and not obedience. The author indicated that Calvinism was a theology of desolation: spirituality was wraithlike. One of the weakest points of Frank is that evangelicals presided over a service by simply outlining their history instead of preaching the word of God. In other words, they engaged in self glorification4. This may be true because writers have a third eye, but may not be the case for all evangelicals. He further explored the cultural, financial, as well as psychological aspects for the faith particularly of people he does not identify with; instead, he considers his personal understanding of the word of God as real. At the beginning, the author indicates that these evangelicals were inspired by events that happened during the civil war; however, his analysis in most cases is not historical5. Frank held the view that the American Civil War as well as its aftermath created divisions in the belief of people, but then, he wrote most of his work before civil war transpired. The author described the unending anxieties over industrialization and change that drove evangelicals to emphasize devoutness, yet he provided no explanation about other theologies that were not pietistic in this fast changing modern world. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a simple way, Frank argued that extensive civilization was the leading cause of psychological disorders, yet he did not mention or even disrepute what other researches said on the same or why they held a different view. According to the author, during the last part of 19th and first part of 20th century, rapid social change was evident to a point that most evangelicals could not manage the new America successfully. During this time, evangelicals showed anxiety towards the future6. In addition, they believed that crises facing them were caused by someone who was a devoted faithful. With this, the author explored two religious ideas –Victorious Life theology and Dispensationalist theology as they functioned as coping mechanisms for evangelicals7. In conclusion, Frank has approached or analyzed evangelicals in both fronts-positive or constructive and negative. On the positives, Franks explored the contribution of evangelicals in stimulating current Christian faith. On the negative side, his arguments against particular theological views were shallow. Frank contrasted certain historical ideas with the evangelism. This means that the word of God is not understood via historical reason. Bibliography Frank, Douglas. Less Than Conquerors: How Evangelicals Entered the Twentieth Century. New York: Eerdmans Publishers, 1986. Footnotes 1 Frank, Douglas, Less Than Conquerors: How Evangelicals Entered the Twentieth Century. (New York: Eerdmans Publishers, 1986), 4. 2 ibid, 2. 3 Ibid, 312. We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Less than Conquerors: How Christians entered the 20th century” by Douglas Frank specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 4 Ibid, 6-7. 5 Frank, Douglas, Less Than Conquerors: How Evangelicals Entered the Twentieth Century. (New York: Eerdmans Publishers, 1986), 10-14 6 Ibid, 4-5. 7 Ibid, 25-34.

review your textbook readings covered thus far and the Occupational Outlook Handbook: Healthcare Occupations (Links to an external site.).

cheap assignment writing service review your textbook readings covered thus far and the Occupational Outlook Handbook: Healthcare Occupations (Links to an external site.). Newly graduated health care professionals (e.g., Doctors, Registered Nurses, Physician Assistants, Nurse Practitioners, etc.) are unfamiliar with the day-to-day operations addressing practice management, insurance coverage requirements (e.g., referrals, pre-authorizations), credentialing, accreditation, state and federal regulations, health care laws, and reimbursement methods. Their educational focus has been on learning how to diagnose and treat patients. Therefore, understanding the operational aspect in practice management is imperative to the financial viability of their future practice. The CEO of the largest health care teaching hospital in the area asked you to present an overview of the U.S. health care system to newly graduated health care professionals (e.g., Primary Physicians, Specialists, Hospitalists, Internists, Nurse Practitioners, and Physician Assistants). You have been tasked with creating a PowerPoint presentation that includes the elements outlined below. This assignment is the first part of a comprehensive presentation you will develop on the U. S. health care system. The presentation will provide an overview of the U.S. health care system. Follow the instructions below to complete the assignment. For this assignment, you will prepare a 7- to 9-slide PowerPoint presentation with detailed speaker’s notes of 100-150 words for each slide, not including the title and reference slides.Please see the HCA205 PowerPoint Instructions Download HCA205 PowerPoint Instructions document for expanded information on expected detail in your presentation. Title Slide and Introduction: Begin your presentation by including a title slide (see specifics below). In the speaker’s notes of this slide, include your introductory information, which will include your degree plan and any health care experience you have had or share your qualifications related to the information you are presenting. If you have no health care experience, you can be creative with professional experience. Next, create an overview slide that describes the required components to be covered within the presentation. Add bulleted points for each of the topics being covered. You are required to elaborate on each bullet point shown on the slide in the speaker’s notes section below the slide. Content: The remaining slides will address the content of the presentation and the references. The content will address the following required components: Choose one revolutionary factor from each of the centuries (17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st) found in your textbook and time line. Describe each revolutionary factor. Discuss how the revolutionary factors changed the health care system. Refer to the time line simulation Global Perspectives: Shifts in Science and Medicine That Changed Healthcare (Links to an external site.) reviewed in Week 1. Chapter 2 in your textbook discusses the evolution of our health care system and is a good resource for this part of the presentation as well. Identify at least one major development from each of the following perspectives: financial, legal, ethical, regulatory, and social (e.g., consumer demand). Discuss how each development transformed the system into what it is For more perspective, you may want to review the time line simulation Global Perspectives: Shifts in Science and Medicine That Changed Healthcare (Links to an external site.). Choose three different stakeholders that have affected the health care system (e.g., health care professionals [physicians, nurses, etc.], clients [patients], health insurance plans [Blue Cross Blue Shield, managed care organizations (MCOs), etc.], federal or state governments, health care professional organizations [American Medical Association (AMA), American Nurses Association (ANA), etc.] and health care accreditation agencies [Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), The Joint Commission, National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA), etc.]). Evaluate each stakeholder’s effect on the health care system by discussing their purpose and impact. Include examples of both positive and negative impacts made by your chosen stakeholders (e.g., a negative contribution is when a patient uses the emergency room for nonurgent care). Consider using the PowerPoint Instructions Handout Download PowerPoint Instructions Handout to locate linked resources for properly making a PowerPoint presentation. Also consider these help tools: PowerPoint Best Practices (Links to an external site.), Don McMillan: Life After Death by PowerPoint (Links to an external site.). Wikimedia Commons (Links to an external site.) can also help you explore creative commons images. You may also want to review What Is CRAAP? A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources (Links to an external site.). Submit your assignment via the classroom to the Waypoint Assignment submission button by Day 6 (Sunday) no later than 11:59 p.m. APA Requirement Details: The U.S. Health Care Presentation: Part 1 Assignment Must be seven to nine slides in length (not including title and references slides) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center’s How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation (Links to an external site.). Must include a separate title slide with the following: Title of presentation Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance. Must use at least two scholarly or credible sources (a least one should be from the University of Arizona Global Campus Library). The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment. Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.). Must include a separate reference slide that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Writing Center for specifications.

The Ideal Form Of Government Politics Essay

In its most basic essence, democracy refers to a system of government whereby the people of a country place representatives into the role of national administration via the casting of a ballot. In this system, the role of majority rule is complete and unquestionable; Individuals who are selected to represent the country must be willed to do so by a majority of the population. Democracy has often been called the ideal form of government. Of all forms of government that have been utilized by human societies throughout history to organize and protect our kind, democracy is the only one that operates on consensus to create solutions to the problems society faces. In the past, government often operated through directives issued by a ruling elite, often composed of those of ‘noble blood’, heritage, or otherwise superior social status as opposed to those selected by the people. Forms of government that used this system include authoritarianism, monarchism, oligarchic government, and tyranny. All nations under the government of elites have proved unstable due to a striking disparity in power between the ruling class and the commoner. The rulers often had too much power, but did not always employ it in the proper channels, which often resulted in the wants of the people left unmet, and flagrant abuse of privilege all too common. This resulted in the dissatisfaction of the people, who existed in the plains, the fields, and in the castle walls, as opposed to the nonchalance of the ruler, who sat alone and vulnerable without their satisfaction. Security was often nonexistent under one-man rule, for small changes in circumstances could destabilize society, and no matter what that one man decided on, there would always be ten thousand others who would oppose him. Should we look at the circumstances under the proper light, government can be seen to be living, breathing, and evolving creature; In the burgeoning stages of its growth, it is not perfect. It is weak, and riddled with flaws. As the flaws are exposed to exploitation by fate over time, adaptation then takes place, and the organism changes in such a way as to better serve the purpose of eliminating, or accommodating these flaws. Monarchism, Authoritarianism, and so on can therefore be seen as neophytes in varying stages of evolution, changing through time to accommodate the necessity of appeasing the people, sometimes violently, sometimes slowly, through gradual, minute shifts in political power and ideals over the vicissitudes of time. Democracy, therefore, would be the apex of this evolution, created for the express purpose of appeasing the people. Though evolution occurs at different rates, evolution itself nonetheless remains inevitable given a change in circumstances. The Greeks, long hailed as the progenitors of Western civilization, were themselves proponents and beneficiaries of the qualities of democratic government, flourishing under its gaze, through fulfillment of wants and needs, which created relative happiness and a general lack of endogenous forces that would effect strife, save for corruption. Japan, America, The United Kingdom, and Australia are today democratic as well, a circumstance manifested by the actions of democratic countries themselves to spread democracy, and therefore what many deem ‘civilization’. In the words of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States, ‘Democracy is worth dying for, because it’s the most deeply honorable form of government ever devised by man.’ Malaysia itself is an example of a democratic country. Every four years, we participate in General Elections to select the parties that will represent our country to the rest of the world, and who will assure our welfare, our health, and our collective happiness. What does it mean, however, to be a democratic country? Rather, what significance does this bear to us, its inhabitants? What is our role in the mechanism that governs the democracy we so enjoy? Is democracy indeed an umbrella form of government that will work with every country? This work will attempt to explore these issues. The significance of democracy Many people choose not to vote, vindicating themselves with the pathetic excuse that their ‘one measly vote’ would ‘not change anything anyway’. Certainly, that is true. One vote will not change the result of an election, but that is precisely the point. The fact that there are millions of votes cast for differing parties during each general election is itself a feature of democracy; If one vote were indeed able to change an outcome, it would not in fact be a vote. It would be a decree, an order, and a directive. Rather than relying on the aggregate measure of society’s desire, we would instead be looking at a result that reflects the will of a single person. This would defeat the purpose of democracy. Democracy is not simply a form of government; It is associated with many connotations. Democracy provides us freedom of choice. It empowers us to act, to make decisions to change our own fate, as opposed to remaining silent as if we were made of stone. The vote therefore is an incredibly powerful tool. It signifies liberty. It reflects the personal views and ideals of the voter. It reflects his leanings. Lastly, it reflects the fact that he cares about his country and the direction it will take in the future. People who do not vote therefore not only forfeit the use of this tool, but their own self-respect. Democracy is not simply freedom, or a form of government. Should all the appropriate measures and conditions be appropriate for democracy, democracy itself becomes a responsibility of the people towards themselves. To what greater power should a person heed but him or herself? While the vote may be unable to change anything itself, the synergy of many votes combining together to make a majority is what effects change, and what decides what will happen to the country, and therefore to oneself. If a large segment of the population is equipped with the mindset that voting is pointless, then they will all not vote. The wrong people would then be put in power, and actions taken would then not reflect the consensus of the people, leading to the setbacks embodied in other forms of government as outlined previously. On the other hand, should all parties in a democratic system(voters, political parties) fulfill their roles in the system of democracy correctly and fully, then optimum benefit to society will be rendered. As the government implemented and the actions taken as a result of that government would reflect the consensus of the people, there would be absolutely no reason for controversy, dispute, and fighting that would otherwise detract from the overall productivity and welfare of the population. In the real world, this is clearly not possible, due to the intervening forces of corruption and the sheer fallibility of human nature, which clearly applies to the representatives whom we ourselves place in seats of power. However, if more people are educated and aware of their role and significance in democracy, then we can minimize the effect of these hiccups in what would otherwise be an efficient administration. Democracy: Is it suitable for all? Democracy – A political organization wherein the populace exercises control over the matters, which affect, concern, or interest them. Quite frankly, it is power to the people. Logically fair in most senses, democracy seems a far better option than a monarchic or dictatorial rule where a single person or few people hold the fate of the nation in their extravagantly ringed hands. Democracy gives voice to the hundreds, the thousands, and the millions who deserve an equal stake in how their country is run. It is they, after all, that make a nation. Nevertheless, as hard as democracy is to establish, it is harder to maintain. After implementation a successful democracy will have its ample plaudits, but not many nations are lucky enough to hit the nail on the head in terms of providing a democratic rule. Iraq, Congo, Sudan – what if these dictatorial nations were suddenly to become democracies? We wouldn’t see flourishing architecture, economic stability or social benevolence – we would see anarchy. Some nations are just too large and have too much different ethnic diversity to be ruled by anything less than a staunch dictator. How can one hear the voice of the people when everyone shouts for different things? The reason behind why democracy would not work for some countries is often because the country has been artificially cobbled together. Democracy would be possible, but only if these countries are broken down into smaller units capable of supporting a democratic rule. A prime example would be Yugoslavia, once a large dictatorship, now a cluster of individual, contented democratic states consisting the likes of Croatia, Serbia, and Macedonia. Stability is another factor that can be guaranteed by an established democracy. An elected leader has to take in consideration many views when acting upon something, as opposed to a sole view from a dictator that can be brought about my greed, anger, or resentment, and not by what he believes to be in the best choice of the populace. Let’s face it; Churchill and Roosevelt made far less mistakes than the dictators Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin. However, democracy has some faults than can be seen far more clearly when in practical usage than when in its theoretical stage. The whole intention of democracy is to give everyone a voice, to make everyone’s opinion count. But in the end, it is the majority view that counts. And this is how it has to be; there can never be an action made that pleases everyone. The irony within democracy is that governing by majority will always form minorities – minorities that are often unconsidered and brushed aside. Aren’t these the very minorities that democracy was supposed to aid? Democracy is all about giving power to individuals, but this also evokes the belief that self-gain is more important than issues such as patriotism or social problems. This is often the case when democracy mingles with capitalism. As the famous quote goes – “When you combine democracy with capitalism, the resulting governmental stew becomes an economy of haves and have-nots.” As opposed to theories such as communism, when people are told that they must act in the good of the nation, democracy allows people to put what is best for solely themselves first, which can be seen in democratic capitalist nations where self-rivalry is high and not everyone can thrive. Economic success may be common in nations like this, but I assure you the wealth is not evenly spread. It is wrong to assume that democracy is the ‘best’ option for a nation. There are many nations that are coping fine without bearing a democratic insignia on their mantelpiece. Economic-powerhouse China would be a prime example. And if one were to change to democracy, the act is far from instantaneous. Until today, Russia is still recovering from the economic backlash of their dramatic alteration to become democratic over twenty years ago in the 1990s. There have been many examples of success and failures in implementing democracy in nations across the globe. One successful example of this governing system can be seen in the United Kingdom. Due to the reason that the British previously conquered Malaysia prior to our independence, our democracy structure is also based on United Kingdom’s successful democracy structure. The transfer of power after every election is carried out smoothly, without any riot and chaos, which proves the success of the system that has been implemented in the mentioned countries. However, there are also real life examples of the failure to implement the democratic system is some countries. For instance, the failure of democracy in India. Factors such as the parliamentary system of the government, corruption, and unorganized election arrangements and also the lack of democratic culture in the country itself contribute to the failure of the implementation of the system in those countries. The Role of the Citizen in A Democracy The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life. Citizens have an obligation to become informed about public issues, to watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers, and to express their own opinions and interests. Voting in elections is another important civic duty of all citizens. But to vote wisely, each citizen should listen to the views of the different parties and candidates, and then make his or her own decision on whom to support. Participation can also involve campaigning for a political party or candidate, standing as a candidate for political office, debating public issues, attending community meetingsand membership civic meetings, bably best placed in Article 5 on the Judicial Authority.materials are.pecified.il. ency Council, petitioning the government, and even protesting. A vital form of participation comes through active membership in independent, non-governmental organizations, what we call “civil society.” These organizations represent a variety of interests and beliefs: farmers, workers, doctors, teachers, business owners, religious believers, women, students, human rights activists. It is important that women participate fully both in politics and in civil society. This requires efforts by civil society organizations to educate women about their democratic rights and responsibilities, improve their political skills, represent their common interests, and involve them in political life. In a democracy, participation in civic groups should be voluntary. No one should be forced to join an organization against their will. Political parties are vital organizations in a democracy, and democracy is stronger when citizens become active members of political parties. However, no one should support a political party because he is pressured or threatened by others. In a democracy, citizens are free to choose which party to support. Democracy depends on citizen participation in all these ways. But participation must be peaceful, respectful of the law, and tolerant of the different views of other groups and individuals. In other forms of government: Form of government Citizen’s role Monarchy- A form of government in which all political power is passed down to an individual (usually hereditary) known as a monarch1 (“single ruler”), or king (male), queen (female). No role Oligarchy-A form of government that consists of rule by an elite group who rule in their own interests, especially the accumulation of wealth and privilege. Only certain members of society have a valid voice in the government. This can reflect (but is not limited to) economic interests, a particular religious tradition (theocracy), or familial rule (monarchy). Restricted to the laws, otherwise are counted as crime. Totalitarian-Rule by a single political party. Votes for alternative candidates and parties are simply not allowed. Citizens are allowed and ‘encouraged’ to vote, but only for the government’s chosen candidates. Capitalism – In a capitalist or free-market economy, people own their own businesses and property and must buy services for private use, such as healthcare. Earn and spend money. 1: Monarchy, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch How Malaysia achieved democracy The act of democracy first started off in 11th of May 1946 when the idea of Malayan Union first came about. The aim of the Malayan Union was to combine all scattered administration into one ruling system, assist administration, save expenditure, prepare the locals for their independence, boost economic recovery and progress, however this plan was later abolished in July 1946 by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) led by Datuk Onn bin Ja’far. This was done because Malays were unhappy about the fact that their ruler will lose power which will compensate for loss of Malay power, this was unwanted as the Malays rely on Malaya alone as their mother country however the non-Malay are considered immigrants from other region. After the Malayan Union was abolished a rise of a new system came about; The Federation of Malaya proposal, compiled by the Malay elites, the various sultans and the British. States involved would be the same as in the Malayan Union however there were new conditions proposed, the new conditions are, Malay cultural domination would be established, Malays would wield political power and the following five principles “The need for strong central government, the need to maintain individuality of each Malay state, the need for new arrangements leading to self-government, common citizenship for those who regarded Malaya as their home and were loyal to her, recognition of the special position of Malays and their rights, which must be safeguarded” Soon, we will learn that the legislation of democracy will began, as what was being recognized in the past was simply steps towards democracy, however they are merely just different political party fighting for their ethnic rights democratically however they have yet to elect any legislative council members. Until, 27th of July 1955, the first national election for legislative council members was held, which resulted the Alliance which is compromised with the UMNO and MCA to win 51 out of 52 seats and consequently became the government that led the country to independence. The following page will show you the result of the election from democracy. Summary of the 27 July 1955 Legislative Council election results Votes % of vote Seats % of seats Alliance 818,013 79.6 51 98.1 Parti Negara 78,909 7.6 0 0.0 Pan-Malayan Islamic Party (PMIP) 40,667 3.9 1 1.9 National Association of Perak (Parti Kebangsaan Perak, NAP) 20,996 2.0 0 0.0 Perak Malay League (Perikatan Melayu Perak) 5,433 0.5 0 0.0 Perak Progressive Party (PPP) 1,081 0.1 0 0.0 Labour Party 4,786 0.4 0 0.0 Independents 31,642 3.0 0 0.0 Overall total 1,001,527 100.0 52 100.0 Source: The Malayan Elections, Francis G. Carnell. One Alliance candidate won unopposed. Democracy In Malaysia Democracy is a form of government in which the policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections. Democracy as a form of government always has the following characteristics: There is a demos, a group which makes political decisions by some form of collective procedure. In modern democracies the demos is the nation, and citizenship is usually equivalent to membership. There is a territory where the decisions apply, and where the demos are resident. In modern democracies, the territory is the nation-state. There is a decision-making procedure, which is either direct (for instance a referendum) or indirect (for instance election of a parliament). General Election An important aspect of the democratic system is elections. Elections in the practice of democracy constitute a social contract between the people and the candidate or party (that succeeds to form a government). The party that wins the election and forms the government should fulfill the party’s promises proclaimed in the election campaign. At the state level, elected representatives of the people sit in the State Legislative Assembly of each state. At the federal or national level, elected Members of Parliament sit in the Dewan Rakyat or House of Representatives. There are two types of general election. First, the general election for the whole country, held once in every five years. The next is the by-elections, also considered a general election because the concept of the election itself constitutes the choosing of a representative by the public citizens for the Parliament and the State Legislative Assembly. There are clear differences between the two types of election. The first type is only held after Parliament or the State Legislative Assembly is dissolved. The by-elections do not involve the dissolution of any of the assembly nor do they follow a fixed schedule. The general election is usually held every 5 years. Prior to carrying out the election, the Yang di-Pertuan Agung must dissolve the Parliament on the advice or at the request of the Prime Minister. This occurs at the federal level. At the State level, a general election is held after the State Legislative Assembly is dissolved by the Ruler or Yang Dipertua Negeri at the request of the Menteri Besar or Chief Minister. As soon as Parliament is dissolved, the elections must be held within 60 days in West Malaysia and within 90 days in Sabah and Sarawak. The time specified is reasonable for the Election Commission, to prepare the election arrangements and the contesting parties to get ready, hold campaigns and construct definite strategies following the regulations or laws that have been fixed from time to time. For a general election, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agung dissolves Parliament at the request of the Prime Minister, the Election Commission will issue an order to the Managing Officer to organize the balloting process (election). The responsibility of the Managing Officer is to issue a statement, through the Government Gazette or newspaper, on the date of nomination of candidate for the said election, the place and the time of election for every electoral constituency. The Election Commission also determines the date and place of balloting. Any candidate who wishes to contest must obtain a nominator, a seconder and at least four other people, whose names are recorded in the nomination paper. They must also be registered voters in the voters’ register of the constituency where the candidate is contesting. The balloting day can be held after 3 weeks from the date of nomination but cannot exceed 8 weeks. On the balloting day, all voters who qualify to vote can carry out their responsibility by casting their votes in balloting places provided. Before the balloting day arrives, the contesting parties are allowed to carry out election campaigns through political talks. The freedom of speech and assembly during the campaigns also show that the basic freedom as embodied in Article 10 of the Federal Constitution are protected in the country which practices a democratic system of government. However, to ensure public security all political talks whether by the party that had held the reins of the government or the opposition, it is necessary to get police approval or permit. For a general election, every voter is given two sheets of ballot papers of different colours; one for the State Legislative Assembly constituency and the other for the Parliamentary constituency. On each ballot paper are symbols representing the contesting candidates and the space for the voter to make his choice. The responsibility of voting is completed with the voter marking ‘X’ in the space provided against the symbol representing the candidate of the voter’s choice. The ballot papers are put into separate ballot boxes for the Parliamentary constituency and the State Legislative Constituency. Media in the democracy of Malaysia Society plays a crucial and the most important role in a democratic system, as they are the ones that hold most “power” in electing new leaders or political bodies. In Malaysia, there are thousands of self-help groups, society, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and so on which actively pursue the enforcement of fundamental rights in today’s society which is the foundation for social, economical and cultural activities. Their duty and responsibility is to maintain the balance between politician and citizens. To do so, they would conduct the formal opposition in raising social consciousness of key public issues. However, these “self-appointed” organizations are often threatened with punishments due to the Internal Security Act and/or other repressive regulations and law. They have thus not yet carved out their own democratic space in the public sphere. Journalists are encountering the same pressure from the same existing repressive acts as other actors of the civil society. Therefore, any printing, newspaper or any other publication firms must have a permit and/or license issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs in order to conduct media, tabloids and news activities. However these permits are valid for only a year and require renewal and they are only granted, if the minister does not consider the publication to be prejudicial and offensive to public order. Generally, licenses can be awarded and even obtained by very critical periodicals of the political opposition and human rights organizations. Examples include, Aliran Monthly. However, in 1987, permits of four newspapers were suspended due to breaking of regulation and in 1991; the minister forced the party-affiliated periodicals The Rocket (DAP) and Harakah (DAP) to restrict circulation to only party members. This case did not get any better but even until the beginning of the 21st century. Harakah saw its permit renewed but its output frequency was reduced from eight per month to two. The permit of the weekly tabloid Eksklusif, which reported mostly on opposition parties, was suspended when its publication permit expired. The ministry explained the suspensions are due to “imbalanced reporting” and “non-compliance with publication rules”. During the same year, the privately-financed youth magazine Al-Wasilah, as well as its sister publication Detik had their permits cancelled for giving too much coverage on opposition parties. Furthermore, the ministry’s committee in charge of monitoring publications issued warnings to the Malay language daily Utusan Malaysia for its coverage on the Suqiu election appeals and to the entertainment magazine FHM for a saucy interview with singer Ning Baizura. In October 2000, 14-member Coalition of Independent Media activists petitioned to the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) for a repeal of the Printing Presses and Publications Act and the abolishment of the practice of awarding permits. Besides these direct and indirect controls, the government promotes the conduct of “development journalism” which subordinates the media to the concerted efforts of government agencies fostering social stability and economic development. Malaysian newspapers are not uniform in their reporting nor do they express only a single point of view. But they usually abstain from reporting about activities of the political opposition. If they do, then they present these activities in an unfavorable light. Furthermore, there is little critical commentary and analysis of political and economic developments. ANFREL expressed in its observation mission report its concerns about the biased media coverage of the election campaigns before the general elections in 1999: ANFREL observers were struck by the blatant bias seen in both in the print and electronic media, in favor of the ruling coalition. Both Bahasa and English-language newspapers ran full-page ads, some of which used reworked or faked photos, aimed at showing the opposition in a bad light. As well, stories alleging corruption and sexual impropriety were widely circulated in the government- controlled press. Man of these newspapers refused to publish opposition advertisements, or run coverage of its campaign. Similarly, television advertisements and coverage were BN exclusive. The members of the Malaysian middle class especially, are increasingly disappointed with this lack of critical commentary and political analysis. They turn to foreign media as well as the alternative press within Malaysia. Conclusion In summary, a democracy is a political system where the people are placed at utmost importance, and with this being a key factor to drive the country, there is a stronger potential for economic growth and the opportunities for political uprisings are reduced as the people are deciding what happens. Most modern countries are democracies; the prime example is the United States, which has a fixed election system every 4 years and a reigning democratic party. Other countries such as China and India do follow democratic policy, however due to large populations and mixed voting procedures, the reigning party is said to be more controlling and less democratic. In this aspect, whilst most of the world today is democratic (albeit the communist and semi communist countries of North Korea and Chile) still do have some control by the government, which is influenced and selected by the people. In Malaysia, the reigning party is Barisan Nasional, which is considered the more democratic party of the few. Again, there is a general election every 4 years, where the party is elected. Unlike other countries, however, the people do not choose the individual person to win, but the political party. In recent years there has been an increase in support for the republic party, but this is being held of at present. Either way, the fact that there is a general election held every 4 years, unlike in India and China, this proves a democratic government is significant.

Joseph Campbells Theory Of The Quest English Literature Essay

Holden answers the call to adventure, the first step in Joseph Campbell’s Theory of the Quest, when he gets kicked out of school. The call to adventure makes the hero pass from one level of maturity to another. For Holden, the call is definitely a call to grow up. Holden’s call to adventure came from himself. Since Holden did not apply himself in school, he was kicked out of school forcing him to learn the way of the real world. According to Campbell, the call can be refused (Campbell, 54), but if the call is refused the hero is really refusing to grow up. For Holden, he does not refuse the call and he goes on an adventure to grow up. Holden wrote his teacher a letter saying, “Dear Mr. Spencer. That’s all I know about the Egyptians. I can’t seem to get very interested in them although your lectures are very interesting. It is all right with me if you flunk me though as I am flunking everything else except English anyway. Respectfully yours, Holden Caulfield.”(Salinger, 7). Holden knew that he was flunking and still he did not seem to care. By this he accepted the call. According to Campbell, the hero may need Aid in choosing whether or not to go on the journey. The Aid can come from a variety of sources. The Aid can be from an accident or outside forces. For Holden, The Aid came from Ackley. Ackley, one of Holden’s roommates in college, is an annoying friend who always bothers Holden. One night Holden gets into a fight with Stradlater, his other roommate, and Holden seeks friendliness from Ackley. Ackley ignores Holden. He says, “Wise guy. Someday somebody’s gonna bash your-“(Salinger, 28) Ackley did not want to talk to him, he just wanted Holden to leave. This pushes Holden to leave Pencey right away and go into the real world. Holden crosses The Threshold when he leaves Pencey Prep. According to Campbell the hero must leave the world he knows and travel to a world he does not know. He must go from the Known to the Unknown. The Unknown can take a variety of forms. The Unknown can look like a jungle, a forest, a lost continent, or another dimension. The Unknown usually has a characteristic of being strange. The Known to Holden is Pencey Prep because everything there is familiar and paid for. Holden goes into the Unknown, New York, where he does not rely on his father for money and is out on his own. New York is strange to him because he has never truly been out on his own. Holden then goes through several struggles to bring him down. This is the fourth step of Campbell’s Theory of the Quest, The Road of Trials. According to Campbell, The Road of Trials is the step the hero goes through that determines the outcome of the hero’s journey. For Holden, several things make up the Road of Trials. For example, when Holden is alone all he can think about is Jane Gallagher, one of his good friends, and Stradlater together. This contributes greatly to Holden’s depression. Holden goes to a club in the first hotel he is in and a bar that he and his brother D.B. used to go to. At the bar Holden meets Lillian Simmons one of D.B.’s old friends. She invites him to sit with her but Holden refuses. He says to her, “”I was just leaving,” I told her.”I have to meet somebody.””(Salinger, 47) He had no one to meet. Holden goes back to the hotel still desperate for human connection and makes a deal with the elevator operator whom also makes a deal, that a prostitute will come to his room. When Sunny, the prostitute gets to his room, Holden decides he does not want to have sex with her, but just wants to talk. He asked Sunny, “Don’t you feel like talking for a while?”(Salinger, 51) She didn’t want to talk to him she just wanted to get money. She leaves and wants more money than was agreed to. The elevator operator, her pimp, demands more money and fights Holden. Holden again anxious for human relationship calls one of his old friends, Sally Hayes and makes a date with her. Since he does not have much money, Holden leaves the hotel and goes to Grand Central Station where he meets nuns. He has a conversation with the nuns and gives them a contribution. Holden then goes on his date with Sally, who in the end rejects him too. By now Holden is thinking about his sister Phoebe frequently. He wants to call her but is afraid of his parents. Still wanting to make human connection he calls Carl Luce, and old friend and they decided to meet for a drink. This goes badly and Carl rejects Holden too. Holden begs Carl to stay with him. He says, “”Have just one more drink,” I told him.” Please. I’m lonesome as hell. No kidding.””(Salinger, 80) Holden is really fraught for human relation. He obtains a great deal of alcohol and wants one of the singers to sit with him. She also rejects Holden so he goes to Central Park to find out himself where the ducks go. He does not see the ducks and concludes they indeed have somewhere to go. Holden is now so lonely that he sneaks into his apartment to see Phoebe. She is angry with him because he was kicked out of school. The only person he truly loves now rejects him. Finally Phoebe again accepts him and they have a conversation. The bond between them strengthens and we now see what the title means. Holden wants to be “the catcher in the rye” saving children from the real world. He wants to keep them in the rye field forever so they are always innocent. Holden’s parents come home so Holden sneaks out of the apartment and goes to another one of his teachers, Mr. Antolini’s house. Here he does not find the understanding he wants to find and again feels rejected. Holden wakes up in the middle of the night to Mr. Antolini caressing his head and he gets scared. He gets so frightened he makes up a lie. He cries, “I have to go anyway…I left my bags and all at the station. I think maybe I better go and get them. I have all my stuff in them.” Now Holden had nowhere to go so he starts off to Grand Central Station and sleeps on a bench. In the morning, Holden wakes up weak and walks the streets. He finds himself asking Allie to help him cross the streets. He would say, “Allie, don’t let me disappear…,”(Salinger, 106) over and over. Holden is getting worse and worse. When he sees all the graffiti on the walls he realizes he cannot erase it all and cannot be the catcher in the rye. Holden decides he wants to hitchhike to the West but he thinks of Phoebe and wants to tell her first. He leaves a note at her school for her to go to the Museum of Art. While he waits he goes into the bathroom and faints. He now is losing his health because he is not eating properly. Holden finally awakes and finds Phoebe is late. She was late because she went home to pack to be with Holden. He does not want to endanger her so he yells at her. He shouts, “…You’re not going. I’m going alone. So shut up.”(Salinger, 111) He finds that he would make her feel bad is he left her so he agrees to stay in New York. He takes her to the zoo because he feels bad about yelling at her. Holden learns that he is happy with the way things are. According to Campbell, the fifth step of the Theory of the Quest is The Treasure. The Treasure is the lesson the hero learns from the trials. Holden learns that Phoebe is going to change and is going to have to face the real world. He realizes he cannot be the catcher he wants to be and that not everyone can be saved. He states, “All the kids kept trying to grab for the gold ring, and so was old Phoebe, and I was sort of afraid she’d fall off the goddam horse, but I didn’t say anything or do anything. The thing with kids is, if they want to grab the gold ring, you have to let them do it, and not say anything. If they fall off they fall off, but it’s bad if you say anything to them.”(Salinger, 114) It cannot be determined if he can share his lessons because the novel does not tell what happens after Holden is in the rest home. Whether or not Holden returns to the real world, Campbell’s sixth step and becomes the master of both worlds, Campbell’s seventh step, is not told by the book, ergo we do not see if Holden gets better, if he applies himself, if he goes back into the real world, or if he gets on with his life. J.D. Salinger completed the task to create a human who embarked on a journey of discovery was accept as living creature filled with complexities when he wrote The Catcher in the Rye. The fact that Campbell’s theory of the mono-myth, the Heroes Quest Cycle, not only works for superman, but for Holden Caulfield too, illustrates that impossible to escape it. Campbell’s book challenges many myths some over a thousand years old, such as the Odyssey, to his theory and they all fit. It seems as if humans all humans think alike and will never change.

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